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Flashcards in Champagne Deck (21)
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What are the classic grape varieties to produce sparkling wine?

Chardonnay (elegance and breeding)
Pinot Noir (backbone and longevity)
Pinot Meunière (appeal, bouquet)


Other varieties of grape for production of sparkling wine are...

Pinot blanc
Pinot Grigio
Chenin blanc


What are the different methods used on the production of sparkling wine?

Classic method (champenoise or traditionelle)
Transfer method
Charmat method (cuve close)


All champagne is _____________, but not all sparkling wine is _________.

Sparkling wine-champagne


Main features on the classic method :

*Grapes pressed quickly and gently to avoid color of skins and oxidation
*base wines are light, low in alcohol and high in acidity
*the effervescence for more complex wine is produced by secondary fermentation in the bottle
*assemblage of the cuvée


Define the transfer method in the production of sparking wine...

Follows the champagne method until disgorging, then the wine is transferred into pressurized tanks, filtered to remove sediments and rebottled


Define the Charmat method in the production of sparkling wine...

AKA cuve close
Tank based system: wine, sugar and yeast are placed in a large vat for secondary fermentation. The wine is chilled, filtered, transferred under pressure to a second tank, sweetened with liqueur d'expedition and bottled.
Fermentation is completed in 4-5 days
Best process for moscato d'asti, sket, prosecco.


Carbonation method in sparkling wine production consist in:

The most basic method, carbon dioxide is pumped into the wine, which is then bottled under pressure (coca cola style)


The addition of wine, sugar and yeast is also known as;

Liqueur of tirage


Disgorging or degorgement is...

The lees removal process.
Process where the crown cap and lees are removed without losing much of the liquid and a varying amount of sugar added


Define Dosage

After disgorging but before final corking, the liquid level is topped up with liqueur d'expedition. The amount of sugar in the liqueur d'expedition determines the sweetness of the champagne.


What is the purpose of adding sugar to champagne?

Sugar is added to balance the high acidity of the champagne rather than to produce a sweet taste


Styles of champagne:

•Non vintage (NV)
•Rose (pink champagne) Black grapes with skin contact or a mixture of red and white wine, often more powerful and fruiter than white and good with food
•Blanc de Blancs (from Chardonnay grapes only; light and fresh in style, good as an aperitif)
•Blanc de Noirs (only from black Pinot noir or Pinot meunière grapes, stronger structure and fruitiness)
•Single Vineyard
•Cuvée de Prestige/Tete de Cuvée (Deluxe wines of the champagne houses, long matured wines from an outstanding vintage)


Dryness/Sweetness levels in champagne

•Brut Zero (Bone dry)
•Brut (Dry)
•Extra Dry (Off Dry)
•Sec (Semi Sweet)
•Demi Sec (sweet)
•Doux (Very Sweet)


What are the large format bottle sizes (in 750 ml bottles)

*Magnum 2
*Jeroboam 4
*Rehoboam 6
*Methuselah 8
*Salmanazar 12
*Balthazar 16
*Nebuchadnezzar 20
*Solomon 24
*Primat 36


What are the main champagne regions?

•Montagne de Reims: 9 grand crus, all 3 grape varieties are grown but the main is Pinot noir
•Vallee de la Marne: 2 grand crus, Pinot noir and Pinot meunière; tours-sur-Marne (grand Cru for black grapes only)
•Cote de Blancs: Chardonnay
•Cote de Sezanne: exotic, rich Chardonnay
•Aube: 80% Pinot noir


Other French sparkling wines are:

Cremant: any non-champagne classical method sparkling wine
Cremant de Bourgogne: Burgundy
Cremant d'alsace: Alsace
Cremant de Loire: Loire
Blanquette de Limoux: Languedoc


Other countries for production of sparkling wine are:

Italy: Spumante, Frizzante
Spain: Cava


Tell me about Italy on sparkling wine production:

Spumante: generic term for sparkling
Frizzante: semi sparkling
Asti DOCG (Piedmont): moscato d'asti, Charmat process
Franciacorta DOCG (Lombardy): classic method, Chardonnay, Pinot blanc, Pinot noir


Tell me about Spain in sparkling wine production:

More sparkling wine than any other country, most produced in Catalonia , classic method.
Traditional grapes are Xarel-lo, Parellada and Macabeo.
Also use Monastrell (Mourvèdre), Chardonnay, Pinot noir


Tell me about USA in sparkling wine production:

All production methods.
Classic group varieties plus Pinot meunière, Pinot blanc, Riesling, muscadet
California, Washington and Oregon are the main states in production but also Texas, Idaho, New Mexico, Michigan, Ohio, Missouri and Virginia