Flashcards in Overview And Laws Deck (51)
The main producers of wine are:
The appellation system in France is...
AOP (appellation d'origine protégée)
It went from AOC (appellation d'origine contrôlée) to AOP
The different types of wine are:
The different kinds of wine are:
Blush or rose
The region of Champagne belongs to:
Facts about AVA's
American Viticultural Areas, USA wine laws, every wine must be labeled with a brand name, bottler's name and location
75% min varietal composition (except in OR)
95% from year on bottle (85% if appellation in state or county)
85% min from AVA (except super AVA)
95% min vineyard
The main regions of wine production in France are:
General facts about AOP:
Creates connection between quality and appellation:
Vin de Table goes to Vin de France
Vin de Pays goes to IGP (Indication Geographique Protégée)
VDQS (Vin Delimite de Qualite Superieure) goes to IGP
AOC goes to AOP
AOP can only use Vitis Vinefera grapes to ensure authenticity.
50% of all French wine
The deductive tasting method is break down in four criterias:
Conclusion (initial and final)
The brightness in sight refers to...
Capacity of a wine to reflect light
The brightness scale:
White and blush wines grow __________ with age
Red wines grow ________ with age
In red wines what precipitates into sediment with age
Pigments and tannins
Secondary colors in sight can be...
Age, climate or variety indicators
Green in young or cool climate white wines
Orange, yellow and brown in older red wines
The color scales for white wines are:
Watery, straw, yellow, gold, brown
The color scales in pink wines are:
Pink, salmon, brown
The color scales for red wines are:
Purple, ruby (red), garnet (reddish brown), orange, brown
The intensity in flavor:
FEW stands for...
Refers to the Nose in tasting wine
The facts to determine on the final conclusion are:
Grape variety or blend
The different climates are:
___________ is defined as the practice of grape culture
Great wine is ________ in a vineyard rather ________ in a winery
Soil conditions with meso climate is called:
The purpose of rootstock is...
Overcome soil pests or diseases or used for special soil conditions
During _________ process, sugar is turned into alcohol by the action of yeast, releasing carbon dioxide and heat
What is Must
Mixture of crushed, chopped or smashed fruit being prepared for fermentation
__________: addition of sugar to the must or grape juice to increase the strength of the alcohol content
Chaptalization or Ameliuration
__________: increasing the acidity in a grape must
___________ in cool regions and ___________ in warm regions
____________ is the circulation of fermenting red wine from the bottom to the top to maximize extraction of color and flavor
Remontage or pump over
______ or __________ : the layer of grape solids that floats on the Liquid surface during red wine fermentation; it usefully limits the amount of oxygen available to the yeast, encouraging the formation of alcohol
CAP or Chapeau
What are the benefits of barrel aging
Allows slow oxidation which encourages maturation
_______________ lose their ability to impart flavors in 4 to 5 years
Define malolactic fermentation
Secondary fermentation to convert malic acid into lactic acid with the aid of lactic bacteria
Lees stirring is also known as...
___________ : introduction of oxygen into the barrel to the bottom preventing the development of any faults in the aroma of the finished wine
Lees stirring or Batonnage
Wine making process that removes microscopic elements such as protein particles that would cloud the wine and phenolic components like tannins that could cause bitterness and astringency
____________ : clarify wine prior to bottling (remove yeast cells and other micro organisms that could spoil the wine)
__________ : is used as a preservative and disinfectant; it reacts with oxygen to prevent oxidation which has undesirable effects in the color and flavor of wine
Characteristics of brettanomyces in wines faults
The wine tests mousey and metallic
Ethyphenol: band aids, barnyard
Ethylguaiacol: bacon, spice, smoky
Isovaleric acid: sweaty, cheese, roincidity
Geosmin: earthy, musty, beetrot aromas
Define smells in lactic acid bacteria fault...
Bitterness taint, intense buttery flavor, geranium taint, sugar alcohol, ropiness, mouse urine, refermentation
How do you detect H2S ( hydrogen sulfide ) fault in wine?
Smells like onion, rubber, rotten egg
How do you detect SO2 (sulfur dioxide) in wine?
Perception of matchsticks, burnt rubber, mothballs
Quality of finished product
Criteria varies with each region
When was the AOP established?
Two special styles of wine produced using distillate
Vin Doux Naturel
Vin de Liqueur
What is the difference between Vin Doux Naturel and Vin de Liqueur?
-Vin Deux Naturel: produced by adding distillate to a fermenting must (typically are fortified at 15-16% alcohol by volume)
-Vin de Liqueur: produced by adding distillate to unfermented must (local brandy)
Examples of Vin Doux Naturel...
Muscat de Beaumes de Venice, Banyuls et al