Flashcards in Chapter 10 - The Plantations Deck (27)
What does 'Plantation' mean?
The idea and practise of removing disloyal people from an area, and replacing them with loyal subjects who will obey the government.
How does the Pale differ from the rest of Ireland?
- They spoke English
- They practised tillage farming instead of raising cattle
- They were ruled by English common law instead of Gaelic Brehon law
- They were loyal to the King of England
What were Old English families?
Old English families like the Fitzgeralds of Desmond and the Butlers or Ormond, were descendants of English Normans who had married into Gaelic families and adopted their customs.
Where did the idea of the Plantation come from?
The English wanted to avoid war, so instead Henry VIII thought of 'Surrender and Regrant'. The Irish were to give up their lands and in return would be give be given back their land and would be named a Lord. But before doing so, they would have to swear loyalty to England.
When did the Laois-Offaly plantation begin?
It began in 1557, when England was ruled by Mary I.
What was the black rent?
During raids, people in the Pale paid Gaelic Irish people money to ensure their lands would be safe from attack.
What were the fortresses built in Laois-Offaly called?
Marlborough after Queen Mary I and Philipstown after King Philip II of Spain.
What was the aim of the plantations?
The aim of the plantations was to have every family in Ireland loyal to England.
Why was the Laois-Offaly plantation a failure?
-The idea of the plantation was to save money, so the English did not want to pay for an army. When the army left, the sell there had no real protection
-The idea of moving to Ireland did not appeal to many English. Of the 88 that were given land, only 15 were English and the rest were from the pale
-As there were so few English settlers, English had to employ Gaelic Irish
-Mary died in 1558 and her sister Elizabeth was too busy making sure she remained in power to care about Ireland
Why did the Fitzgeralds of Desmond rebel against Queen Elizabeth?
They rebelled against Elizabeth I in 1557 because:
-They were loyal Catholics and would not become Prodestants
-They had ruled Munster for centuries and would not give up their power to London easily
What happened in the Munster Plantation?
-The Desmond land was divided in 35 estates
-The estates ranged from 5,000-10,000 acres and were too big
-The land was rewarded to undertakers, who undertook to keep to the rules of the plantation
-New towns such as Mallow, Killarney and Bandon
-The undertakers ended up employing Gaelic Irish-not enough Englis
What were the positive points of the Munster Plantation?
-English farming practises took hold - Arable
-The plantation towns grew and are still there today
-A strong Protestant population remained in Munster
Who led the 9 year war?
Hugh O'Neill, Earl of Tyrone, led the 9 Year War which started in 1594.
Where did the Spanish land?
The Spanish landed in Kinsale in Cork in 1601, instead of landing in Ulster where O'Neill was.
What happened in the Battle of Kinsale?
O'Neill and O'Donnell marched their army to meet the Spanish in Kinsale but an English army led by Lord Mountjoy got there before them and on Christmas Eve 1601, smashed the Spanish.
The English then beat the Irish once they had arrived.
What was the Flight of the Earls?
When the war ended with the Treaty of Mellifont, O'Neill was allowed to keep his land if he accepted English laws. He wouldn't, so in 1607 they left Ireland and went to Rome.
When did the Ulster plantation begin?
The Ulster plantation began in 1609.
Where were the larger population of loyal subjects planted?
They were planted in Tyrone, Armagh, Cavan, Donegall, Fermanagh and Derry.
What are Unionists?
People who want Ireland to be in a Union with the UK.
What are Nationalists?
Nationalists are people who want Ireland to be separate from the UK.
What are the features of the Ulster Plantation? (9)
-New religions (Anglican and Presbyterianism)
-The size of the estates were max 2000acres-easier to manage
-Servitors were awarded land and could protect themselves
-LTG took over Derry and renamed it Londonderry
-Many Scottish came and also could protect themselves
-New laws - English law replaced Brehon law
-Towns like Eniskillen, Belfast, Virginia and Omagh were built
-Towns had straight streets and a Diamond
-Violence/Tension between religions
What was an undertaker?
English and Scottish men who were given the largest estates in Ulster. They undertook to follow the rules of the plantation. They had to build a stone bawn to protect themselves from the Gaelic Irish.
What was a Servitor?
English and Scottish men who received land as a reward for serving in the 9 Year War. They were tough men who would not be easily intimidated off their land by the Irish.
What was the London Trade Guild?
This guild was given control of Derry by King James. They renamed it Londonderry. This was a very clever move by James I, as they were very powerful. They build the the town of Londonderry.
What were Loyal Irish?
Irish people who were allowed to keep their land if they were loyal to the King.
What were Tories?
Tories were Irish people who lost their land because they were not loyal to the King, they had to live as outlaws and regularly attacked the Planters (Undertakers and Servitors).