Flashcards in Chapter 18 - The Second World War 1939-1945 Deck (28)
What was Blitzkrieg?
1. Bombs dropped
2. Tanks to sweep the area
-Surrendered after 2 weeks
What was the Phoney War?
A period of calm following the defeat of Poland in September 1939. The BEF (British Expeditionary Force) went to France and children were evacuated to countryside.
When did the Phoney War end?
When Hitler unleashed Blitzkrieg on Western Europe. Took over Denmark and Norway. Therefore Churchill was appointed prime minister
How did Hitler take over France?
-Bypassed the Maginot Line and attacked through Ardennes
-BEF retreated towards English Channel
What was Operation Dynamo?
A plan to evacuate British soldiers from Dunkirk. A flotilla of boats sailed from Britain and rescued over 338,000 men. Churchill declared this a success.
Why did France fall?
-German troops entered Paris on 13th of June
-Surrendered 8 days later
-Charles de Gaulle refused to accept it => French gov. in London
How was France divided?
NORTH EAST: Occupied by Germans
SOUTH: Pro-German State called Vichy France (Marshal Pétain)
-French Resistance: hit-and-run
-Collaborators: Alongside Germans. out of fear, love of fascism, gain
What was Operation Sealion?
A plan to invade Britain by sea. However firstly, the Luftwaffe must have control of the air over the RAF.
What was the Battle of Britain?
-RAF had advantage of Radar; could see them coming
-RAF had advantage of Spitfire & Hurricane
-RAF had advantage of Lend-Lease from USA (weapons & ammo)
RAF won; bombing of British Cities began until mid-1940 BLITZ
What was the Battle of Alamein?
-Mussolini vs Britain => help from Germany
-General Rommel (G) vs General Montgomery (B)
What was Operation Barbarossa?
A plan to invade the Soviet Union, launched in June 1941
Why did Hitler invade the Soviet Union?
-Needed oil supplies for tanks etc.
What was the scorched earth tactic?
Policy of destroying anything that could be of use to the enemy as they retreated from the advancing German Army in 1941.
Why did the Germans loose the Battle of Stalingrad?
-Unprepared for the winter
-Difficult to manoeuvre tanks in narrow streets
-'Molotov Cocktails' petrol bombs thrown down hatches
-Red Army surrounded the city, leaving no exit
-Surrendered in February 1943
Why did America enter the war?
-Without warning Japan attacked Pearl Harbour, in Hawaii. Franklin D. Roosevelt declared war on Japan.
What was Operation Torch?
An attack on Italy by America through North Africa. This led to Mussolini being overthrown
What was Operation Overlord?
The invasion of continental Europe from the West, on D-Day 6th June 1944. This meant that forces were coming at Germany from the East and West.
How did the Allies prepare for D-Day?
-Amphibious tanks (land & sea) - funnies to land on beaches
-PLUTO: Pipeline for oil from Britain
-Mulberry Piers: Artificial harbours for supplies
-General Eisenhower: USA, Canada, Britain
-Utah, Omaha, Gold, Juno, Sword
-Evening: 155,000 allies, 1000 tanks
-Liberation of Western Europe began
What was the Battle of the Bulge?
-August 1944, Paris Liberated
-Winter: Halt advance at Ardennes
-Brief bulge, but were force back
-Last major battle of the west
-Allies crossed Rhine into Germany in March 1945
What was the Yalta Conference?
-Discuss the future of Europe
Describe the Fall of Berlin.
-Late April to May 1945
-G: 45,000 + reserve soldiers + Hitler Youth
-White Flag = shot
-G: Little ammo and fuel
-RA: 1/2 mil (Marshal Zhukov's First Belorussian Front)
-30th April 1945: All power to Admiral Dönitz; Hitler shot himself
-7 May: Admiral Dönitz surrendered unconditionally
VE DAY = 7th May
Why did Germany loose the war?
-Allies had better military equipment and bigger armies
-Too many enemies
-Invaded the Soviet Union too late in the year
-Lack of fuel supplies - failed to take Russian oilfields
What was the Battle of Midway?
When planes from American aircraft carriers inflicted heavy losses upon the Japanese navy at the Battle of Midway in June 1942. Turning Point
Why did Truman drop the atomic bomb?
-He thought 1 mil soldiers would die if they attacked Japan
-To end the war in the east quickly
-To avoid allied casualties as much as possible
Where did the atomic bombs go?
1. 6th Aug 1945 => Hiroshima
-70,000 killed instantly.
2. 9th Aug 1945 => Nagasaki
Fearing an attack on Tokyo, they surrendered
When did WW2 end?
14th of August 1945