Flashcards in Chapter 6 - The Middle Ages Deck (155)
Who was the european leader at the time of the medieval period?
There was no European leader. The Roman Empire had broken up. However countries did have their own Kings. The feudal system emerged
What started to happen in society?
Law and order broke down and wars between rival leaders and kingdoms became common. Gradually a new system began to develop which sought to return some stability through Europe. This system is known as the feudal system
Describe how the feudal system worked?
- The King was the most important person - he owned al, the land in the country and made the laws
- Nobles and lords were second in line. The King would give them an area of land called a fief in return for knights and horses for the kings army
- Knights were full time soldiers who fought for nobles and kings
- The peasants were at the bottom of the system. They worked for the nobles and knights in return protection. The peasants paid rent. They had to get permission to leave the land as they were 'tied to the land'
Who lived in castles?
Kings and nobles lived in castles. It housed their families, servants and soldiers. From here they defended and administered their land. It was a place of safety in time of attack
Other than housing and protection name two uses of the castles?
- They were also used as courts and prisons
- They were also centres where festivals and banquets were held
Describe a motte and bailey castle?
At first castles were made from wood.
- They were built on top of hills for protection, sometimes these hills were artificially made of rocks and soils. This hill is called a motte
- At the bottom of the mottle there was a bailey. It was surrounded by a wooden fence
- A deep ditch called a moat was dug around the fence, filled with water to stop attackers climbing over the fence
How did the motte and bailey defend itself?
It had a motte, a wooden fence and a moat. However, the motte and bailey castles were not very strong and could easily be destroyed in a fire. This is why they were eventually replaced by larger stone castles
Why were stone castles built?
Mainly for defence
What was the most important building within the castle walls?
The Keep was the most important building within the castle walls. It was where the lord and his family lived.
Describe the conditions of castles.
- Castles were cold and damp
- Windows were small and had no glass to prevent arrows or other objects to be thrown into the keep
- This kept out much daylight and made the castles dark and damp
- There was no central heating or running water
- Large fires lit for heat
- Decorated with large wool hangings and rugs to brighten it up
- No flushing toilets (garderobe - wooden seat where waste fell down into the moat)
What is a keep?
- A large square tower
- Most important building in the castle walls
- Lord and his family lived there
- Consisted if many different rooms
Name and describe the different rooms within the keep?
- Private rooms of the lord and his family on the top floor (safest place).
- The great hall where family ate their meals and entertained guests (most important room) and it was sometimes used as a court.
- Keeps also had a dungeon located below in the cold. The dungeon was used as a prison and a place to store food.
Describe the methods of defending a castle during attack?
- Stone walk with towers (turrets) surrounded the castle
- Archers could fire arrows on the enemy through battlements and hide
- Boiling oil and quicklime
- Drawbridge could be pulled up and a steel gate(portcullis) could be lowered across the gate
- Gatehouse called a barbarian
Describe the methods of attacking a castle?
➰siege (surrounding the castle and stopping all supplies from reaching the inside) , however castles were well stocked and this could take a while for them to all starve and die
➰battering rams used to break through the castle gate
➰catapults called mangonels to break the castle walls
➰tunnels were dug beneath the foundations of the wall to collapse it
Did the lord and lady of the castle live a privileged life?
Yes, hey were surrounded by a host of servants who carried pit their commands
Who was the most important person in the surrounding area of a castle?
Who would endure that rents were paid?
The lord and he would also ensure that his knights would remain loyal and ready to defend his land
Who was the estate steward?
The estate steward worked for the lord and carried out tasks for him involving his knights and peoples rent. He would issue orders to 'bailiffs" who were responsible for collecting rents and fines.
When the lord acted as a judge what type of work did he do?
➰settled local disputes
➰handing out punishments
➰fining people who broke the law and disobeyed his rules
What time was the middle ages / medieval period?
500Ad - 1500AD
What did the lord do for entertainment?
Hosted banquets(festivals) and hunted
Describe a banquet?
➰entertain visiting lords or the king of the land
➰lord and nobles ate well
➰meat and veg
➰those who sat at the top of the table with the lord and lady ate well
➰top of the table ate things such as swan and peacock
➰spices added to meat to make old meat smell good
➰sometimes food dyed to look good
➰other guests, long tables
➰the more important you were the closer you sat to the top
➰food served on platters other gusts used trenchers
Describe how the lord would hunt?
➰providing food for the castle
➰hunted wild boar, deer and foxes (horseback)
➰sometimes hunted out on foot or by using birds of pray such as eagles, falcons and hawks
When did the lady of the castle usually decide to marry?
Usually there marriages were arranged, not put of love but more often as a pact between her father and a neighbouring lord. Girls were often married by the age of 14
What duties was the lady of the castle in charge of?
When the lord was away who was in charge of running the castle?
The lady of the castle
What jobs did the lady of the castle do?
➰ensured there was enough food in storerooms
➰oversaw the salting of foods
➰responsible for the upbringing of children
➰ladies in waiting helped the lady do these duties(relatives, other noble woman)
What children was the lady of the castle responsible for the upbringing of?
Children who were in the fosterage. It was a common practise during the middle ages for nobles to send their children from the age of 7 upwards to another family to be taught
Did ladies go hunting horseback?
Rarely, however they did often take part in another form of hunting called hawking. It was a less strenuous form. Falcons and other birds of prey were specially trained to fly from a nobles wrist and to kill and bring back other small birds or animals like rabbits