Chapter 15 - Fascism in Italy Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 15 - Fascism in Italy Deck (15):
1

Why did Fascism rise in Italy?

-Economic Problems: unemployment, inflation of 250%
-Poor Law and Order: Blackshirts wanted to restore it
-Unhappiness with TOV: Many soldiers felt cheated
-Fear of Communism: Wave of strikes in 1920

2

Who were the blackshirts?

-A fascist party formed by Mussolini in Milan in 1919
-Strongly anti-communist. Wanted to restore law and order
-30,000 fascists began march on Rome; Mussolini made prime minister.

3

How did Mussolini rule?

-Secret Police = OVRA
-Prison Camps = On Lipari Islands
-Acerbo Law

4

What was the Acerbo Law?

A law that allowed the party with the largest amount of votes to gain 2/3 of the seats in parliament. He claimed this would solve political instability.

5

How did Mussolini become a dictator?

-Removing the kings right to appoint ministers
-Banning all opposition parties
-Making laws passable without parliament's permission
-il Duce = the leader.

6

What was Corporate State?

Where different corporations were set up to run each sector of the economy. Trade Unions were banned and it became illegal to strike.

7

How was the economy tackled?

Through public works e.g.
-Autostrada were built
-Pontine Marshes (drained & turned to farmland)
-Hydro-electrical stations were built & trains were electrified

8

How did Mussolini use propaganda?

-Newspapers: articles & photographs
-Light in Office: looked like he was working all night
-Textbooks were Rewritten: had a bigger role in WW1
-Drawings in Storybooks: looked strong and brave

9

What were the youth movements?

-Sons of the She-Wolf: 4-8
-Balilla: 8-14
-Avanguardisti: 14-18
"Mussolini is Always Right"

10

What was the Lateran Treaty?

A treaty signed by Mussolini and the Catholic Church in 1929.

11

What were the conditions of the Lateran Treaty?

-Mussolini recognised the Vatican to be an independent State
-Compensation paid to church for loss of land in 1870
-Catholicism became the official religion of Italian State
-In return, the pope agreed to recognise the Italian State

12

What was Mussolini's Foreign Policy?

-Increase influence over the Mediterranean. 'Italian Lake'
-Rebuild the Roman Empire

13

What was the Rome-Berlin Axis?

A friendly agreement between Italy and Germany in 1936

14

What was the Anti-Communist Pact?

A pact against communism signed by Italy, Germany and Japan in 1937.

15

What was the Pact of Steel?

A military agreement signed by Italy and Germany in 1939. However, Mussolini broke this Treaty when he didn't join WW2 immediately, as his army was not ready. He joined when he thought the Germans would win, but we was wrong.