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Flashcards in chapter 11 Motivation and Work recall Deck (22):
1

Drive-reduction theory

the idea that a physiological need creates an aroused tension state (a drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need.

2

homeostasis

a tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state; the regulation of any aspect of body chemistry, such as blood glucose, around a particular level.

3

incentive

a positive or negative environmental stimulus that motivates.

4

hierarchy of needs

Maslow's pyramid of human needs, beginning at the base with physiological needs that must first be satisfied before higher-level safety needs and then psychological needs become active.

5

glucose

the form of sugar that circulates in the blood and provides the major source of energy for body tissues. When its level is low, we feel hunger.

6

Set point

the point at which an individual's “weight thermostat” is supposedly set. When the body falls below this weight, an increase in hunger and a lowered metabolic rate may act to restore the lost weight.

7

basal metabolic rate

the body's resting rate of energy expenditure.

8

sexual response cycle

the four stages of sexual responding described by Masters and Johnson-excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution.

9

refractory period

a resting period after orgasm, during which a man cannot achieve another orgasm.

10

sexual disorder

a problem that consistently impairs sexual arousal or functioning.

11

estrogens

sex hormones, such as estradriol, secreted in greater amounts by females than by males and contributing to female sex characteristics. In nonhuman female mammals, estrogen levels peak during ovulation, promoting.

12

testosterone

the most important of the male sex hormones. Both males and females have it, but the additional testosterone in males stimulates the growth of the male sex organs in the fetus and the development of the male sex characteristics during puberty.

13

sexual orientation

an enduring sexual attraction toward members of either one's own sex (homosexual orientation) or the other sex (heterosexual orientation).

14

flow

a completely involved, focused state of consciousness, with diminished awareness of self and time, resulting from optimal engagement of one's skills.

15

Industrial-organization (I/O) psychology

the application of psychological concepts and methods to optimizing human behavior in workplaces.

16

personnel psychology

a subfield of I/O psychology that focuses on employee recruitment, selection, placement, training, appraisal, and development.

17

organizational psychology

a subfield of I/O psychology that examines organizational influences influences on worker satisfaction and productivity and facilitates organizational change.

18

human factors psychology

a subfield of I/O psychology that explores how people and machines interact and how machines and physical environments can be made safe and easy to use.

19

structured interviews

interview process that asks the same job-relevant questions of all applicants, each of whom is rate on established scales.

20

achievement motivation

a desire for significant accomplishment; for mastery of skills or ideas; for rapidly attaining a high standard.

21

task leadership

Goal-oriented leader that sets standards, organizes work, and focuses attention on goals.

22

social leadership

Group-oriented leadership that builds teamwork, mediates conflicts, and offers supports.