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Flashcards in chapter 8 memory recall Deck (35):
1

memory

the persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information

2

recall

a measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learned earlier, as on a fill-in-the-blank test.

3

recognition

a measure of memory in which the person need only identify items previously learned, as on a multiple-choice test.

4

relearning

a measure of memory that assesses the amount of time saved when learning material again.

5

encoding

the processing of information into the memory system – for example, by extracting meaning.

6

storage

the retention of encoded information over time.

7

retrieval

the process of getting information out of memory storage.

8

sensory memory

the immediate, very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system.

9

Short-term memory

activated memory that holds a few items briefly, such as seven digits of a phone number while dialing, before the information is stored or forgotten.

10

Long-term memory

the relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system. Includes knowledge, skills, and experiences.

11

Working memory

a newer understanding of short-term memory that focuses on conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual-spatial information, and of information retrieved from long-term memory.

12

explicit memory

memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and “declare.” (Also called declarative memory.)

13

effortful processing

encoding that requires attention and conscious effort.

14

automatic processing

unconscious encoding of incidental information, such as space, time, and frequency, and of well-learned information, such as word meanings.

15

implicit memory

retention independent of conscious recollection. (Also called nondeclarative memory.)

16

iconic memory

a momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli; a photographic or picture-image memory lasting no more than a few tenths of a second.

17

chunking

organizing items into familiar, manageable units; often occurs automatically.

18

mnemonics

memory aids, especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices.

19

spacing effect

the tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long-term retention than is achieved through massed study or practice.

20

testing effect

enhanced memory after retrieving, rather than simply reading, information. Also sometimes referred to as a retrieval practice effect or test-enhanced learning.

21

shallow processing

encoding on a basic level based on the structure or appearance of words.

22

deep processing

encoding semantically, based on the meaning of the words; tends to yield the best retention.

23

hippocampus

a neural center located in the limbic system; helps process explicit memories for storage

24

flashbulb memory

a clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event.

25

Long-term potentiation (LTP)

an increase in a cell's firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation. Believed to be a neural basis for learning and memory.

26

priming

the activation, often unconsciously, of particular associations in memory.

27

serial position effect

our tendency to recall best the last and first items in a list.

28

anterograde amnesia

an inability to form new memories

29

retrograde amnesia

an inability to retrieve information from one's past.

30

proactive interference

the disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information.

31

retroactive interference

the disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of old information.

32

repression

in psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes from conscious anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories.

33

misinformation effect

incorporating misleading information into one's memory of an event.

34

source amnesia

attributing to the wrong source an event we have experience, heard about, read about, or imagined. (Also called source misattribution.) Source amnesia, along with the misinformation effect, is at the heart of many false memories.

35

déjà vu

that eerie sense that “I've experienced this before.” Cues from the current situation may subconsciously trigger retrieval of an earlier experience.