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Flashcards in chapter 8 memory recognition Deck (35):
1

the persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information

memory

2

a measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learned earlier, as on a fill-in-the-blank test.

recall

3

a measure of memory in which the person need only identify items previously learned, as on a multiple-choice test.

recognition

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a measure of memory that assesses the amount of time saved when learning material again.

relearning

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the processing of information into the memory system – for example, by extracting meaning.

encoding

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the retention of encoded information over time.

storage

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the process of getting information out of memory storage.

retrieval

8

the immediate, very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system.

sensory memory

9

activated memory that holds a few items briefly, such as seven digits of a phone number while dialing, before the information is stored or forgotten.

Short-term memory

10

the relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system. Includes knowledge, skills, and experiences.

Long-term memory

11

a newer understanding of short-term memory that focuses on conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual-spatial information, and of information retrieved from long-term memory.

Working memory

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memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and “declare.” (Also called declarative memory.)

explicit memory

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encoding that requires attention and conscious effort.

effortful processing

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unconscious encoding of incidental information, such as space, time, and frequency, and of well-learned information, such as word meanings.

automatic processing

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retention independent of conscious recollection. (Also called nondeclarative memory.)

implicit memory

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a momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli; a photographic or picture-image memory lasting no more than a few tenths of a second.

iconic memory

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organizing items into familiar, manageable units; often occurs automatically.

chunking

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memory aids, especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices.

mnemonics

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the tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long-term retention than is achieved through massed study or practice.

spacing effect

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enhanced memory after retrieving, rather than simply reading, information. Also sometimes referred to as a retrieval practice effect or test-enhanced learning.

testing effect

21

encoding on a basic level based on the structure or appearance of words.

shallow processing

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encoding semantically, based on the meaning of the words; tends to yield the best retention.

deep processing

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a neural center located in the limbic system; helps process explicit memories for storage

hippocampus

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a clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event.

flashbulb memory

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an increase in a cell's firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation. Believed to be a neural basis for learning and memory.

Long-term potentiation (LTP)

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the activation, often unconsciously, of particular associations in memory.

priming

27

our tendency to recall best the last and first items in a list.

serial position effect

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an inability to form new memories

anterograde amnesia

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an inability to retrieve information from one's past.

retrograde amnesia

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the disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information.

proactive interference

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the disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of old information.

retroactive interference

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in psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes from conscious anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories.

repression

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incorporating misleading information into one's memory of an event.

misinformation effect

34

attributing to the wrong source an event we have experience, heard about, read about, or imagined. (Also called source misattribution.) Source amnesia, along with the misinformation effect, is at the heart of many false memories.

source amnesia

35

that eerie sense that “I've experienced this before.” Cues from the current situation may subconsciously trigger retrieval of an earlier experience.

déjà vu