chapter 9 thinking and language recall Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in chapter 9 thinking and language recall Deck (22):
1

cognition

the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating.

2

concept

a mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or peoples.

3

prototype

mental image or best example of a category. Matching new items to a prototype provides a quick and easy method for sorting items into categories (as when comparing feathered creatures to a prototypical bird, such as a robin).

4

algorithm

a methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem. Contrasts with the usually speedier-but also more error-prone – use of heuristics.

5

heuristic

a simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgements and solve problems efficiently; usually speedier but also more error-prone than algorithms.

6

insight

a sudden realization of a problem's solution; contrast with strategy-based solutions.

7

confirmation bias

a tendency to search for information that supports our preconceptions and to ignore or distort contradictory evidence.

8

intuition

an effortless, immediate, automatic feeling or thought, as contrasted with explicit, conscious reasoning.

9

availability heuristic

estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory; if instances come readily to mind (perhaps because of their vividness), presume such events are common.

10

overconfidence

the tendency to be more confident that correct-to overestimate the accuracy of our beliefs and judgements.

11

belief perseverance

clinging to ones initial conceptions after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited.

12

framing

the way an issue is posed; how an issue is framed can significantly affect decisions and judgements.

13

language

our spoken, written, or signed words and the ways we combine them to communicate meaning.

14

phoneme

in a language, the smallest distinctive sound unit.

15

morpheme

in a language, the smallest unit that carries meaning; may be a word or a part of word (such as a prefix).

16

grammar

in a language, a system of rules that enables us to communicate with and understand others. In a given language, semantics is the set of rules for deriving meaning from sounds, and syntax is the set of rules for combining words into grammatically sensible sentences.

17

babbling stage

beginning at about 4 months, the stage of speech development in which the infant spontaneously utters various sounds at first unrelated to the household language.

18

One-word stage

the stage in speech development, from about age 1 to 2, during which a child speaks mostly in single words.

19

Two-word stage

beginning about age 2, the stage in speech development during which a child speaks mostly in two-word statements.

20

telegraphic speech

early speech stage in which a child speaks like a telegram-”go car”-using mostly nouns and verbs.

21

aphasia

impairment of language, usually caused of left-hemisphere damage either to Broca's area (impairing speaking) or to Wernicke's area (impairing understanding).

22

linguistic determinism

Whorf's hypothesis that language determines the way we think.