Flashcards in chapter 9 thinking and language recall Deck (22):
the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating.
a mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or peoples.
mental image or best example of a category. Matching new items to a prototype provides a quick and easy method for sorting items into categories (as when comparing feathered creatures to a prototypical bird, such as a robin).
a methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem. Contrasts with the usually speedier-but also more error-prone – use of heuristics.
a simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgements and solve problems efficiently; usually speedier but also more error-prone than algorithms.
a sudden realization of a problem's solution; contrast with strategy-based solutions.
a tendency to search for information that supports our preconceptions and to ignore or distort contradictory evidence.
an effortless, immediate, automatic feeling or thought, as contrasted with explicit, conscious reasoning.
estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory; if instances come readily to mind (perhaps because of their vividness), presume such events are common.
the tendency to be more confident that correct-to overestimate the accuracy of our beliefs and judgements.
clinging to ones initial conceptions after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited.
the way an issue is posed; how an issue is framed can significantly affect decisions and judgements.
our spoken, written, or signed words and the ways we combine them to communicate meaning.
in a language, the smallest distinctive sound unit.
in a language, the smallest unit that carries meaning; may be a word or a part of word (such as a prefix).
in a language, a system of rules that enables us to communicate with and understand others. In a given language, semantics is the set of rules for deriving meaning from sounds, and syntax is the set of rules for combining words into grammatically sensible sentences.
beginning at about 4 months, the stage of speech development in which the infant spontaneously utters various sounds at first unrelated to the household language.
the stage in speech development, from about age 1 to 2, during which a child speaks mostly in single words.
beginning about age 2, the stage in speech development during which a child speaks mostly in two-word statements.
early speech stage in which a child speaks like a telegram-”go car”-using mostly nouns and verbs.
impairment of language, usually caused of left-hemisphere damage either to Broca's area (impairing speaking) or to Wernicke's area (impairing understanding).