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Flashcards in chapter 14 social psychology recognition Deck (44):
1

the scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to each other.

social psychology

2

the theory that we explain someone's behavior crediting either the situation or the person's disposition.

attribution theory

3

the tendency for observers, when analyzing another's behavior, to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of personal disposition

fundamental attribution error

4

feelings, often influenced by our beliefs, that predispose us to respond in a particular way to objects, people, and events.

attitude

5

occurs when people influenced by incidental cues, such as the speaker's attractiveness.

peripheral route persuasion

6

occurs when interested people focus on the arguments and respond with favorable thoughts.

central route persuasion

7

the tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request

Foot-in-the-door phenomenon

8

a set of expectations (norms) about a social position, defining how those in the position out to behave.

role

9

the theory that we act to reduce the discomfort (dissonance) we feel when two of our thoughts (cognitions) are inconsistent. For example, we become aware that our attitudes and our actions clash, we can reduce the resulting dissonance by changing our attitudes.

cognitive dissonance theory

10

adjusting our behavior or thinking to coincide with group standard

conformity

11

influence resulting from a person's desire to gain approval or avoid disapproval

normative social influence

12

influence resulting from one's willingness to accept others' opinions about reality

informational social influence

13

stronger responses on simple or well-learned tasks in the presence of others

social facilitation

14

the tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward attaining a common goal than when individually accountable.

social loafing

15

the loss of self-awareness and self-restraint occurring in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity.

deindividualization

16

the enhancement of a group's prevailing inclinations through discussion within the group

group polarization

17

the mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision-making group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives

groupthink

18

an unjustifiable (and unusually negative) attitude toward of group and its members. Prejudice generally involve stereotyped beliefs, negative feelings, and a predisposition to discriminatory actions.

prejudice

19

a generalized (sometimes accurate but often exaggerated) belief about a group of people.

stereotype

20

unjustifiable negative behavior toward a group and its members.

discrimination

21

the tendency for people to believe the world is just and that people therefore get what they deserve and deserve what they get.

Just-word phenomenon

22

“Us”- people whom we share a common identity

ingroup

23

“Them” - those perceived as different or apart from our ingroup

outgroup

24

the tendency to favor our own group

ingroup bias

25

the theory that prejudice offers an outlet for anger by providing someone to blame

scapegoat theory

26

the tendency to recall faces of one's own race more accurately than faces of other races. Also called the cross-race effect and the own-race bias.

Other-race effect

27

any physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt or destroy

aggression

28

the principle that frustration-the blocking of an attempt to achieve some goal-creates anger, which can generate aggression.

Frustration-aggression principle

29

culturally modeled guide for how to act in various situations.

social script

30

the phenomenon that repeated exposure to novel stimuli increases liking of them.

mere exposure effect

31

an aroused state of intense positive absorption in another, usually present in the beginning of love relationship.

passionate love

32

the affectionate attachment we feel for those with whom our lives are intertwined.

companionate love

33

a condition in which people from a relationship in proportion to what they give to it.

equity

34

revealing intimate aspects of oneself to others.

Self-disclosure

35

unselfish regard for the welfare of others.

altruism

36

the tendency for any given bystander to be less likely to give aid if other bystanders are present.

bystander effect

37

the theory that our social behavior is an exchange process, the aim of which is to maximize benefits and minimize costs.

social exchange theory

38

an expectation that people will help, not hurt, those who have helped them.

reciprocity norm

39

an expectation that people will help those dependent on them.

Social-responsibility norm

40

a perceived incompatibility of actions, goals, or ideas.

conflict

41

a situation in which the conflicting parties, by each rationally pursuing their self-interest, become caught in mutually destructive behavior.

social trap

42

mutual views often held by conflicting people, as when each side sees itself as ethical and peaceful and views the other side as evil and aggressive.

Mirror-image perceptions

43

shared goals that override differences among people and require their cooperation.

superordinate goals

44

Graduated and Reciprocated initiatives in Tension-Reduction – a strategy to decrease international tensions.

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