Flashcards in chapter 14 social psychology recognition Deck (44):
the scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to each other.
the theory that we explain someone's behavior crediting either the situation or the person's disposition.
the tendency for observers, when analyzing another's behavior, to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of personal disposition
fundamental attribution error
feelings, often influenced by our beliefs, that predispose us to respond in a particular way to objects, people, and events.
occurs when people influenced by incidental cues, such as the speaker's attractiveness.
peripheral route persuasion
occurs when interested people focus on the arguments and respond with favorable thoughts.
central route persuasion
the tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request
a set of expectations (norms) about a social position, defining how those in the position out to behave.
the theory that we act to reduce the discomfort (dissonance) we feel when two of our thoughts (cognitions) are inconsistent. For example, we become aware that our attitudes and our actions clash, we can reduce the resulting dissonance by changing our attitudes.
cognitive dissonance theory
adjusting our behavior or thinking to coincide with group standard
influence resulting from a person's desire to gain approval or avoid disapproval
normative social influence
influence resulting from one's willingness to accept others' opinions about reality
informational social influence
stronger responses on simple or well-learned tasks in the presence of others
the tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward attaining a common goal than when individually accountable.
the loss of self-awareness and self-restraint occurring in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity.
the enhancement of a group's prevailing inclinations through discussion within the group
the mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision-making group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives
an unjustifiable (and unusually negative) attitude toward of group and its members. Prejudice generally involve stereotyped beliefs, negative feelings, and a predisposition to discriminatory actions.
a generalized (sometimes accurate but often exaggerated) belief about a group of people.
unjustifiable negative behavior toward a group and its members.
the tendency for people to believe the world is just and that people therefore get what they deserve and deserve what they get.
“Us”- people whom we share a common identity
“Them” - those perceived as different or apart from our ingroup
the tendency to favor our own group
the theory that prejudice offers an outlet for anger by providing someone to blame
the tendency to recall faces of one's own race more accurately than faces of other races. Also called the cross-race effect and the own-race bias.
any physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt or destroy
the principle that frustration-the blocking of an attempt to achieve some goal-creates anger, which can generate aggression.
culturally modeled guide for how to act in various situations.
the phenomenon that repeated exposure to novel stimuli increases liking of them.
mere exposure effect
an aroused state of intense positive absorption in another, usually present in the beginning of love relationship.
the affectionate attachment we feel for those with whom our lives are intertwined.
a condition in which people from a relationship in proportion to what they give to it.
revealing intimate aspects of oneself to others.
unselfish regard for the welfare of others.
the tendency for any given bystander to be less likely to give aid if other bystanders are present.
the theory that our social behavior is an exchange process, the aim of which is to maximize benefits and minimize costs.
social exchange theory
an expectation that people will help, not hurt, those who have helped them.
an expectation that people will help those dependent on them.
a perceived incompatibility of actions, goals, or ideas.
a situation in which the conflicting parties, by each rationally pursuing their self-interest, become caught in mutually destructive behavior.
mutual views often held by conflicting people, as when each side sees itself as ethical and peaceful and views the other side as evil and aggressive.
shared goals that override differences among people and require their cooperation.