Chapter 7 Learning recognition Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 7 Learning recognition Deck (43):
1

the process of acquiring new and relatively enduring information or behaviors.

learning

2

learning that certain events occur together. The events may be two stimuli (as in classical conditioning) or a response and its consequences (as in operant conditioning).

associative learning

3

any event or situation that evokes a response.

stimulus

4

the acquisition of mental information, whether by observing events, by watching others, or through language.

cognitive learning

5

a type of learning in which one learns to link two or more stimuli and anticipate events.

classical conditioning

6

the view that psychology (1) should be an objective science that (2) studies behavior without reference to mental processes. Most research psychologists today agree with (1) but not with (2).

behaviorism

7

in classical conditioning, a stimulus that elicits no response before conditioning.

neutral stimulus (NS)

8

in classical conditioning, an unlearned, naturally occurring response (such as salivation) to an unconditioned stimulus (US) (such as food in the mouth).

unconditioned response (UR)

9

In classical conditioning, a stimulus that unconditionally-naturally and automatically-triggers a response (UR).

unconditioned stimulus (US)

10

in classical conditioning, a learning response to a previously neutral (but now conditioned) stimulus (CS).

conditioned response (CR)

11

in classical conditioning, an originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus (US), comes to trigger a conditioned response (CR).

conditioned stimulus (CS)

12

in classical conditioning, the initial stage, when one links a neutral stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral stimulus begins triggering the conditioned response. In operant conditioning, the strengthening of a reinforced response.

acquisition

13

a procedure in which the conditioned stimulus in one conditioning experience is paired with a new neural stimulus, creating a second (often weaker) conditioned stimulus. For example, an animal that has learned that a tone predicts food might then learn that a light predicts that tone and begin responding to the light alone. (Also called second-order conditioning)

Higher-order conditioning

14

the diminishing of a conditioned response; occurs in classical conditioning when an unconditioned stimulus does not follow a conditioned stimulus; occurs in operant conditioning when a response is no longer reinforced.

extinction

15

the reappearance, after a pause, of an extinguished conditioned response.

spontaneous recovery

16

in classical conditioning, the learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned stimulus.

discrimination

17

a type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher.

operant conditioning

18

Thorndike's principle that behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely, and that behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely.

law of effect

19

in operant conditioning research, a chamber (also known as a Skinner box) containing a bar or key that an animal can manipulate to obtain a food or water reinforcer; attached devices record the animal's rate of bar pressing or key picking

operant chamber

20

in operant conditioning, any event that strengthens the behavior it follows

reinforcement

21

an operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior.

shaping

22

increasing behaviors by presenting positive reinforcers. A positive reinforcer is any stimulus that, when presented after a response, strengthens the response.

positive reinforcement

23

increasing behaviors by stopping or reducing negative stimuli. A negative reinforcer is any stimulus that, when removed after response, strengthens the response (not a punishment).

negative reinforcement

24

an innately reinforcing stimulus, such as one that satisfies a biological need.

primary reinforcer

25

a stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through its association with a primary reinforcer; also known as secondary reinforcer.

conditioned reinforcer

26

a pattern that defines how often a desired response will be reinforced

reinforcement schedule

27

Reinforcing the the desired response every time it occurs.

continuous reinforcement

28

reinforcing a response only part of the time; results in slower acquisition of a response but much greater resistance to extinction that does continuous reinforcement.

partial (intermittent) reinforcement

29

in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses.

Fixed-ratio schedule

30

in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after an unpredictable number of responses

Variable-ratio schedule

31

in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed.

Fixed-interval schedule

32

in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals.

Variable-interval schedule

33

behavior that occurs as an automatic response to some stimulus

respondent behavior

34

behavior that operates on the environment, producing consequences.

operant behavior

35

a mental representation of the layout of one's environment. For example, after exploring a maze, rats act as if they have learned a cognitive map out of it.

cognitive map

36

learning that occurs but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it.

latent learning

37

a desire to perform a behavior effectively for its own sake.

intrinsic motivation

38

a desire to perform a behavior to receive promised rewards or avoid threatened punishment.

extrinsic motivation

39

learning by observing others.

observational learning

40

the process of observing and imitating a specific behavior.

modeling

41

frontal lobe neurons that some scientist believe fire when performing certain actions or when observing another doing so. The brain's mirroring of another's action may enable imitation and empathy.

mirror neurons

42

an event that tends to decrease the behavior it follows.

punishment

43

positive constructive, helpful behavior. The opposite of antisocial.

prosocial behavior