Chapter 18: Immunologic Emergencies Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 18: Immunologic Emergencies Deck (44):
1

Another common name for envenomation is:

sting

2

Injection of medications such as penicillin may cause an immediate and severe reaction. "Immediate" is described as:

within 30 min

3

Eating certain foods, such as shell fish or nuts, may result in a relatively slow reaction that still can be quite severe. That relatively slow reaction time is:

more than 30 min

4

Which of the following is not a safe way to remove the stinger and attached muscle injected by a honeybee into the patient?
-Use clean tweezers.
-Use a clean credit card to scrape it.
-Use the edge of a sharp, stiff object to scrape it.
-Use the side of a tongue depressor to scrape it.

-Use clean tweezers.

5

If untreated, a severe anaphylactic reaction can proceed rapidly to death. More than two-thirds of patients who die, do so within the first:

half hour

6

Remember, the presence of hypoperfusion or respiratory distress indicates that the patient is having a severe enough allergic reaction that can lead to death. Hypoperfusion is:

shock

7

Which of the following is not a common sign and symptom of allergic reactions in the respiratory system?
-an increase in pulse
-hoarseness
-tightness in the chest or throat
-wheezing and/or stridor

-an increase in pulse

8

All of the following are common signs and symptoms of allergic reactions related to the circulatory system, except:
-decrease in blood pressure.
-increase in pulse rate.
-sneezing, itchy runny nose.
-loss of consciousness and coma.

-sneezing, itchy runny nose.

9

Any substance that can trigger the body's immune system and cause an allergic reaction is known as a(n):

allergen

10

_______ is a harsh, high-pitched inspiratory sound.

stridor

11

When administering an EpiPen auto injector, it is important to hold the injector in place for ________ seconds to ensure that all of the medication is injected.

10 sec

12

Epinephrine can have an effect within:

1 minute

13

an allergic reaction is an

exaggerated immune response to any substance

14

an allergic reaction is not cause by

an outside stimulus

15

an allergic reaction is caused by

the body's immune system which releases chemicals to combat the stimulus

16

chemicals that the body releases during the immune response

histamines and leukotrienes

17

an allergic reaction may be ____ with hives itching and tenderness or ______ with shock and respiratory failure

an allergic reaction may be LOCAL/MILD with hives itching and tenderness or SYSTEMIC/SEVERE with shock and respiratory failure

18

_____ is an extreme, life threatening allergic reaction

anaphylaxis

19

2 most common signs of anapyhlaxis

wheezing and urticaria

20

wheezing is a result of _____/_____

bronchospasm/bronchoconstriction

21

medical term for hives

urticaria

22

a third sign of anaphylaxis is _____ which is a result of hypovolemic shock sue to INC capillary permeability

HYPOTENSION

23

list the five most common allergen categories

1. insect bites/stings
2. medications
3. food
4. plants
5. chemicals

24

insects that sting repeatedly include: ____, ____, _____

wasps, hornets, fire ants

25

death from stinging insects is ___ than deaths from snake bites

HIGHER

26

stings can result in____ which are raised, swollen, well-defined areas on the skin

wheals

27

the stinger should be removed by

scraping the skin with the edge of a sharp/stiff object

28

about ___% of people have anaphylactic reactions to stings

5%

29

signs of ______ to stings include:
widespread urticaria
wheals
bronchospasm and wheezing
hypotension

anaphylactic reactions

30

allergic reactions may present as ____ or _____ in the form of shock

respiratory distress or cardiovascular distress

31

anaphylaxis can cause rapid swelling of the

upper airway

32

position the conscious patient in ______ and listen to lungs on each side of the chest

tripod position

33

some patients in ____ may have hypotension

anaphylaxis

34

_____ is needed for any patient who may be having an allergic reaction

prompt transport

35

the secondary assessment should include a _____ or ______ to determine hidden trauma or other unrelated medical problems

systematic head to toe or focused assessment to determine hidden trauma or other unrelated medical problems

36

in assessing the patients breathing we look for what 4 things

grunting
head bobbing
tripod position
nostril flaring

37

vital signs will include:
____ resp. rate
____ pulse rate

INC resp and pulse rate

38

INC pulse and hypotension =

ominous signs indicating systemic vascular collapse and shock

39

interventions include ____ and ____ for severe reactions and ____ for milder cases

epi and ventilatory support for severe cases
O2 for milder cases

40

epinephrine is a ____

sympathomimetic

41

sympathomimetic means it

mimics the sympathetic response

42

with epinephrine:
____ BP
BV ______
broncho_____
___ cardiac contractility

INC BP
BV constrict
bronchodilation
INC cardiac contractility

43

adult epi dose

.3 mg

44

pediatric epi dose

.15 mg