Chapter 10: Shock Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 10: Shock Deck (65):
1

shock = _____

hypoperfusion

2

shock means a state of collapse and failure of the ______ system that leads to ____

CV system that leads to inadequate circulation

3

in the ___ stages of shock, the body attempts to maintain homeostasis

early

4

as shock progresses _____ slows and eventually ceases

blood circulation

5

shock can occur because of medial or traumatic events like:
1.
2.
3.
4.

1. heart attack
2. severe allergic reaction
3. automobile crash
4. gunshot wound

6

_____ is the circulation of blood within an organ or tissue in adequate amounts to meet the cell's current needs

perfusion

7

list the two circuits in the body

systemic and pulmonic

8

the _____ circulation carries oxygen-rich blood from the LV through the body and back to the RA

systemic

9

____ is a passive process in which molecules move from an area with high conc of molecules to an area of lower conc

diffusion

10

three parts of the CV system, called the "perfusion triangle"

pump (heart)
set of pipes (bv and arteries)
blood

11

blood flow through the capillary beds is regulated by the _____, circular muscular walls that constrict and dilate

capillary sphincters

12

these sphincters are under control of the

ANS

13

perfusion requires more than just having a working CV system. it also requires adequate ____, _____, and ____

oxygen, nutrients, and waste removal

14

the _____ and _____ are triggered when the body senses that the pressure in the system is failing

ANS and hormones

15

shock can result from many conditions including;
1.
2.
3.
4.

1. bleeding
2. respiratory failure
3. acute allergic reactions
4. overwhelming infection

16

3 main causes of shock

1. pump failure
2. low fluid volume
3. poor vessel function

17

_____ is caused by inadequate function of the heart (pump failure)

cardiogenic shock

18

a major effect of cardiogenic schock is backup of blood in the lungs or ______

pulmonary edema

19

______ occurs when conditions that cause mechanical obstruction of the cardiac muscle also affect the pump function

obstructive shock

20

2 examples of obstructive shock

1. cardiac tamponade
2. tension pneumothorax

21

_____ is a collection of fluid between the peridcardial sac and the myocardium

cardiac tamponade

22

signs and symptoms of cardiac tamponade are known as

beck's triad (JVD, muffled heart sounds, and systolic and diastolic BP starting to merge)

23

____ is caused by damage to lung tissue

tension pneumothorax

24

a tension pneumothorax allows are normally held in the lung to escape into the

chest cavity (which applies pressure to the heart)

25

_____ results when there is a widespread dilation of small arterioles, venules, or both

distributive shock

26

4 types of distributive shock

1. septic shock
2. neurogenic shock
3. anaphylactic shock
4. psychogenic shock

27

___ occurs as a result of severe infections in which toxins are generated by the bacteria or by infected body tissues

septic shock

28

in septic shock the toxins damage the vessel walls causing ___cellular permeability. the vessel walls leak and are unable to contract well.

INC

29

____ is usually a result of injury to the part of the nervous system that controls the size and muscle tone of the blood vessels

neurogenic shock

30

in neurogenic shock the muscles in the walls of the blood vessels are cut off from the SNS and nerve impulses that cause them to contract. all vessels below the level of the spinal injury _____ causing blood to ___

dilate widely causing blood to pool

31

______ occurs when a person reacts violently to a substance to which he or she has been sensitized

anaphylactic shock

32

______ is the result of an inadequate amount of fluid or volume in the system

hypovolemic shock

33

____ can cause or aggravate shock

dehydration

34

______ is when a patient with a severe injury, such as a flail chest or obstruction of the airway, may be unable to breathe in an adequate amount of oxygen

respiratory insufficiency

35

list the three stages in the progression of shock

1. compensated shock
2. decompensated shock
3. irreversible shock

36

in compensated shock the body can still compensate for

blood loss

37

decompensated shock is the late stage where blood pressure is

falling

38

irreversible shock is the

terminal stage of shock

39

_____ may be the last measurable factor to change in shock

blood pressure

40

a rapid pulse suggests _____ shock

compensated

41

in shock/compensated shock the skin may be

cool, clammy, or ashen

42

patients in cardiogenic shock usually have ____ blood pressure

low

43

other signs and sx of cardiogenic shock include;
- ____ pulse
-
-
-

- weak/irregular pulse
- cyanosis
- nausea
- anxiety

44

for treating cardiogenic shock place the patient in a position that...

eases breathing as you give high-flow oxygen

45

INC ____ should be the priority in treating cardiac tamponade

INC cardiac output

46

in tension pneumothorax usually the only action hat can prevent eventual death is ____ of the injured side of the chest

decompression (EMTS give high flow oxygen via NRB)

47

in treating septic shock and neurogenic shock you should keep the patient ____

warm

48

effective treatment for a sever, acute allergic reaction is to administer _____ via subcutaneous or intramuscular injection

epinephrine

49

perfusion require an intact ____ system and a functioning ___ system

intact CV system and a functioning respiratory system

50

fainting is what type of shock

psychogenic

51

severe thermal burns causes what type of shock

hypovolemic shock

52

a dec in blood pressure is an early sign of shock (true or false?)

FALSE. late sign of shock, designates decompensated shock

53

infants and children may lose half their blood volume before having BP drop (true or false?)

TRUE.

54

what are the 6 general considerations for treating a patient in shock

1. keep the patient supine
2. control obvious external bleeding
3. splint the patient on a backboard
4. give high flow oxygen
5. keep the patient warm
6. elevate the legs

55

why should you be cautious in giving nitroglycerin to a patient already in cardiogenic shock

patients BP may already be low

56

The three basic causes for shock are poor pump function, dilating blood vessels, and

blood or fluid loss

57

Damage to the spinal cord that produces neurogenic shock will cause the blood vessels to

dilate

58

the following are signs and symptoms of what kind of shock:
urticaria and flushing.
edema of the face, tongue, and lips.
itching and burning.

anaphylactic shock

59

During decompensated shock, the blood pressures will

fall

60

At what systolic blood pressure should you recognize that an adult patient is in decompensated shock

90 mm Hg

61

Anxiety, bad news, or sight of blood can cause ________ shock

psychogenic

62

In compensated shock, the pulse of the patient usually

INC

63

When assessing breathing for a patient in shock, an increased respiratory rate can be a sign of

compensated shock

64

When treating a patient who exhibits signs and symptoms of shock, which of the following actions would not be appropriate?
- Provide high flow oxygen via nonrebreather mask.
- Splint all suspected extremity fractures.
- Request ALS back-up.

Splint all suspected extremity fractures.

65

When treating a patient in cardiogenic shock, your first step should be to

ensure the patient has an open airway