Chapter 22 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 22 Deck (244)
1

______ is the numerous cellular and molecular structures located through the body that function together in the bodies defense

immune system

2

The immune system has two categories

innate
adaptive

3

The innate immune system is _____.

non specific

4

The adaptive immune system is ____.

acquired

5

______ are Organisms that cause damage, or possibly death, to the host organism that they invade (pathogenic)

infectious agents

6

Five types of infectious agents

bacteria
viruses
fungi
protozoans
multicellular parasites

7

______ microscopic, single-celled organisms (prokaryotic cell)

bacteria

8

______ are not cells, composed of DNA or RNA within a protein capsid.

viruses

9

_____ are eukaryotic cells with cell wall around plasma membrane

fungi

10

______ are eukaryotic cells with no cell wall

Protozoans

11

_________ are larger organisms such as tapeworms

Multicellular parasites

12

Innate and adaptive immunity are similar in that they both work to ____ us from potentially harmful agents.

protect

13

Innate and adaptive immunity differ in the ways that cells respond, the mechanisms involved in ______ of harmful substances and the ____ of time required for a response.

elimination
amount

14

Innate immunity responds ____ to a wide array of substances.

immediately

15

Adaptive immunity response is a ___ to specific antigens.

delayed response

16

What defenses are we born with?

innate immunity

17

Innate immunity includes barriers of skin and _______ that prevent entry.

mucosal membranes

18

Innate immunity includes non-specific_____ and _____ internal defenses.

cellular and molecular

19

Innate immunity does not require ____ exposure to the foreign substance.

previous

20

Adaptive immunity involves specific ____ and _____ which respond to different foreign substances called antigens to which we are exposed.

t-lymphocytes
b-lymphocytes

21

Adaptive immunity typically takes several ____ to be effective.

days

22

What are the five types of infectious agents?

bacteria
fungi
protozoa
viruses
multicellular parasites

23

What are the two main types of immunity?

adaptive and innate

24

Which type of immunity takes longer to respond to a pathogen?

adaptive

25

Which type of immunity are we born with?

innate

26

Which type of immunity includes the skin and mucous membranes?

innate

27

Which type of immunity is activated by a specific antigen?

adaptive

28

Innate first line of defense (4)

physical barrier
secretions
normal flora
bacteria

29

Epithelial tissues of epidermis and connective tissues of dermis provide _______ to microbes

physical barrier

30

_______ from skin have antimicrobial substances
Sebum, lysozyme, defensins, and dermicidin

Secretions

31

______ reside on skin and prevent the growth of pathogenic microorganisms

Normal flora

32

________- produce mucus
contains lysozymes, defensins, and immunoglobulin A (IgA)

Mucosal membranes

33

_____ also line inside of body tracts and suppress the growth of other potentially more virulent types

bacteria

34

If microbes get past _____ they trigger the innate immunities second line of defense and maybe even adaptive immunity (third line of defense)

first line of defense

35

Innate immunities second line of defense includes ____, ____, and ____.

neutrophils
macrophages
dendritic cells

36

______ and _____ destroy infectious agents with the aid of lysosomes and their oxidative bursts (nitric oxide, hydrogen peroxide, and superoxide)
Residue released by exocytosis

Neutrophils
macrophages

37

______ destroy infectious agents and then present fragments of the microbe on its cell surface (antigen presenting cell)
necessary for initiating adaptive immunity

Dendritic cells

38

_____ and mast cells are pro-inflammatory chemical-secreting cells

basophils

39

During cellular defense chemicals are released that include ____, _____, and _____.

histamine
heparin
eicosanoids

40

_____ increases both vasodilation and capillary permeability.

histamine

41

____ is an anticoagulant.

heparin

42

_____ increase inflammation.

Eicosanoids

43

Substances released by basophils and mast cells increase _____ from blood to injured tissue as well as attracting immune cells to the area.

fluid movement

44

_____ cells destroy a wide variety of cells.

Natural Killer

45

Natural killer cells destroy virus-infected, bacteria-infected, tumor and from _____.

transplanted tissue

46

NK cells are formed in _____ and circulate in blood and accumulate in lymph nodes, tonsils, and ____.

bone marrow
spleen

47

Natural killer cells provide _____ by releasing cytotoxic chemicals when coming in contact with unhealthy cells.

immune surveillance

48

____ forms pore in plasma membrane.

perforin
nk cells

49

____ enter cells and initiate apoptosis.

granzymes
nk cells

50

Eosinophils targets ___.

parasites

51

Eosinophils release enzymes and other substances that are ____ to the parasite.

lethal

52

Eosinophils release _____ to form pore in plasma membranes of parasitic cells.

proteins

53

_____ participate in allergy and asthma.

eosinophils

54

_____ participate in phagocytosis of antigen-antibody complexes.

eosinophils

55

______ are small soluble proteins produced by cells of both innate and adaptive immune system to regulate and facilitate immune system activity

cytokines

56

The function of _____ is a mean of communication between cells.

cytokines

57

____ control the development and behavior of effector cells of immunity.

Cytokines

58

____ regulate the inflammatory response.

Cytokines

59

____ function as weapons to destroy infected cells.

cytokines

60

Examples of cytokines.

interleukins IL
tumor necrosis factors TNF
colony-stimulating factors CSF
interferons IFN

61

An example of one of our first lines of defense.

mucosal membrane

62

What is the function of neturophils, macrophages and dendritic cells?

phagocytize unwanted substances

63

What is the function of both basophils and mast cells?

release chemicals to initate and create inflammation

64

What are the two chemicals secreated by natural killer cells?

perforins and granzymes

65

_______ Provide nonspecific defense against viral infections

interferons

66

Interferons include ____ and ___ produces by leukocytes and virus-infected cells.

INF alpha
INF beta

67

IFN alpha and IFN beta bind receptors of neighboring cells, preventing them from getting ____, which triggers synthesis of enzymes that both destroy RNA or DNA and inhibit synthesis of viral proteins.

infected

68

IFN alpha and IFN beta stimulate ___ cells to destroy virsu infected cells.

NK

69

IFN - y is produced by ____ and _____.

T lymphocytes and NK cells

70

IFN-y stimulates macrophages to destroy _____ cells.

virus infected

71

_____ is Composed of 30 plasma proteins that make up 10% of blood serum proteins

complement system

72

_____ complement proteins synthesized in liver and ____ in blood

inactive
activated

73

______ is when complement proteins activated by binding antibody

Classical pathway ~

74

_______ is when polysaccharides of certain bacterial and fungal cell walls bind directly with a complement protein

Alternative pathway ~

75

Complement system outcomes (4)

opsonization
inflammation
cytolysis
elimination of immune complexes

76

_____ ~ binding of a protein called opsonin enhances phagocytosis (complement protein binds instead of opsonin)

oposinzation

77

_____ is the activation of mast cells and basophils as well as attracting neutrophils and macrophages

inflammation

78

_____ forms a plasma membrane pore, allowing fluids to enter the cell and cause lysis. This is called a MAC (membrane attack complex)

cytolysis

79

MAC stands for

membrane attack complex

80

___________ links immune complexes to erythrocytes to be transported to the liver and spleen for destruction

Elimination of immune complexes

81

_____ is Immediate, local, nonspecific event that occurs in vascularized tissue against a great variety of injury causing stimuli

inflammation

82

Steps of inflammation

step 1: release of various chemicals
step 2: vascular changes
step 3: recruitmen of elukocytes
step 4: delivery of plasma proteins

83

What are CAMs?

cell-adhesion molecules

84

During the first step of inflammation Histamine, leukotrienes, prostaglandins, interleukins, TNF’s and chemotactic factors are released by damaged cells, basophils, dendritic cells, macrophages, mast cells and ____.

infectious organisms

85

Vasodilation occurs in which stage of inflammation?

second

86

LIST steps of inflammation

?

87

Interferons aid us in defense against what type of pathogens?

viruses

88

What does MAC stand for and what does it do?

membrane attack complex, pokes a hole in the plasma membrane causing cell lysis

89

What are three types of vascular changes that occur?

vasodilation, increased permeability, increased CAMS

90

What does CAM stand for and what is it's function?

cell adhesion molecule, to bind leukocytes in the blood for movement into the damaged tissue

91

What is diapedesis

squeezing of leukocyte out of blood and into tissue

92

What is chemotaxis?

migration of leukocytes to a damaged tissue due to a chemical gradient

93

The signs of inflammation include redness, heat, swellling, ____, and _____.

pain and loss of function

94

Redness is a sign of inflammation due to _____.

increased blood flow

95

Heat is a sign of inflammation due to the increased blood flow and increased _____ within the area.

metabolic activity

96

Swelling is a sign of inflammation due to an increase in _____ from capillaries.

fluid loss

97

Pain is a sign of inflammation due to ____, prostaglandins and substances released by microbes as well as compression of pain receptors due to swelling.

kinins

98

Loss of function is a sign of inflammation due to pain and swelling in more _____.

severe cases

99

Inflammation causes a net movement of fluid from ____, through infected/injured area, and then into the lymphatic system

blood

100

During inflammation vasodilation causes ___ into infected area.

more blood

101

During inflammation increased capillary permeability causes endothelial cells to contract causing larger ____ allowing more fluid movement.

openings

102

During inflammation a loss of plasma proteins decreases capillary osmotic pressure resulting in less ____ being retained and reabsorbed by the blood.

fluid

103

Inflammation causes Increased _________ in interstitial fluid increases fluid uptake into the lymphatic capillaries carrying unwanted substances with it which can then stimulate a systemic immune response

hydrostatic pressure

104

____ is An abnormal elevation of body temperature of at least 1.8°F

fever

105

A ____ Results from release of fever-inducing molecules called pyrogens (IL-1, IL-6, and TNF-)

fever

106

_____ target hypothalamus and cause release of prostaglandins E2 which increases the set point

pyrogens

107

The fever ____ includes the hypothalamus stimulates cutaneous blood vessels to vasoconstrict and induces shivering  body temp rises

onset

108

The fever ____ includes Metabolic rate increases to promote physiologic processes involved in eliminating the harmful substance
Liver and spleen bind zinc and iron to slow microbial reproduction

stadium

109

The fever _____ includes Hypothalamus no longer stimulated by pyrogens, prostaglandin release decreases, set point reverts to normal
Body releases heat through vasodilation of cutaneous blood vessels and sweating

defervescense

110

Benefits of a fever include: %)

1. Inhibits replication of bacteria and viruses
2. Promotes interferon activity
3. Increase activity of adaptive immunity
4. Accelerates tissue repair
5. Increases CAMs on endothelial cells of lymphatic capillaries

111

Risks of a fever

1.Changes in metabolic pathways and denaturation of body proteins anything above 102°F
2. Seizures may occur at sustained body temperature above 102°F
3. Irreversible brain damage may occur at body temp’s sustained at greater than 106°F
4. Death likely when body temp reaches 109°F

112

What are the four cardinal signs of inflammation?

redness, swelling, pain, heat

113

If inflammation advantageous or not? Explain.

It is advantageous because it acts like a flushing of the infected or damaged tissue, allowing pathogens to enter the lymphatic system and initiating an immune response.

114

What is a pyrogen?

A molecule that induces fever

115

What are the three stages of a fever?

Onset, stadium, defervscence

116

What is one benefit of a fever?

Inhibits growth of bacteria/viruses, promotes interferon activity as well as adaptive immunity activity, accelerates tissue repair, and increases production of CAMs

117

____ immunity (cell-mediated) T-cells differentiate into helper T-cells and cytotoxic T-cells

cellular

118

_____ immunity (antibody-mediated) B-cells develop into plasma cells to synthesize and release antibodies

humoral

119

______ immunity Initiated upon entry of foreign substance (or antigen) into the body

adaptive

120

______ structure A substance that causes the formation of and binds to antibodies

antigen

121

_____ (antigenic determinants) is the specific site on the antigen that is recognized by immune cells

epitope

122

_____ are small molecules that must attach to a carrier molecule to trigger a response within a host

haptens

123

When antigens bind T cells (induce an immune response) they are called ______.

immunogens

124

____ antigens are found on protein capsids of viruses, cell walls of bacteria and fungi, within bacterial toxins, and plasma membranes of tumor and cancerous cellls.

Foreign

125

____ antigens are found on every healthy cell of the body and do not bind the bodies immune components

self

126

_______ caused by immune cells recognizing self-antigens as foreign and initiating an immune response

Autoimmune disorder

127

______ are Any immune cell that functions specifically to communicate the presence of antigen to both helper and cytotoxic T cells

antigen presenting cells (APC)

128

Dendritic cells, macrophages and B cells function as _____.

APCs
Antigen Presenting Cells

129

All nucleated can also act as ____.

APCs

130

MHC also known as ____.

major histocompatibility complex.

131

Antigen presentation requires attachment of antigen to specialized ______.

specialized transmembrane MHC protein

132

______ molecules used by nucleated cells and APCs bind cytotoxic T cells

MHC class I

133

______ molecules used only by APCs bind helper T cells

MHC class II

134

What are two types of adaptive immunity??

cellular and humoral

135

What is an epitope?

site on teh antigen that is recognized by the immune cell

136

What is an autoimmune disorder?

when immune cells recognize self antigens as foregin

137

What types of cells can be APC's?

all nucleated
macrophages
dendritic cells
B cells

138

What does MHC stand for and what is it?

Major Histocompatibility complex, a specialized transmembrane protein needed for antigen presentation

139

_______ are created when Glycoproteins continuously synthesized by Rough ER and then embedded within plasma membrane.

~ endogenous pathway

140

_____ molecules attach peptide fragments randomly while in the RER
When cell is uninfected and healthy, peptide fragments are considered ‘self’ and are ignored by the immune system

MHC class I

141

With MHC class I molecules, when a cell is ____, peptide fragments are from a protein unknown to the immune system thus considered ‘foreign’, which then can initiate an immune response and target the cell for destruction

infected

142

MHC class II molecules:
Glycoprotein continuously synthesized by the Rough ER and then embedded in the plasma membrane (similar to MHC class I)
Considered ________ due to APC having to engulf an exogenous antigen

exogenous pathway

143

____ pathway is the formation and docking of MHC class II molecules in an APC.

exogenous

144

Exogenous ____ brought into cell through endocytosis forming a phogsome. This binds a ____ forming a phagolysosome where protein is digested.

antigen
lysosome

145

T and B cells differ from other immune cells due to their unique ____ complex.

receptor

146

the ___ structure consists of 100,000 receptor complexes per cell and receptor complexes only binding one specific antigen

lymphocyte

147

B cell receptors (BCR) make direct contact with an ___.

antigen

148

T cell receptors (TCR) must first have the ___ processed and presented in the plasma membrane of another type of cell (antigen presenting cell)

antigen

149

Helper T cells contains ____.

CD4 proteins.

150

Cytotoxic T cells contain ______

CD8 proteins

151

____ also contain co-receptors which are necessary for physical interaction with APC’s

T cells

152

Types of T cells

helper t cells
cytoxic t cells
memory t cells
regulatory t cells (Tregs)

153

____ coordinate the immune response helping both cellular and humoral immunity as well as enhancing certain aspects of innate immunity

Helper t cells

154

_____ release chemicals that are toxic to cells resulting in their destruction

cytotoxic t cells

155

______ cause a more rapid response to an antigen when future encounters of the same antigen occur

memory t cells

156

______ function in suppressing the immune response

regulatory t cells (Tregs)

157

Life Events of lymphocytes

formation
activation
effector response

158

Life Events of lymphocytes

Formation of lymphocytes
Both B and T cells formed in red bone marrow
B cells mature in red bone marrow while T cells mature in Thymus
Here they become specific for a foreign antigen
Activation of lymphocytes
Lymphocytes migrate to secondary lymphatic structures where they are housed
Here they are exposed to their specific antigen and become activated
Activation induced replication to form many identical lymphocytes
Effector response
Specific action of the T and B cells help to eliminate the antigen
T cells typically migrate out of secondary structures and to sites of infection
B cells primarily remain within secondary structures and synthesize and release large quantities of antibodies against the antigen. The antibodies enter the blood and lymph and are transported to the site of infection

159

Lymphocytes both b and t cells are formed in the ____.

red bone marrow

160

B cells mature in _____.

red bone marrow

161

T cells mature in ____.

thymus

162

While b and t cells mature they become more specific for a ____.

foreign antigen

163

Lymphocytes migrate to ___ lymphatic structures where they are housed. here they are exposed to their ___ and become activated. Activation induces replication to form many _____ lymphocytes.

migrate
specific antigen
identidcal

164

Specific action of the T and B cells help to ___ the antigen.

eliminate

165

T cells typically migrate out of secondary structures and to sites of ____.

infection

166

B cells primarily remain within secondary structures and synthesize and rlease large quantities of _____ against the antigen. They then enter the blood and lymph and are transported to the site of ___.

antibodies
infection

167

MHC class I proteins bind either self or foreign antigens within the rough ER.
T or F

True

168

MHC class II proteins bind only ‘foreign’ antigens within the Rough ER.
T or F

False

169

B-cell receptors bind antigens directly.
T or F

True

170

T-cells must be presented an antigen after processing through an APC.

T or F

True

171

Helper T-cells have CD8 co-receptors, while cytotoxic T-cells have CD4 co-receptors.

T or F

False

172

B-cells mature in the red bone marrow but T-cells mature in the thymus.

T or F

True

173

B-cells typically migrate to infected area’s while T-cells stay within lymphatic tissue but release antibodies into the blood.

T or F

False

174

Pre-T-lymphocytes considered a _____ because initially have both CD4 and CD8 proteins

double positive

175

T lymphocyte formation and selection Originate in bone marrow then migrate to the ____.

thymus

176

Each T-lymphocyte must be ‘tested’ to determine whether it’s (1) able to bind to the MHC molecule with a presented antigen, as well as whether it (2) binds to only _____ antigens and not ‘self’ antigens

foreign

177

Immature T cells bind with thymic epithelial cells that have MHC molecules and
T cells that bind the MHC survive while those that do not undergo apoptosis

T Lymphocyte Selection
Positive Selection

178

Thymic dendritic cells present self-antigens with MHC class I and II molecules to immature T cells. T cells that bind the self-antigen undergoes apoptosis
Self-tolerance ~ T cells ability to ‘ignore’ molecules of the body or self-antigens

T Lymphocyte Selection
Negative Selection

179

_____ is when T-cells become either Helper T-cells (by losing the CD8 protein) or Cytotoxic T-cells (by losing the CD4 protein).

differentiation

180

After differentiation t cells migrate out of the thymus but are still considered naïve T cells because they have not yet been exposed to their ____.
Activation occurs once a T-cell binds it’s specific antigen

antigen

181

B-cells go through similar formation and selection processes but ____ are not involved and it occurs in the red bone marrow instead of the thymus

MHC

182

Activation of Helper T cells

List

183

Activation of Cytotoxic T cells

List

184

Activation of B cells

List

185

T-cells must under go a double selection in which they are positively selected for MHC binding but negatively selected for ‘self’ antigen binding.

T or F

True

186

If a T-cell loses its CD4 protein, it becomes a helper T-cell.

T or F

False

187

Activation of a helper T-cell depends upon binding of a MHC class I molecule and it’s CD8 co-receptor.

T or F

False

188

IL-2 is released by helper T-cells and acts as an autocrine and paracrine hormone.

T or F

True

189

Both helper and cytotoxic T-cells proliferate into both an active and a memory clone of themselves.


T or F

True

190

B-cells must ingest an antigen and present it with a MHC class I molecule to cytotoxic T-cells to become activated.

T or F

False

191

Activated B-cells proliferate into plasma cells and memory B-cells.

T or F

False

192

Effector response of _____ leave secondary structures after several days of exposure and migrate to site of infection, continuing to release cytokines to regulate other immune cells

t cells

193

____ t cells functions include activating cytotoxic t cells and they enhance formation and activity of innate immune cells.

helper t cells

194

____ t cells functions include destroying infecting cells that display the antigen by releasing granules containing perforin and granzymes (same and NK cells)

cytotoxic

195

_____ have a five day life-span and remain in lymph nodes the entire time, continuously synthesize and release antibodies to circulate throughout the body

plasma cells

196

Antibodies also known as ____ proteins.

immunoglobulin (Ig)

197

_________ are Y-shaped proteins composed of four polypeptide chains (two heavy chains, two light chains)

Immunoglobulins

198

Immmunoglobulins or antibodies contains a ___ region, which is located at teh ends of the arms contain the antigen binding sites.

variable

199

Immunoglobulins or antibodies contain a ___ region which contains the Fc regions which is the portion of the antibody that determines the biological function of the antibody

constant

200

Five types of Immunoglobulins or antibodies

IgG
IgM
IgA
IgD
IgE

201

3 types of antibody action through antigen binding sites

neutralization
agglutination
precipitation

202

_____ is when the antibody covers biologically active portion of microbe or toxin, leaving it ineffective

neutralization

203

____ is when the antibody cross-links cells to form a ‘clump”

agglutination

204

____ is when the antibody cross-links circulating particles forming an insoluble antigen–antibody complex

precipitation

205

____ is when the ~ Fc region of IgG and IgM bind complement proteins causing activation of the complement pathway

complement fixation

206

_____ is when the ~ Fc region of IgG can cause opsonization

*Certain phagocytic cells have receptors for Fc regions of certain antibodies, engulf both antibody and antigen

Opsonization

207

The _____ occurs when Fc region of IgG binds specific NK cells

activation of NK cells

208

NK cell destroys abnormal cell by release of ______ chemicals causing apoptosis

cytotoxic

209

____ major class, makes up 75-85% of antibodies

IgG

210

____ Predominantly in lymph, CSF, serous fluid, peritoneal fluid

IgG

211

____ Can perform any and all functions of antibodies

IgG

212

___ found mostly in blood

IgM

213

____ Most effective at causing agglutination of cells and binding complement

IgM

214

___ is Found in areas exposed to the environment (mucous membranes, tonsils, mucus, saliva, tears and breast milk)

IgA

215

____ is Significant role in protecting the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts

IgA

216

____ Functions as the antigen-specific B cell receptor

IgD

217

____ Also functions to identify when immature B cells may be ready for activation

IgD

218

____ is Formed in response to allergic reactions and to parasitic infections

IgE

219

___ Causes release of histamine and other mediators of inflammation from basophils and mast cells and it attracts eosinophils

IgE

220

Long-lived lymphocytes represent an ‘army’ of thousands against specific antigens and are responsible for _____

immunologic memory

221

_____ is due to subsequent exposure to an antigen occurs more rapidly and produce a more powerful response
Pathogen typically eliminated before disease symptoms develop. This makes adaptive immunity a highly potent protector

secondary response

222

____ are attenuated or dead microorganisms which are effective in developing memory cells

vaccines

223

Measuring immunologic memory is done via ____ in blood serum.

antibody titers

224

_____is a Measurable response of antibody production to the first exposure

primary response

225

____ is the ~ the 3-6 day period which is required for antigen detection, activation, proliferation and differentiation of lymphocytes

lag or latent phase

226

Production of antibodies,___ and ___ occurs within 1-2 weeks

IgG and IgM

227

______ is a Measureable response to subsequent exposure

secondary response

228

Secondary response has a much ___ lag phase due to memory cells.

shorter

229

___ produce much quicker and with a greater proportion of the IgG antibodies in a secondary response.

Antibodies

230

Results from a direct encounter with a pathogen or foreign substance that results in production of _____

memory cells

231

_____ means an ~ individual is directly exposed to the antigen of an infectious agent (active)

naturally acquired

232

____ means the exposure occurs through a vaccine (active)

artifically acquired

233

Two types of active immunity.

naturally acquired
artificially acquired

234

Two types of passive immunity

naturally acquired
artificially acquired

235

_____ is obtained from another individual or animal and does not results in the production of memory cells

passive immunity

236

____ occurs when there is a ~ transfer of antibodies form the mother to the fetus across the placenta (IgG) or to the baby in the mother’s breast milk (IgG, IgM and IgA)
(passive)

naturally acquired

237

______ passive immunity occurs when a serum containing antibodies against a specific antigen is transferred from one individual to another

artificially acquired

238

Cytotoxic T-cells are similar to NK cells because they release perforin and granzymes.

T or F

True

239

The Fc region of an antibody categorizes an antibody into five classes: IgG, IgM, IgA, IgD, and IgE.

T or F

True

240

Antibodies can function by binding of antigens to specific binding sites, or through the use of the Fc region.

T or F

True

241

IgM is the most abundant immunoglobulin.

T or F

False, IgG

242

The primary immunological response has a 3-6 day delay and primarily produces both IgG and IgM within 1-2 weeks.

T or F

True

243

The secondary immunological response is due to memory cells, contains a much shorter lag time and primarily produces IgM.

T or F

False

244

Active immunity doesn’t produce memory cells while passive immunity does.

T or F

False