Flashcards in Chapter 28 Deck (223)
Primary reproductive organs are called _____.
The female gonads are called _____.
The male gonads are called ______.
Gonads produce _____ which create new individuals when merged.
The female gamete is called and ____.
The male gamete is called a ____.
Gonads produce large amounts of ____ which effect maturation, development and changes in teh activity of ________.
reproductive system organs
The female gonads produce the sex hormones, _______ and ________.
The male gonads produce the sex hormone, _______.
The male and female gonads have ______ reproductive organs.
_____ is when the external sex characteristics become more prominent
Females see enlargement of the ______ as a sign of puberty.
In both sexes, _____ hair growth is is a sign of puberty.
In both sexes, fully functional ____ in both sexes are a sign of puberty.
As puberty begins gametes _____.
As puberty begins gonads start secreting _____.
______ stimulates the release of FSH and LH which then stimulate the sex hormones to be released from the gonads.
GnRH stimulates the release of ____ and ____ which then stimulate the sex hormones to be released from the gonads.
FSH and LH
Girls reach puberty generally ___ years before boys.
African american girls tend to hit puberty ___ year earlier than their caucasian counterparts.
Genetics, ______, and overall heath of the individual will affect the timing of puberty.
____ contains primary oocytes surrounded by flattened follicle cells.
Primordial follicles contains primary oocyte which are arrested in the ______.
first meiotic prophase
_____ contains primary oocyte surrounded one or more layers of granulosa cells.
The granulose cells in the primary follicle are ____ shaped.
Primary follicles secrete ____ as it matures.
Primary follicles are surrounded by connective tissue cells called _____ which secrete androgens which are needed to make estrogen.
Thecal cells that surround the primary follicles secrete ____ which is needed to make estrogen.
_____ follicle contains primary oocytes, many layers of granulosa cells and fluid filled space called an antrum.
The fluid filled space in a secondary follicle is called an ____.
Fluid accumulates in the secondary follicle as ____ nears pushing the oocyte to the side of the follicle.
As ovulation nears, the oocytes is pushed to teh side of the secondary follicle where it is surrounded by _____.
In the secondary follicle when the oocyte is pushed to the side it is surrounded by _____, a cluster of follicle cells.
Cumulus oophorus contains the primary oocyte surrounded by the ______ (contains glycoproteins) and corona radiata.
_______ contains a secondary oocyte, numerous layers of granulosa cells and a a large, fluid-filled antrum.
A secondary oocyte located in the mature follicles has complete meiosis 1 and is arrested in the ____ .
_____ forms when a mature follicle ruptures and expels its oocyte (ovulation).
The corpus luteum secretes ____ and ____.
progesterone and estrogen
______ is an ovarian scar composed of connective tissue that forms after the corpus luteum degenerates, a process called luteolysis. The corpus albicans is primarily made of collagen and persists on the ovary for a few months and is usually reabsorbed.
______ is the maturation of primary oocyte to a secondary ooctye.
_____ is when the primordial follicles die, regressing from 1.5 million to 400,000.
Primary oocytes start meiosis but are arrested in _______.
____ (diploid) divide by mitosis to produce primary oocytes.
GnRH stimulates the release of FSH and LH starting the _____.
FSH and LH stimulate ___ primordial follicles to mature into primary follicles.
The follicular phase is from ____ days of the 28 day cycle.
_____ and estrogen are released from follicular cells inhibiting FSH production.
Inhibin and estrogen are released from follicular cells inhibiting ____ production.
____ causes an increase of fluid within the antrum causing a few of the primary follicles to mature into secondary follicles.
As a single secondary follicle matures into a mature follicle, it's primary oocytes finished meoiosis I and forms two cells, _____ and ____.
____ doesn't receive enough cytoplasm to fully mature.
____ receives enough cytoplasm and continues meiosis II until it reaches metaphase II where it is arrested again.
The secondary oocyte receives enough cytoplasm and continues meiosis II until it reach _____ where it is arrested.
Ovulation occurs on day ___ of a 28 day cycle when LH is at its highest secretion rate.
Ovulation occurs when ____ is at its highest secretion rate.
____ is when the secondary oocyte is released from mature follicles due to an increase in fluid within the antrum.
The luteal phase occurs from days ____ of the 28 day cycle.
During the _____ remaining follicle cells in ruptured mature follicles becomes corpus luteum.
During the luteal phase, the ____ secretes progesterone and estrogen needed for the build up of the _____.
During the luteal phase, _____ is also released, which, when added to high amounts of progesterone/estrogen, causes ______ feedback to the hypothalamus and AP.
During the luteal phase, after ____ days corpus luteum regresses and becomes corpus albicans causing a decrease in hormone secretion which triggers ______.
During the luteal phase, menses marks the end of the luteal phase and beginning of the _____.
____ is a females first menstrual cycle and usually occurs between the ages of 11-12.
What hormone is responsible for the maturation of a primary follicles into a secondary follicles.
Secondary oocytes are arrested in which phase of meiosis?
On what day of the cycle does ovulation occur?
How is a secondary oocyte released from a mature follicle?
forced out due to an increase of fluid within antrum
What hormone triggers menstruation?
A decrease in all hormones (specifically estrogen/progesterone)
Steps of Regulation of Ovarian Cycle
Hypothalamus secretes GnRH causing release of FSH and LH from AP
FSH and LH stimulate follicular development
Maturing follicles secrete inhibin and estrogen causing negative feedback on hypothalamus and AP, FSH release decreases
Estrogen stimulates maturation of secondary follicle into mature follicle
Mature follicle produces large amounts (threshold) of estrogen causing positive feedback loop from hypothalamus and AP
LH produced in high amounts from AP which causes ovulation
Corpus luteum forms from ovulated follicle due to LH
Corpus luteum secretes large amounts of progesterone, estrogen and inhibin causing negative feedback to hypothalamus and AP
If oocyte not fertilized, corpus luteum degenerates decreasing hormone levels causing menses and the cycle repeats
____ is the cyclical changes int eh endometrial lining due to estrogen and progesterone.
The length of the menstrual cycle may vary, ___ days with the typical being about ____.
The three phases of the menstrual phase
Days 1-5 of the menstrual cycle is called the _____ phase, is the functional layer of endometrium.
Days 6-14 of the menstrual cycle is called the ____ phase, which is the functional layer begins to develop again.
Days 15-28 of the menstrual cycle is called the ___ phase, which is increased vascularization and development of uterine glands occurs within functional layer.
During the menstrual phase, _____ stimulates FSH and LH secretion during days ____.
During the menstrual phase , days ______, some primordial follicles mature and produce ______.
The functional layer of the endometrium is shed during the _____ phase.
_____ and inhibin inhibit the hypothalamus and anterior pituitary, causing a drop in _____ during the proliferative phase.
One secondary follicle continues to mature and produce ______, during the proliferative phase.
The functional layer of the endometrium is rebuilding during the ______ phase.
The increase in estrogen above threshold stimulates the hypothalamus and anterior pituitary, causing an ______ during the 13-14th days of the proliferative phase.
The LH surge induces ____ during days 13-14 proliferative phase.
The Corpus luteum forms and secretes large amounts of estrogen, progesterone, and inhibin during the ___ phase. Combined, these inhibit GnRH, FSH, and ____ secretion.
During the secretory phase ______ stimulates uterine lining growth.
During the secretory phase if the oocyte is not fertilized, the ______ regresses and hormone levels drop.
What type of follicle secretes a threshold of hormones causing a positive feedback loop to the hypothalamus and AP?
Which hormone causes the corpus luteum to form?
Which hormone causes the proliferative phase of the menstrual cycle?
Which hormone causes the secretory phase of the menstrual cycle?
The ______. contains mucin-secreting glands that help form a thick mucus plug at external os
______ believed to be physical barrier that prevents pathogens from invading the uterus
Mucus plug thins considerable around the time of ______ to allow sperm to more easily enter the uterus
_____ is refraining from sexual intercourse
The ________ requires avoiding sexual intercourse during the time when a woman is ovulating (a few days prior and after due to sperms ability to live for several days within the female body)
________ prevent sperm from entering female body and protect against STI’s
___________ act as chemical barrier methods that kills sperm before they travel to the uterine tubes.
spermicidal foams and gels
_______ structures made of rubber or silicone that are inserted into the vagina and placed over the cervix prior to sexual intercourse
_______ is the production of milk for nursing a baby can prevent ovulation and menstruation for many months after childbirth (must nurse child more than five times a day)
______ are T-shaped, flexible structures inserted into the uterus to prevent fertilization from occurring
Intrauterine devices (IUDs)
______ for contraception are tubal ligation and vasectomy.
Chemical methods for contraception
______ are 28 day packets contain 21 days of low level estrogen and progestins, last 7 days sugar pills
__________ are placed on body delivers regular amount of estrogen and progestin through skin, patch replaced weekly.
_________~ prevents ovulation and thickens mucus around cervix. These are given once every three months, implanted last three years
__________ can be taken within 72 hours after having unprotected intercourse.
morning after pill
The morning after pill inhibits ovulation by delaying it or _____ to prevent implantation.
irritating the uterine lining
______ is used during first 7 weeks of pregnancy
____ blocks progesterone receptors so cannot maintain pregnancy and induces a miscarriage.
Ovulation may take many months to return after stopping these ______.
The low levels of estrogen used in oral contraceptives keeping _____ from spiking and causing ovulation.
When menopause begins, _____ stop maturing, one full year of no menstrual cycle
Menopause usually occurs between _____ years of age.
_____ occurs when estrogen levels begin to drop, periods become irregular or very light.
Reduced hormone production that accompanies menopause causes _____ of reproductive organs and breasts.
Lack of ______ and ______ during menopause also affects other organs and systems.
estrogen and progesterone
Side effects of menopause
Hot flashes, thinning scalp hair, increased facial hair, greater risk for osteoporosis and heart disease
__________ used to be offered to diminish symptoms and risks but now the risks of breast cancer and lack of protection against heart disease outweigh the benefits .
hormone replacement therapy
Ideal temperature for producing/storing sperm is ____C lower than body temp
The ____ achieves keeping sperm at the ideal temperature by moving the testes away from the body when warm and closer to the body when cold.
The scrotum contains ____ smooth muscles.
The scrotum contains two muscles : ______ and _____.
____ is the muscle deep to the skin and superficial fascia in the scrotum.
_____ is part of the spermatic cord, and surround each testis.
The spermatic cord contains what three things?
The _____ is the direct branch from the abdominal aorta within the spermatic cord.
_____ are the veins surrounding the testicular artery.
The ____ Produce sperm and androgens (most common, testosterone)
The outer fibrous capsule called the tunica albuginea covers the testis and projects internally forming the septa, which subdivides the testis into _____.
The outer fibrous capsule is called the _____.
Lobules contain four ________ each, which connect with the rete testis and then the efferent ductules, which carries the sperm to the epididymis.
The seminiferous tubules contains sustentacular cells and ______.
____ cells are non-dividing support cells.
sustentacular (sertoli) cells
Sustentacular cells protect developing sperm by creating the ______.
______ release inhibin when sperm count is high.
sustentacular (sertoli) cells
______ is a dividing germ cell that continuously produce sperm beginning at puberty.
_____ produce hormones called androgens.
Interstitial cells are found in spaces surrounding the ______.
Steps of Hormone Regulation
1. Hypothalamus releases GnRH, stimulating the release of FSH and LH from the AP
2. LH stimulates interstitial cells to secrete testosterone while FSH stimulates the sustentacular cells to secrete androgen-binding protein (ABP)
-ABP binds testosterone to keep it in testes (testes are effectors)
3. Testosterone stimulates spermatogenesis, libido, and development of secondary sex characteristics but also inhibits hypothalamus and AP
4. Sustentacular cells release inhibin in response to an increase in sperm count which inhibits the release of FSH from the AP.
The first step of hormone regulation begins when the hypothalamus releases _______, stimulating the release of FSH and LH from the _____.
During the second step of hormone regulation ____ stimulates interstitial cells to secrete testosterone while ______ stimulates the sustentacular cells to secrete androgen-binding protein (ABP)
____ binds testosterone to keep it in testes (testes are effectors) during the 2nd step of hormone regulation.
During step 3 of hormone regulation ______ stimulates spermatogenesis, libido, and development of secondary sex characteristics but also inhibits hypothalamus and AP
During step 4 of hormone regulation _______ release inhibin in response to an increase in sperm count which inhibits the release of FSH from the AP
What two muscles within the testis help to move them for optimal temperature?
dartos and cremaster
What type of hormone is testosterone?
What type of cell within the seminiferous tubule is a non-dividing, support cell that forms the blood testis barrier?
Where would you find interstitial cells and what do they do?
Outside of the seminiferous tubules and they make androgens
What binds testosterone to keep it in the testis and where does it come from?
Androgen-binding protein (ABP), sustentacular cells
______ is the process of sperm development.
_____ are diploid stem cells that lie near base of tubules
Spermatogonia divide by _______ to produce another spermatogonium and a primary spermatocyte
Primary spermatocyte (_____) undergoes meiosis I to produce 2 secondary spermatocytes (____)
Secondary spermatocytes complete meiosis II to form _____.
______ is the final stage of spermatogenesis when spermatids turn into sperm.
Spermatid sheds excess _______ and nucleus elongates.
____ forms over nucleus during spermiogenesis.
The ______ contains contains digestive enzymes necessary for penetration of the secondary oocyte
During spermiogenesis a ______ ) forms and connects with the midpiece (neck)
a tail (flagellum)
The _______ contains mitochondria necessary for energy production and a centriole.
Sperm now ‘looks’ mature but does not yet have all of the _______ needed to travel through female system
Sperm leave the seminiferous tubules through the ______, which then connects with the efferent ductules, which carry the sperm to the epididymis
Sperm is stored in the epididymis until _____ and capable of being motile.
If sperm are expelled too soon they will not have the ability to travel to the _____
If the sperm is not ejected in a timely manner will be _____ by epididymis
Once sperm have fully matured they travel through the ______.
ductus (vas) deferens
Walls of the _______ contain a muscularis ~ three layers of smooth muscle ~ needed for movement of sperm (sperm not motile until ejaculated)
ductus (vas) deferens
Distal end of ductus deferens enlarges to form ________ which unites with the seminal vesicle to form the ejaculatory duct
The ejaculatory duct opens into the ______.
Seminal fluid is needed to neutralize the acidity of the vagina as well as nourish _______the sperm
______ secrete viscous, alkaline fluid containing: fructose and prostaglandins.
_____ nourishes the sperm.
______ are hormone like substances released from seminal vesicles that promotes widening and dilation of external os of cervix
Seminal vesicles release _____ and _____.
Prostate glands secretes fluid rich in ______, ______, and ______.
prostate-specific antigen (PSA)
____ released in the rich fluids from the prostate gland is a nutrient for the sperms' health.
_____ released in the rich fluids from the prostate gland is an antibiotic that combats urinary tract infections
______ released in the rich fluid from the prostate gland is an enzyme which helps liquefy semen following ejaculation
Prostate specific antigen (PSA)
Bulbourethral glands secrete ____.
____ forms mucus which coats and lubricates the urethra for the passage of sperm
____ is seminal fluid combined with sperm.
Semen is called ____ once released.
Semen normally contains between ____ sperm.
The transit time from release of sperm within seminiferous tubules to release from the body is ____.
Males do not experience the relatively abrupt change in ________ function that females do.
Testes decrease in size during male climacteric slightly which reduces the number of _______, thus decreases the amount of testosterone produced
____ occurs during their 50's and most men experiencing few symptoms.
Some may experience mood swings, decreased sex drive and hot flashes just like women during _____.
The difference between men (male climacteric) and women (menopause) is that men still produce ______ and men women do not.
Hormone reduction is more ______ in men and steep or sudden in women
Prostate enlargement occurs with age and can interfere with ______ and urinary functions
Erectile dysfunction can also occur with ___.
Do spermatogonia undergo mitosis or meiosis?
What is the acrosome cap?
Part of sperm that covers nucleus and contains digestive enzymes needed for secondary oocyte penetration
List the structures the sperm travels through from seminiferous tubules to the prostatic urethra.
Seminiferous tubules, rete testis, efferent ductules, epididymis, vas deferens, ejaculatory duct, prostatic urethra
What three structures form semen?
Seminal vesicles, prostate gland, bulbourethral glands
Name two differences between male climacteric and female menopause.
Males continue to produce gametes, females don’t
Males decrease in hormones slowly, females suddenly drop
Female sexual response begins with the _____ phase.
During the ______ phase the mammary glands, clitoris, vaginal wall, ______ and labia become engorged with blood
bulbs of the vestibule
During the excitement phase the vestibular glands and glands within vagina produce ____ for lubrication
During the excitement phase the uterus shifts from _____ to more erect position
During the excitement phase the Inferior part of _______ constricts slightly.
During the excitement phase the heart rate, blood pressure and respiratory rate increase as ____
During the _____ the both divisions of ANS in control
The ______ is the time period of intense feelings of pleasure and release of tension.
During and orgasm the _____ and ______ contract rhythmically for a few seconds.
Male sexual response begins with the _____.
During the male excitement phase erectile bodies of penis contain venous spaces surrounding a ______
During the male excitement phase _______ stimulation allows blood to enter erectile bodies and fill venous spaces
During the male excitement phase as ______ become engorged the penis become erect.
During the male excitement phase rigid erectile bodies compress veins that drain blood away thus blood cannot leave until ______
sexual excitement ceases
During the male excitement phase the _____, _______ and respiratory rate increase as orgasm nears.
An ____ is the time period of intense feelings of pleasure, release of tension, and expulsion of semen
______ stimulation causes ejaculation during an orgasm.
Rhythmic contractions of smooth muscle in wall of urethra cause ____.
Male reproductive system is an exception to the typical sympathetic/parasympathetic innervation performing _____.
_______ needed for erection, _____ needed for ejaculation.
Reduction of parasympathetic control decreases _____. during the male sexual response.
blood to erectile bodies
sympathetic stimulation contracts central artery and small muscles around erectile tissue forcing blood out, _______
returning penis to its flaccid condition
The ______ is when men cannot attain another erection, lasts for minutes to hours.
Refractory period becomes longer as ____.