Chapter 28 Flashcards Preview

ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY II > Chapter 28 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 28 Deck (223)
1

Primary reproductive organs are called _____.

gonads

2

The female gonads are called _____.

ovaries

3

The male gonads are called ______.

testis

4

Gonads produce _____ which create new individuals when merged.

gametes

5

The female gamete is called and ____.

oocyte

6

The male gamete is called a ____.

sperm

7

Gonads produce large amounts of ____ which effect maturation, development and changes in teh activity of ________.

sex hormone
reproductive system organs

8

The female gonads produce the sex hormones, _______ and ________.

estrogen
progesterone

9

The male gonads produce the sex hormone, _______.

testosterone

10

The male and female gonads have ______ reproductive organs.

accessory

11

_____ is when the external sex characteristics become more prominent

puberty

12

Females see enlargement of the ______ as a sign of puberty.

breasts

13

In both sexes, _____ hair growth is is a sign of puberty.

pubic

14

In both sexes, fully functional ____ in both sexes are a sign of puberty.

reproductive organs

15

As puberty begins gametes _____.

mature

16

As puberty begins gonads start secreting _____.

sex hormones

17

______ stimulates the release of FSH and LH which then stimulate the sex hormones to be released from the gonads.

GnRH

18

GnRH stimulates the release of ____ and ____ which then stimulate the sex hormones to be released from the gonads.

FSH and LH

19

Girls reach puberty generally ___ years before boys.

2 years

20

African american girls tend to hit puberty ___ year earlier than their caucasian counterparts.

1 year

21

Genetics, ______, and overall heath of the individual will affect the timing of puberty.

enviornmental factors

22

____ contains primary oocytes surrounded by flattened follicle cells.

primordial follicle

23

Primordial follicles contains primary oocyte which are arrested in the ______.

first meiotic prophase

24

_____ contains primary oocyte surrounded one or more layers of granulosa cells.

primary follicle

25

The granulose cells in the primary follicle are ____ shaped.

cuboidal

26

Primary follicles secrete ____ as it matures.

estrogen

27

Primary follicles are surrounded by connective tissue cells called _____ which secrete androgens which are needed to make estrogen.

thecal cells

28

Thecal cells that surround the primary follicles secrete ____ which is needed to make estrogen.

androgens

29

_____ follicle contains primary oocytes, many layers of granulosa cells and fluid filled space called an antrum.

secondary

30

The fluid filled space in a secondary follicle is called an ____.

antrum

31

Fluid accumulates in the secondary follicle as ____ nears pushing the oocyte to the side of the follicle.

ovulation

32

As ovulation nears, the oocytes is pushed to teh side of the secondary follicle where it is surrounded by _____.

cumulus oophorus.

33

In the secondary follicle when the oocyte is pushed to the side it is surrounded by _____, a cluster of follicle cells.

cumulus oophorus

34

Cumulus oophorus contains the primary oocyte surrounded by the ______ (contains glycoproteins) and corona radiata.

zona pellucida

35

_______ contains a secondary oocyte, numerous layers of granulosa cells and a a large, fluid-filled antrum.

mature follicles

36

A secondary oocyte located in the mature follicles has complete meiosis 1 and is arrested in the ____ .

metaphase II

37

_____ forms when a mature follicle ruptures and expels its oocyte (ovulation).

corpus luteum

38

The corpus luteum secretes ____ and ____.

progesterone and estrogen

39

______ is an ovarian scar composed of connective tissue that forms after the corpus luteum degenerates, a process called luteolysis. The corpus albicans is primarily made of collagen and persists on the ovary for a few months and is usually reabsorbed.

Corpus albicans

40

______ is the maturation of primary oocyte to a secondary ooctye.

oogenesis

41

_____ is when the primordial follicles die, regressing from 1.5 million to 400,000.

Atresia

42

Primary oocytes start meiosis but are arrested in _______.

prophase I

43

____ (diploid) divide by mitosis to produce primary oocytes.

oogonia

44

GnRH stimulates the release of FSH and LH starting the _____.

ovarian cycle

45

FSH and LH stimulate ___ primordial follicles to mature into primary follicles.

20

46

The follicular phase is from ____ days of the 28 day cycle.

1-13

47

_____ and estrogen are released from follicular cells inhibiting FSH production.

Inhibin

48

Inhibin and estrogen are released from follicular cells inhibiting ____ production.

FSH

49

____ causes an increase of fluid within the antrum causing a few of the primary follicles to mature into secondary follicles.

LH

50

As a single secondary follicle matures into a mature follicle, it's primary oocytes finished meoiosis I and forms two cells, _____ and ____.

polar body
secondary oocyte

51

____ doesn't receive enough cytoplasm to fully mature.

polar body

52

____ receives enough cytoplasm and continues meiosis II until it reaches metaphase II where it is arrested again.

Secondary oocyte

53

The secondary oocyte receives enough cytoplasm and continues meiosis II until it reach _____ where it is arrested.

metaphas II

54

Ovulation occurs on day ___ of a 28 day cycle when LH is at its highest secretion rate.

14

55

Ovulation occurs when ____ is at its highest secretion rate.

LH

56

____ is when the secondary oocyte is released from mature follicles due to an increase in fluid within the antrum.

Ovulation

57

The luteal phase occurs from days ____ of the 28 day cycle.

15-28

58

During the _____ remaining follicle cells in ruptured mature follicles becomes corpus luteum.

luteal phase

59

During the luteal phase, the ____ secretes progesterone and estrogen needed for the build up of the _____.

corpus luteum
uterine lining

60

During the luteal phase, _____ is also released, which, when added to high amounts of progesterone/estrogen, causes ______ feedback to the hypothalamus and AP.

inhibin
negative

61

During the luteal phase, after ____ days corpus luteum regresses and becomes corpus albicans causing a decrease in hormone secretion which triggers ______.

10-13 days
menstruation

62

During the luteal phase, menses marks the end of the luteal phase and beginning of the _____.

follicular phase

63

____ is a females first menstrual cycle and usually occurs between the ages of 11-12.

menarche

64

What hormone is responsible for the maturation of a primary follicles into a secondary follicles.

LH

65

Secondary oocytes are arrested in which phase of meiosis?

metaphase II

66

On what day of the cycle does ovulation occur?

day 14

67

How is a secondary oocyte released from a mature follicle?

forced out due to an increase of fluid within antrum

68

What hormone triggers menstruation?

A decrease in all hormones (specifically estrogen/progesterone)

69

Steps of Regulation of Ovarian Cycle

Hypothalamus secretes GnRH causing release of FSH and LH from AP
FSH and LH stimulate follicular development
Maturing follicles secrete inhibin and estrogen causing negative feedback on hypothalamus and AP, FSH release decreases
Estrogen stimulates maturation of secondary follicle into mature follicle
Mature follicle produces large amounts (threshold) of estrogen causing positive feedback loop from hypothalamus and AP
LH produced in high amounts from AP which causes ovulation
Corpus luteum forms from ovulated follicle due to LH
Corpus luteum secretes large amounts of progesterone, estrogen and inhibin causing negative feedback to hypothalamus and AP
If oocyte not fertilized, corpus luteum degenerates decreasing hormone levels causing menses and the cycle repeats

70

____ is the cyclical changes int eh endometrial lining due to estrogen and progesterone.

menstrual cycle

71

The length of the menstrual cycle may vary, ___ days with the typical being about ____.

21-35
28

72

The three phases of the menstrual phase

menstrual phase
proliferative phase
secretory phase

73

Days 1-5 of the menstrual cycle is called the _____ phase, is the functional layer of endometrium.

menstrual

74

Days 6-14 of the menstrual cycle is called the ____ phase, which is the functional layer begins to develop again.

proliferative

75

Days 15-28 of the menstrual cycle is called the ___ phase, which is increased vascularization and development of uterine glands occurs within functional layer.

secretory

76

Slide 16

?

77

During the menstrual phase, _____ stimulates FSH and LH secretion during days ____.

GnRH
1-5

78

During the menstrual phase , days ______, some primordial follicles mature and produce ______.

1-5
estrogen

79

The functional layer of the endometrium is shed during the _____ phase.

menstrual

80

_____ and inhibin inhibit the hypothalamus and anterior pituitary, causing a drop in _____ during the proliferative phase.

estrogen
FSH

81

One secondary follicle continues to mature and produce ______, during the proliferative phase.

estrogen

82

The functional layer of the endometrium is rebuilding during the ______ phase.

proliferative

83

The increase in estrogen above threshold stimulates the hypothalamus and anterior pituitary, causing an ______ during the 13-14th days of the proliferative phase.

LH surge

84

The LH surge induces ____ during days 13-14 proliferative phase.

ovulation

85

The Corpus luteum forms and secretes large amounts of estrogen, progesterone, and inhibin during the ___ phase. Combined, these inhibit GnRH, FSH, and ____ secretion.

secretory
LH

86

During the secretory phase ______ stimulates uterine lining growth.

progesterone

87

During the secretory phase if the oocyte is not fertilized, the ______ regresses and hormone levels drop.

corpus luteum

88

What type of follicle secretes a threshold of hormones causing a positive feedback loop to the hypothalamus and AP?

mature follicles

89

Which hormone causes the corpus luteum to form?

LH

90

Which hormone causes the proliferative phase of the menstrual cycle?

estrogen

91

Which hormone causes the secretory phase of the menstrual cycle?

progeterone

92

The ______. contains mucin-secreting glands that help form a thick mucus plug at external os

cervix

93

______ believed to be physical barrier that prevents pathogens from invading the uterus

Mucus plug

94

Mucus plug thins considerable around the time of ______ to allow sperm to more easily enter the uterus

ovulation

95

_____ is refraining from sexual intercourse

Abstinence

96

The ________ requires avoiding sexual intercourse during the time when a woman is ovulating (a few days prior and after due to sperms ability to live for several days within the female body)

rythym method

97

Barrier methods

condoms
spermicidal foams
diaphragms

98

________ prevent sperm from entering female body and protect against STI’s

condoms

99

___________ act as chemical barrier methods that kills sperm before they travel to the uterine tubes.

spermicidal foams and gels

100

_______ structures made of rubber or silicone that are inserted into the vagina and placed over the cervix prior to sexual intercourse

diaphragms

101

_______ is the production of milk for nursing a baby can prevent ovulation and menstruation for many months after childbirth (must nurse child more than five times a day)

lactation

102

______ are T-shaped, flexible structures inserted into the uterus to prevent fertilization from occurring

Intrauterine devices (IUDs)

103

______ for contraception are tubal ligation and vasectomy.

surgical methods

104

Chemical methods for contraception

oral contraceptive
estrogen/progestin patches
injected/implanted progestins
morning-after pill
mifepristone

105

______ are 28 day packets contain 21 days of low level estrogen and progestins, last 7 days sugar pills

oral contraceptives

106

__________ are placed on body delivers regular amount of estrogen and progestin through skin, patch replaced weekly.

Estrogen/progestin patches

107

_________~ prevents ovulation and thickens mucus around cervix. These are given once every three months, implanted last three years

Injected/implanted progestins

108

__________ can be taken within 72 hours after having unprotected intercourse.

morning after pill

109

The morning after pill inhibits ovulation by delaying it or _____ to prevent implantation.

irritating the uterine lining

110

______ is used during first 7 weeks of pregnancy

mifepristone

111

____ blocks progesterone receptors so cannot maintain pregnancy and induces a miscarriage.

mifepristone

112

Ovulation may take many months to return after stopping these ______.

injected/implanted progestins

113

The low levels of estrogen used in oral contraceptives keeping _____ from spiking and causing ovulation.

spiking

114

When menopause begins, _____ stop maturing, one full year of no menstrual cycle

gametes

115

Menopause usually occurs between _____ years of age.

45-55

116

_____ occurs when estrogen levels begin to drop, periods become irregular or very light.

perimenopause

117

Reduced hormone production that accompanies menopause causes _____ of reproductive organs and breasts.

atrophy

118

Lack of ______ and ______ during menopause also affects other organs and systems.

estrogen and progesterone

119

Side effects of menopause

Hot flashes, thinning scalp hair, increased facial hair, greater risk for osteoporosis and heart disease

120

__________ used to be offered to diminish symptoms and risks but now the risks of breast cancer and lack of protection against heart disease outweigh the benefits .

hormone replacement therapy

121

Ideal temperature for producing/storing sperm is ____C lower than body temp

2-3

122

The ____ achieves keeping sperm at the ideal temperature by moving the testes away from the body when warm and closer to the body when cold.

scotum

123

The scrotum contains ____ smooth muscles.

two

124

The scrotum contains two muscles : ______ and _____.

dartos
cremaster muscle

125

____ is the muscle deep to the skin and superficial fascia in the scrotum.

dartos muscle

126

_____ is part of the spermatic cord, and surround each testis.

cremaster muscle

127

The spermatic cord contains what three things?

testicular artery
pampinform plexus
autonomic nerves

128

The _____ is the direct branch from the abdominal aorta within the spermatic cord.

testicular artery

129

_____ are the veins surrounding the testicular artery.

pampinform plexus

130

The ____ Produce sperm and androgens (most common, testosterone)

testes

131

The outer fibrous capsule called the tunica albuginea covers the testis and projects internally forming the septa, which subdivides the testis into _____.

250 lobules

132

The outer fibrous capsule is called the _____.

tunica albuginea

133

Lobules contain four ________ each, which connect with the rete testis and then the efferent ductules, which carries the sperm to the epididymis.

seminiferous tubules

134

The seminiferous tubules contains sustentacular cells and ______.

spermatogonia

135

____ cells are non-dividing support cells.

sustentacular (sertoli) cells

136

Sustentacular cells protect developing sperm by creating the ______.

blood-testis barrier.

137

______ release inhibin when sperm count is high.

sustentacular (sertoli) cells

138

______ is a dividing germ cell that continuously produce sperm beginning at puberty.

spermatogonia

139

_____ produce hormones called androgens.

interstitial cells

140

Interstitial cells are found in spaces surrounding the ______.

seminiferous tubules.

141

Steps of Hormone Regulation

1. Hypothalamus releases GnRH, stimulating the release of FSH and LH from the AP
2. LH stimulates interstitial cells to secrete testosterone while FSH stimulates the sustentacular cells to secrete androgen-binding protein (ABP)
-ABP binds testosterone to keep it in testes (testes are effectors)
3. Testosterone stimulates spermatogenesis, libido, and development of secondary sex characteristics but also inhibits hypothalamus and AP
4. Sustentacular cells release inhibin in response to an increase in sperm count which inhibits the release of FSH from the AP.

142

The first step of hormone regulation begins when the hypothalamus releases _______, stimulating the release of FSH and LH from the _____.

GnRH
Anterior Pituitary

143

During the second step of hormone regulation ____ stimulates interstitial cells to secrete testosterone while ______ stimulates the sustentacular cells to secrete androgen-binding protein (ABP)

LH
FSH

144

____ binds testosterone to keep it in testes (testes are effectors) during the 2nd step of hormone regulation.

ABP

145

During step 3 of hormone regulation ______ stimulates spermatogenesis, libido, and development of secondary sex characteristics but also inhibits hypothalamus and AP

testosterone

146

During step 4 of hormone regulation _______ release inhibin in response to an increase in sperm count which inhibits the release of FSH from the AP

sustentacular cells

147

What two muscles within the testis help to move them for optimal temperature?

dartos and cremaster

148

What type of hormone is testosterone?

androgen

149

What type of cell within the seminiferous tubule is a non-dividing, support cell that forms the blood testis barrier?

sustentacular cells

150

Where would you find interstitial cells and what do they do?

Outside of the seminiferous tubules and they make androgens

151

What binds testosterone to keep it in the testis and where does it come from?

Androgen-binding protein (ABP), sustentacular cells

152

______ is the process of sperm development.

spermatogenesis

153

_____ are diploid stem cells that lie near base of tubules

spermatogonia

154

Spermatogonia divide by _______ to produce another spermatogonium and a primary spermatocyte

mitosis

155

Primary spermatocyte (_____) undergoes meiosis I to produce 2 secondary spermatocytes (____)

diploid
haploid

156

Secondary spermatocytes complete meiosis II to form _____.

spermatids

157

______ is the final stage of spermatogenesis when spermatids turn into sperm.

spermiogenesis

158

Spermatid sheds excess _______ and nucleus elongates.

cytoplasm

159

____ forms over nucleus during spermiogenesis.

acrosome cap

160

The ______ contains contains digestive enzymes necessary for penetration of the secondary oocyte

acrosome cap

161

During spermiogenesis a ______ ) forms and connects with the midpiece (neck)

a tail (flagellum)

162

The _______ contains mitochondria necessary for energy production and a centriole.

midpiece

163

Sperm now ‘looks’ mature but does not yet have all of the _______ needed to travel through female system

characteristics

164

Sperm leave the seminiferous tubules through the ______, which then connects with the efferent ductules, which carry the sperm to the epididymis

rete testis

165

Sperm is stored in the epididymis until _____ and capable of being motile.

fully mature

166

If sperm are expelled too soon they will not have the ability to travel to the _____
If the sperm is not ejected in a timely manner will be _____ by epididymis

oocyte
reabsorbed

167

Once sperm have fully matured they travel through the ______.

ductus (vas) deferens

168

Walls of the _______ contain a muscularis ~ three layers of smooth muscle ~ needed for movement of sperm (sperm not motile until ejaculated)

ductus (vas) deferens

169

Distal end of ductus deferens enlarges to form ________ which unites with the seminal vesicle to form the ejaculatory duct

ampulla

170

The ejaculatory duct opens into the ______.

prostatic urethra

171

Seminal fluid is needed to neutralize the acidity of the vagina as well as nourish _______the sperm

nourish

172

______ secrete viscous, alkaline fluid containing: fructose and prostaglandins.

seminal vesicles

173

_____ nourishes the sperm.

fructose

174

______ are hormone like substances released from seminal vesicles that promotes widening and dilation of external os of cervix

prostaglandins

175

Seminal vesicles release _____ and _____.

fructose
prostaglandins

176

Prostate glands secretes fluid rich in ______, ______, and ______.

citric acid
seminal plasmin
prostate-specific antigen (PSA)

177

____ released in the rich fluids from the prostate gland is a nutrient for the sperms' health.

citric acid

178

_____ released in the rich fluids from the prostate gland is an antibiotic that combats urinary tract infections

seminal plasmin

179

______ released in the rich fluid from the prostate gland is an enzyme which helps liquefy semen following ejaculation

Prostate specific antigen (PSA)

180

Bulbourethral glands secrete ____.

mucin

181

____ forms mucus which coats and lubricates the urethra for the passage of sperm

mucin

182

____ is seminal fluid combined with sperm.

semen

183

Semen is called ____ once released.

ejaculate

184

Semen normally contains between ____ sperm.

200-500 million

185

The transit time from release of sperm within seminiferous tubules to release from the body is ____.

2 weeks

186

Males do not experience the relatively abrupt change in ________ function that females do.

reproductive system

187

Testes decrease in size during male climacteric slightly which reduces the number of _______, thus decreases the amount of testosterone produced

interstitial cells

188

____ occurs during their 50's and most men experiencing few symptoms.

male climacteric

189

Some may experience mood swings, decreased sex drive and hot flashes just like women during _____.

male climacteric

190

The difference between men (male climacteric) and women (menopause) is that men still produce ______ and men women do not.

gametes

191

Hormone reduction is more ______ in men and steep or sudden in women

gradual

192

Prostate enlargement occurs with age and can interfere with ______ and urinary functions

sexual

193

Erectile dysfunction can also occur with ___.

age

194

Do spermatogonia undergo mitosis or meiosis?

mitosis

195

What is the acrosome cap?

Part of sperm that covers nucleus and contains digestive enzymes needed for secondary oocyte penetration

196

List the structures the sperm travels through from seminiferous tubules to the prostatic urethra.

Seminiferous tubules, rete testis, efferent ductules, epididymis, vas deferens, ejaculatory duct, prostatic urethra

197

What three structures form semen?

Seminal vesicles, prostate gland, bulbourethral glands

198

Name two differences between male climacteric and female menopause.

Males continue to produce gametes, females don’t
Males decrease in hormones slowly, females suddenly drop

199

Female sexual response begins with the _____ phase.

excitement phase

200

During the ______ phase the mammary glands, clitoris, vaginal wall, ______ and labia become engorged with blood

excitement
bulbs of the vestibule

201

During the excitement phase the vestibular glands and glands within vagina produce ____ for lubrication

mucin

202

During the excitement phase the uterus shifts from _____ to more erect position

anteverted position

203

During the excitement phase the Inferior part of _______ constricts slightly.

vaginal wall

204

During the excitement phase the heart rate, blood pressure and respiratory rate increase as ____

orgasm nears

205

During the _____ the both divisions of ANS in control

excitement phase

206

The ______ is the time period of intense feelings of pleasure and release of tension.

orgasm

207

During and orgasm the _____ and ______ contract rhythmically for a few seconds.

vagina
uterus

208

Male sexual response begins with the _____.

excitement phase

209

During the male excitement phase erectile bodies of penis contain venous spaces surrounding a ______

central artery

210

During the male excitement phase _______ stimulation allows blood to enter erectile bodies and fill venous spaces

Parasympathetic

211

During the male excitement phase as ______ become engorged the penis become erect.

venous spaces

212

During the male excitement phase rigid erectile bodies compress veins that drain blood away thus blood cannot leave until ______

sexual excitement ceases

213

During the male excitement phase the _____, _______ and respiratory rate increase as orgasm nears.

heart rate
blood pressure

214

An ____ is the time period of intense feelings of pleasure, release of tension, and expulsion of semen

orgasm

215

______ stimulation causes ejaculation during an orgasm.

sympathetic

216

Rhythmic contractions of smooth muscle in wall of urethra cause ____.

ejaculation

217

Male reproductive system is an exception to the typical sympathetic/parasympathetic innervation performing _____.

opposite functions

218

_______ needed for erection, _____ needed for ejaculation.

parasympathetic
sympathetic

219

Reduction of parasympathetic control decreases _____. during the male sexual response.

blood to erectile bodies

220

sympathetic stimulation contracts central artery and small muscles around erectile tissue forcing blood out, _______

returning penis to its flaccid condition

221

The ______ is when men cannot attain another erection, lasts for minutes to hours.

refractory period

222

Refractory period becomes longer as ____.

men age

223

___ do not have a refractory period.

women