Lab Practical 2 Flashcards Preview

ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY II > Lab Practical 2 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lab Practical 2 Deck (222)
1

The _____ is a series of highly branched passage ways that conduct air to the structures for gas exchange.

Respiratory tract

2

The _____ respiratory tract goes from the nose to the pharynx.

upper

3

The ____ respiratory tract runs from the larynx to the alveoli.

lower

4

The _____ of the lungs rest on the diaphragm.

base

5

The ____ of the lungs is sightly superior and posterior to the clavicles.

apex

6

The ____ of the lungs is on the mediastinal surface where bronchi, pulmonary vessels, and nerves enter.

hilum

7

The ____ are organs composed of tiny air sacs (alveoli) where gas exchange occurs.

lungs

8

Which lung is larger?

the right lung

9

_____ pleura is the outer layer of the pleural membrane and lines the interior of the thoracic cavity and superior surface of the diaphragm.

Parietal

10

____ pleura is the inner layer of pleural membrane that adheres to the lungs.

visceral

11

_____ is the space between parietal and visceral membranes and is filled with serous fluid.

pleural cavity

12

_____ is the air filled space within the skull that filters, warms, and moistens inhaled air.

nasal cavity

13

______ is the bony processes that curl into the nasal cavity from the lateral walls creating passage ways _____ through the nasal cavity.

Nasal conchae
meatuses

14

______ membrane line most of the respiratory tract.

mucous

15

The mucous membrane is composed of what 5 things.

mucous
epithelium
basement membrane
goblet cells
lamina propria

16

Lamina propria is composed of _____ connective tissue.

areolar CT

17

Goblet cells secrete ______.

mucous

18

_________ are air filled cavities within the skull bones surrounding the nasal cavity

paranasal sinueses

19

______ is the passageway between the nasal cavity and larynx.

pharynx

20

The three parts of the pharynx.

nasopharynx
oropharynx
laryngopharynx

21

Oropharynx and laryngopharynx are lined with ______.

stratified squamous

22

_____ is the cartilage framed enlargement at the top of the trachea which houses the vocal cords.

larynx

23

The _____ is a flap like structure that closes when swallowing.

epiglottis

24

The _____ within the larynx supports the vocal chords.

arytenoid cartilage

25

All larynx cartilages are ______ except the epiglottis which is made of ______ cartilage.

hyaline
elastic

26

False vocal cords (________) are the upper folds that do not produce sound.

vestibular folds

27

True vocal cords (_______) are the lower folds that produce sound.

vocal folds

28

The ______ is the opening between the vocal folds.

rima glottidis

29

The _____ extends from the larynx downward, anterior to the esophagus, into the thoracic cavity.

trachea

30

The trachea branches into the _____.

right and left main bronchi

31

The trachea contains approximately 20 C shaped rings of _____.

hyaline cartilage

32

_____ contains pseudostratified columnar epithelium

mucosa

33

The _____ contains areolar tissue, blood vessels, nerve endings, serous and mucous glands, lymphatic tissue and cartilage.

submucosa

34

Adventitia is composed of _____.

elastic connective tissue

35

The ____ bronchioles are the smallest of air conducting tubes.

terminal

36

The ____ bronchioles are small branches off of terminal bronchioles that have alveoli in their walls.

respiratory

37

_____ are part of the respiratory bronchioles made only of alveoli.

alveoloar ducts

38

The _____ are teh terminal structures of respiratory tract where gases are exchanged with blood.

alveoli

39

Alveoli consist of _____ epithelium.

simple squamous

40

The epithelium gets progressively ____ moving from nose to alveoli.

thinner

41

Nasal cavity, sinuses, nasopharynx, inferior portion of larynx, main bronchi and lobar bronchi are lined with ______.

pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium

42

Segmental bronchi, smaller bronchi, and large bronchioles
are lined with ______.

simple ciliated columnar

43

Terminal and respiratory bronchioles are lined with ______.

simple ciliated cuboidal epithelium

44

Alveolar ducts and alveoli are made of _____.

simple squamous epithelium

45

______ are lined with simple cuboidal epithelium and contain smooth muscle.

bronchioles

46

_____ is the movement of air into the lungs.

inspiration

47

_____ and diaphragm muscles contract causing the expansion of the lungs. Air is pulled into the lungs

external intercostals

48

____ inspiration requires five musches.

forced
i.e. pectoralis minor

49

____ is movement of air out of the lungs.

expiration

50

_____ and diaphragm relax allowing the lungs to recoil due to elastic fibers. Air is forced out of the lungs.

external intercostals

51

____ expiration requires five other muscles, which includes: internal intercostals, external obliques.

forced

52

_____ volumes measure volume of air exchanged with each inhalation and expiration

Respiratory volumes

53

_____ is a normal inhalation or exhalation. Normal for men and women?

Tidal volume
Male = 500 ml
Female 500 ml

54

______ is the amount of air forcibly inhaled after a normal tidal inhalation. Normal for men and women?

Inspiratory Reserve Volume
Male = 3000 ml
Female = 1900 ml

55

_____ is the amount of air forcibly exhaled after a normal tidal exhalation. Normal for men and women?

Expiratory Reserve Volume
Male = 1200 ml
Female 700 ml

56

____ is the amount of air still left in the lungs after the expiratory reserve volume is forced out. Normal for men and womens?

Residual Volume
Male = 1200 ml
Female = 1100 ml

57

_____ is the sum of two or more respiratory volumes.

respiratory capacties

58

Tidal Volume + Inspiratory Reserve Volume =

Inspiratory Capacity
Male = 3600 ml
Female 2400 ml

59

_____ is the max amount of air inhaled after a tidal exhalation.

inspiratory capacity

60

Expiratory Reserve Volume + Residual Volume =

Functional residual volume
Male = 2400 ml
Female = 1800 ml

61

______ is the volume of air remaining in lungs after a tidal exhalation.

Functional Residual Capacity

62

Inspiratory Reserve Volume + Expiratory Reserve Volume + Tidal Volume =

Vital Capacity
Male 4800 ml
Female 3100 ml

63

_____ is the total amount of exchangeable air with pulmonary ventilation.

vital capacity

64

Inspiratory Reserve Volume + Expiratory Reserve Volume + Tidal Volume + Residual Volume =

Total lung capacity
Male = 6000 ml
Female = 4200 ml

65

____ is the total amount of exchangeable air with pulmonary ventilation plus the air still remaining in the lungs after maximum exhalation.

total lung capacity

66

_____ filter blood of waste.

kidneys

67

____ transports liquid waste from kidneys to bladder (10 inches long)

ureters

68

____ is the muscular sac that stores up to 1 liter of urine.

urinary bladder

69

____ is how urine leaves the bladder and body.

urethra

70

____ are two symmetrical, bean shaped, reddish-brown organs

kidneys

71

The right kidney is about ___ lower than the left due to the liver.

2 cm

72

The kidney has a _____ made of dense irregular connective tissue.

fibrous capsule

73

In the kidney, the ___ is the concave medial border, where the renal aretery and vein, nerves and ureters connect to kidney.

hilum

74

The superior ends of the ureters expand to form a funnel shaped sac within the hilum called the ____.

renal pelvis

75

The renal pelvis branches into a few larger tubes called ____.

major calyces
singular calyx

76

The major calyces branch into the smaller tubes called ____.

minor calyces

77

The two regions of the kidney.

renal medulla
renal cortex

78

The nephrons are found in the ____.

renal cortex

79

The functional filtration units of the kidneys are called ____.

nephrons

80

Nephrons contain renal corpuscle and ___.

renal tubule

81

Urine formation starts in the ____.

glomerulus (renal corpuscle)

82

Blood enter the glomerulus through the _____ arteriole and exits through the ____ arteriole.

afferent arteriole
efferent arteriole

83

Water and certain substances are filtered out of the glomerulus and into the ______.

glomerular capsule

84

The ____ is the visceral layer of the glomerular capsule is composed of ______ (octopus like cell that wraps around the glomerular capillaries)

glomerulus
podocytes

85

Thin _____ allow filtrate leaving the capillary through the _____ into the capsular space.

filtration slits
fenestrations

86

The juxtaglomerular apparatus is important to _____ regulation and filtrate formation.

blood pressure

87

The juxtaglomerular apparatus contains ____ cells and macula densa.

granular cell

88

____ cells are modified smooth muscle cells of the afferent arteriole.

granular cells

89

____ is modified epithelial cells in the DCT where it contacts the granular cells.

Macula densa

90

Filtrate travels through the _____ and into the nephron loop

proximal convoluted tubule

91

The ____ contains a descending and ascending limb

nephron loop

92

The nephron loop flows into the ______, which carries the urine to the collecting duct.

distal convoluted tubule

93

____ nephrons are renal corpuscles near the peripheral edge with a short nephron loop barely enters medulla.

cortical

94

____ nephrons are renal corpuscles near medullary border of cortex with a long nephron loop extending deep into the medulla.

juxtamedullary

95

The ureters have three tunics

mucosa
muscularis
adventitia

96

Muscularis is made of ___.

smooth muscle

97

The _____ of the ureter is formed by transitional epithelium and lamina propria.

mucosa

98

The four tunics of the urinary bladder.

mucosa
submucosa
muscularis
adventitia

99

In the urinary bladder the mucosa is made of ____.

transitional tissue

100

The submucosa of the urinary bladder is made of _____.

dense irregular CT

101

The muscularis of the urinary bladder is the ____ muscle.

detrusor

102

The urinary bladder contains a triangular area called the ____.

trigone

103

In the urinary bladder each corner of the trigone has openings; two where the ____ enter the bladder and one that extends down into the ___.

ureters
urethra

104

The internal urethral sphincter is ____, smooth muscle.

involuntary

105

The external urethral sphincter is ____, skeletal muscle.

voluntary

106

The female urethra is ___ cm long and the male urethra is 19 cm long.

4cm

107

Urine is composed of ___% water and 5% solutes.

95%

108

The average daily volume of urine is ____ L, minimum of 0.5 L.

1-2 L

109

The pH of urine ranges from _____ and the average is a pH of 6.0

4.5 - 8.0

110

Normal specific gravity (density) of urine is ______.

1.003-1.035

111

A specific gravity below 1.010 indicates ____.

hydrated

112

A specific gravity above 1.020 indicates _____.

dehydrated

113

The color of urine can range from clear to dark yellow, dependent upon concentration of _____.

urobilin

114

____ of urine is due to bacteria, cellular material and proteins, crystalizations of salts, and vaginal secretions.

turbidity

115

Urinoid is the ___ of urine, ammonia smell if bacteria present, fruity if ketones from fatty acid metabolism present.

normal smell

116

A ____ is a rapid and simple assay that can reveal significant physiological problems.

urinalysis

117

A high pH could result in a person who has been vomiting excessively, a person with a urinary tract infection, or _____.

kidney failure

118

A low pH could result from diarrhea, ketoacidosis or ___.

starvation.

119

____ in the urine is not a normal occurrence and could indicate an infection, renal trauma, cancer, kidney stones, or be the result of several other causes.

blood

120

______ are not normally found in urine, and are generally associated with UTI

leukocytes

121

____ in urine is a good indicator that the patient has a UTI.

nitrates

122

____ is normally found in urine in low concentrations. Persistent higher concentrations of protein in urine can indicate kidney failure or other serious disease, but can also be caused by menstruation and vigorous exerices.

protein

123

____ is not a normal constituent of urine, as it is normally metabolized by the liver. Therefore the appearance in the urine can be an indicator of liver disease or bile duct obstruction.

billirubin

124

_____ are not normal constituents of urine, but can occur in patients who have experienced frequent vomiting, diarrhea, pregnancy, or have digestive distrubances. High levels are a good indicator of diabetic ketoacidosis.

ketones

125

_____ is not a normal constituent of urine and high levels indicate diabetes.

glucose

126

____ is normal up to 1 mg/dl, but elevated levers of urobilin can indicate liver disease or bile duct obstruction, but can be associated with UTIs.

urobilinogen

127

The ____ canal is a muscular tube about 30 feet in length that digests and absorbs food.

alimentary canal

128

_____ organs aid in the digestive functions.

accessory organs

129

GI tract wall is composed of 4 layers.

mucosa
submucosa
muscularis
serosa

130

The GI tract wall muscularis is composed of two layers of ___.

smooth muscle

131

The submuscosa of the GI tract wall is composed of areolar and ____.

dense irregular ct

132

The serosa is composed of ____.

areolar ct

133

The ____ initiates chemical and mechanical digestion.

oral cavity

134

The ____ is the area between the teeth/gums and lips

vestibule

135

The ___ is the roof of the mouth.

palate

136

The ___ is made of enamel and projects beyond the gums.

crown

137

The gums are called the ____.

gingiva

138

the ___ anchors the tooth to the jaw.

root

139

The tooth is held to jaw bones by ______.

periodontal ligaments

140

___ forms mass of tooth, similar to bone

dentin

141

____ is the connective tissue in the center of tooth.

pulp

142

The ___ gland is anterior/inferior to each ear and secretes amylase.

parotid

143

The ____ gland is on the floor of the mouth, inferior to tongue and secretes mucus.

sublingual

144

The parotid gland is made of ____ cells.

serous

145

The sublingual gland is made of ____ cells.

mucous

146

The _____ gland is on the floor of the mouth, inside the surface of lower jaw.

submandibular

147

The submandibular gland secretes ______ and is made of both serous and mucous cells.

salivary amylase
mucous

148

The ______ is a ring of smooth muscle between pharynx and esophagus.

superior esophageal sphincter

149

_____ is a ring of smooth muscle between esophagus and stomach.

inferior esophageal sphincter

150

The mucosa of the esophageal walls is made of _____.

stratified squamous

151

The order of the small intestines in order from stomach to large intestines.

duodenum
jejunum
ileum

152

Largest part of small intestines

ileum

153

Smallest part of small intestines

duodenum

154

The ____ is the fan shaped folds of perioteneum that suspends jejunum and ileum from posterior abdominal wall.

messentery proper

155

_____ is a layer of fat that covers most of the abdominal organs.

Greater omentum

156

____ produces bile to emulsify fats.

liver

157

____ stores bile.

gallbladder

158

The _____ extends horizontally across the posterior abdominal wall (behind the stomach).

pancreas

159

The ____ secretes pancreatic juices for digestion and hormones to aide in endocrine function.

pancreas

160

The ____ lies next to sacrum and follows its curvature past the coccyx.

rectum

161

The ____ forms the last 2.5 - 4 cm of large intestines.

anal canal

162

The ____ is the opening of the anal canal , contains the internal (________) and external (_______) sphincters.

anus
involuntary
voluntary

163

The somatic cells contain ___ of chromosomes.

23 pairs = 46 chromosomes

164

There are __ pairs of autosomes.

22

165

____ contain genes that code for cellular functions as well as human characteristics (eye color, hair color, height).

autosomes

166

Chromosomes that contain the same genes are _____.

homologous

167

1 pair of _____ chromosomes. Girls are XX and boys are ____.

sex
XY

168

Within each pair of chromosomes their is one chromosome from the ____ and 1 chromosome from the _____.

mother and father

169

Somatic cells replicate and divide through _____.

mitosis

170

____ cells have 23 pairs of chromosomes.

diploid cells

171

Phases of mitosis

interphase
prophase
metaphase
anaphase
telophase
2 identical daughter cells

172

Two nuclei reform poles

telophase

173

chromosomes align with their centromeres on the equator and attach to the spindle

metaphase

174

chromatids of each chromosome separate into daughter chromosomes and move to opposite poles

anaphase

175

dna replication

interphase

176

Sex cells replicate and divide through ____

meiosis

177

___ divides teh cells only once.

mitosis

178

___ divides teh cells twice.

meiosis

179

_____ produces 2 daughter cells that are genetically identical.

mitosis

180

_____ produces 4 daughter cells that are genetically different.

meiosis

181

_____ produces daughter cells that are diploid.

mitosis

182

_____ produces daughter cells that are haploid (contains 23 chromosomes)

meiosis

183

____ includes a process called crossing over where genetic material is exchanged between homologous chromosomes.

meiosis

184

In ___ the nucleus dissolves and replicated DNA condenses.

prophase

185

Chromosomes form a double line on either side of the equator instead of lining up on the equator in ____ during metaphase

meiosis

186

_____ is the random alignment of homologous chromosomes.

independent assortment

187

____ of meiosis II does not contain crossing over.

prophase

188

____ sister chromatids separated.

anaphase

189

_____ is the maturation of primary oocyte to a secondary oocyte.

oogenesis

190

Of the four daughter cells produced, only ___ fully matures.

one

191

______ production of sperm.

spermatogenesis

192

_____ is the transmission of genetic characteristics from parent to child.

heredity

193

_____ are discrete units of DNA that provide the instructions for the production of specific proteins.

genes

194

___ is the location of the gene on a strand of DNA

locus

195

____ are variants of one gene (you inherit a combination of two from your parents)

alleles

196

____ alleles are expressed while recessive alleles are masked.

dominant

197

____ alleles are only expressed if present on both homologous chromosomes.

recessive

198

If alleles are identical the individual is said to be ______.

homozygous

199

If alleles are not identical (a person contains both a dominant and a recessive allele for the same gene) the individual is said to be _____.

heterozygous

200

_____ is the box used to sort out the inheritance patterns.

punnet squares

201

If either the father of mother contains both dominant alleles there is a ____% chance the children will have brown eyes.

100%

202

______ is the genetic make up of an individual.

genotype

203

_____ is the physical expression of the genotype.

pheontype

204

______ is when the dominant allele is always expressed in the phenotype, regardless of whether the individual is homozygous or heterozygous for that trait. Not all inherited traits follow this simple pattern but instead involve the interaction of multiple genes

strict dominant recessive inheritance

205

_____ is when the phenotype of heterozygous alleles is intermediate between the homozygous dominant or recessive allele

incomplete dominance

206

_____ is when two or more alleles appear to be equally dominant.

codominant

207

______ is when a ~ phenotype of heterozygous alleles is intermediate between the homozygous dominant or recessive allele. It can have three phenotypes.

incomplete dominance
homozygous dominant
homozygous recessive
heterozygous

208

Sickle cell is an ____ dominant trait.

incomplete

209

Normal hemoglobin is represented by ____. Abnormal hemoglobin is represented by ___.

A
a
AA - normal erythrocytes
Aa - sickle cell carrier
aa - exhibit sickle cell anemia

210

____ is when two or more alleles appear to be equally dominant.

codominant

211

Blood types A and B are ____.

codominant

212

Blood type O is ____.

recessive

213

______ is when multiple genes interact to produce a phenotypic trait. Genes could be on same chromosome or on different chromosomes.

polygenic inheritance

214

_____ traits are expressed by genes on the X or Y chromosomes.

sex linked

215

X chromosomes contain ____ genes, most not involved in sex determination.

900-1400

216

Y chromosome contains ____ genes, most code for male specific development.

70-200

217

____ recessive traits always expressed in males, only expressed by females if recessive allele found on both X chromosomes. Females tend to be carriers if they have only one recessive allele.

x linked

218

sex linked trait punnet square

??

219

The environment can influence genetic traits, especially during _____ and _____ development.

embryonic and fetal

220

Radiation, drugs, virsuses or alcohol and potential cause harm to the fetus and interfere with its normal _____.

phenotypic development

221

______ is characterized by mental retardation and distinctive facial features.

fetal alcohol syndrome

222

Poor nutrition may also affect brain development and _____ after birth.

growth patterns.