Flashcards in Lab Practical 2 Deck (222)
The _____ is a series of highly branched passage ways that conduct air to the structures for gas exchange.
The _____ respiratory tract goes from the nose to the pharynx.
The ____ respiratory tract runs from the larynx to the alveoli.
The _____ of the lungs rest on the diaphragm.
The ____ of the lungs is sightly superior and posterior to the clavicles.
The ____ of the lungs is on the mediastinal surface where bronchi, pulmonary vessels, and nerves enter.
The ____ are organs composed of tiny air sacs (alveoli) where gas exchange occurs.
Which lung is larger?
the right lung
_____ pleura is the outer layer of the pleural membrane and lines the interior of the thoracic cavity and superior surface of the diaphragm.
____ pleura is the inner layer of pleural membrane that adheres to the lungs.
_____ is the space between parietal and visceral membranes and is filled with serous fluid.
_____ is the air filled space within the skull that filters, warms, and moistens inhaled air.
______ is the bony processes that curl into the nasal cavity from the lateral walls creating passage ways _____ through the nasal cavity.
______ membrane line most of the respiratory tract.
The mucous membrane is composed of what 5 things.
Lamina propria is composed of _____ connective tissue.
Goblet cells secrete ______.
_________ are air filled cavities within the skull bones surrounding the nasal cavity
______ is the passageway between the nasal cavity and larynx.
The three parts of the pharynx.
Oropharynx and laryngopharynx are lined with ______.
_____ is the cartilage framed enlargement at the top of the trachea which houses the vocal cords.
The _____ is a flap like structure that closes when swallowing.
The _____ within the larynx supports the vocal chords.
All larynx cartilages are ______ except the epiglottis which is made of ______ cartilage.
False vocal cords (________) are the upper folds that do not produce sound.
True vocal cords (_______) are the lower folds that produce sound.
The ______ is the opening between the vocal folds.
The _____ extends from the larynx downward, anterior to the esophagus, into the thoracic cavity.
The trachea branches into the _____.
right and left main bronchi
The trachea contains approximately 20 C shaped rings of _____.
_____ contains pseudostratified columnar epithelium
The _____ contains areolar tissue, blood vessels, nerve endings, serous and mucous glands, lymphatic tissue and cartilage.
Adventitia is composed of _____.
elastic connective tissue
The ____ bronchioles are the smallest of air conducting tubes.
The ____ bronchioles are small branches off of terminal bronchioles that have alveoli in their walls.
_____ are part of the respiratory bronchioles made only of alveoli.
The _____ are teh terminal structures of respiratory tract where gases are exchanged with blood.
Alveoli consist of _____ epithelium.
The epithelium gets progressively ____ moving from nose to alveoli.
Nasal cavity, sinuses, nasopharynx, inferior portion of larynx, main bronchi and lobar bronchi are lined with ______.
pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium
Segmental bronchi, smaller bronchi, and large bronchioles
are lined with ______.
simple ciliated columnar
Terminal and respiratory bronchioles are lined with ______.
simple ciliated cuboidal epithelium
Alveolar ducts and alveoli are made of _____.
simple squamous epithelium
______ are lined with simple cuboidal epithelium and contain smooth muscle.
_____ is the movement of air into the lungs.
_____ and diaphragm muscles contract causing the expansion of the lungs. Air is pulled into the lungs
____ inspiration requires five musches.
i.e. pectoralis minor
____ is movement of air out of the lungs.
_____ and diaphragm relax allowing the lungs to recoil due to elastic fibers. Air is forced out of the lungs.
____ expiration requires five other muscles, which includes: internal intercostals, external obliques.
_____ volumes measure volume of air exchanged with each inhalation and expiration
_____ is a normal inhalation or exhalation. Normal for men and women?
Male = 500 ml
Female 500 ml
______ is the amount of air forcibly inhaled after a normal tidal inhalation. Normal for men and women?
Inspiratory Reserve Volume
Male = 3000 ml
Female = 1900 ml
_____ is the amount of air forcibly exhaled after a normal tidal exhalation. Normal for men and women?
Expiratory Reserve Volume
Male = 1200 ml
Female 700 ml
____ is the amount of air still left in the lungs after the expiratory reserve volume is forced out. Normal for men and womens?
Male = 1200 ml
Female = 1100 ml
_____ is the sum of two or more respiratory volumes.
Tidal Volume + Inspiratory Reserve Volume =
Male = 3600 ml
Female 2400 ml
_____ is the max amount of air inhaled after a tidal exhalation.
Expiratory Reserve Volume + Residual Volume =
Functional residual volume
Male = 2400 ml
Female = 1800 ml
______ is the volume of air remaining in lungs after a tidal exhalation.
Functional Residual Capacity
Inspiratory Reserve Volume + Expiratory Reserve Volume + Tidal Volume =
Male 4800 ml
Female 3100 ml
_____ is the total amount of exchangeable air with pulmonary ventilation.
Inspiratory Reserve Volume + Expiratory Reserve Volume + Tidal Volume + Residual Volume =
Total lung capacity
Male = 6000 ml
Female = 4200 ml
____ is the total amount of exchangeable air with pulmonary ventilation plus the air still remaining in the lungs after maximum exhalation.
total lung capacity
_____ filter blood of waste.
____ transports liquid waste from kidneys to bladder (10 inches long)
____ is the muscular sac that stores up to 1 liter of urine.
____ is how urine leaves the bladder and body.
____ are two symmetrical, bean shaped, reddish-brown organs
The right kidney is about ___ lower than the left due to the liver.
The kidney has a _____ made of dense irregular connective tissue.
In the kidney, the ___ is the concave medial border, where the renal aretery and vein, nerves and ureters connect to kidney.
The superior ends of the ureters expand to form a funnel shaped sac within the hilum called the ____.
The renal pelvis branches into a few larger tubes called ____.
The major calyces branch into the smaller tubes called ____.
The two regions of the kidney.
The nephrons are found in the ____.
The functional filtration units of the kidneys are called ____.
Nephrons contain renal corpuscle and ___.
Urine formation starts in the ____.
glomerulus (renal corpuscle)
Blood enter the glomerulus through the _____ arteriole and exits through the ____ arteriole.
Water and certain substances are filtered out of the glomerulus and into the ______.
The ____ is the visceral layer of the glomerular capsule is composed of ______ (octopus like cell that wraps around the glomerular capillaries)
Thin _____ allow filtrate leaving the capillary through the _____ into the capsular space.
The juxtaglomerular apparatus is important to _____ regulation and filtrate formation.
The juxtaglomerular apparatus contains ____ cells and macula densa.
____ cells are modified smooth muscle cells of the afferent arteriole.
____ is modified epithelial cells in the DCT where it contacts the granular cells.
Filtrate travels through the _____ and into the nephron loop
proximal convoluted tubule
The ____ contains a descending and ascending limb
The nephron loop flows into the ______, which carries the urine to the collecting duct.
distal convoluted tubule
____ nephrons are renal corpuscles near the peripheral edge with a short nephron loop barely enters medulla.
____ nephrons are renal corpuscles near medullary border of cortex with a long nephron loop extending deep into the medulla.
The ureters have three tunics
Muscularis is made of ___.
The _____ of the ureter is formed by transitional epithelium and lamina propria.
The four tunics of the urinary bladder.
In the urinary bladder the mucosa is made of ____.
The submucosa of the urinary bladder is made of _____.
dense irregular CT
The muscularis of the urinary bladder is the ____ muscle.
The urinary bladder contains a triangular area called the ____.
In the urinary bladder each corner of the trigone has openings; two where the ____ enter the bladder and one that extends down into the ___.
The internal urethral sphincter is ____, smooth muscle.
The external urethral sphincter is ____, skeletal muscle.
The female urethra is ___ cm long and the male urethra is 19 cm long.
Urine is composed of ___% water and 5% solutes.
The average daily volume of urine is ____ L, minimum of 0.5 L.
The pH of urine ranges from _____ and the average is a pH of 6.0
4.5 - 8.0
Normal specific gravity (density) of urine is ______.
A specific gravity below 1.010 indicates ____.
A specific gravity above 1.020 indicates _____.
The color of urine can range from clear to dark yellow, dependent upon concentration of _____.
____ of urine is due to bacteria, cellular material and proteins, crystalizations of salts, and vaginal secretions.
Urinoid is the ___ of urine, ammonia smell if bacteria present, fruity if ketones from fatty acid metabolism present.
A ____ is a rapid and simple assay that can reveal significant physiological problems.
A high pH could result in a person who has been vomiting excessively, a person with a urinary tract infection, or _____.
A low pH could result from diarrhea, ketoacidosis or ___.
____ in the urine is not a normal occurrence and could indicate an infection, renal trauma, cancer, kidney stones, or be the result of several other causes.
______ are not normally found in urine, and are generally associated with UTI
____ in urine is a good indicator that the patient has a UTI.
____ is normally found in urine in low concentrations. Persistent higher concentrations of protein in urine can indicate kidney failure or other serious disease, but can also be caused by menstruation and vigorous exerices.
____ is not a normal constituent of urine, as it is normally metabolized by the liver. Therefore the appearance in the urine can be an indicator of liver disease or bile duct obstruction.
_____ are not normal constituents of urine, but can occur in patients who have experienced frequent vomiting, diarrhea, pregnancy, or have digestive distrubances. High levels are a good indicator of diabetic ketoacidosis.
_____ is not a normal constituent of urine and high levels indicate diabetes.
____ is normal up to 1 mg/dl, but elevated levers of urobilin can indicate liver disease or bile duct obstruction, but can be associated with UTIs.
The ____ canal is a muscular tube about 30 feet in length that digests and absorbs food.
_____ organs aid in the digestive functions.
GI tract wall is composed of 4 layers.
The GI tract wall muscularis is composed of two layers of ___.
The submuscosa of the GI tract wall is composed of areolar and ____.
dense irregular ct
The serosa is composed of ____.
The ____ initiates chemical and mechanical digestion.
The ____ is the area between the teeth/gums and lips
The ___ is the roof of the mouth.
The ___ is made of enamel and projects beyond the gums.
The gums are called the ____.
the ___ anchors the tooth to the jaw.
The tooth is held to jaw bones by ______.
___ forms mass of tooth, similar to bone
____ is the connective tissue in the center of tooth.
The ___ gland is anterior/inferior to each ear and secretes amylase.
The ____ gland is on the floor of the mouth, inferior to tongue and secretes mucus.
The parotid gland is made of ____ cells.
The sublingual gland is made of ____ cells.
The _____ gland is on the floor of the mouth, inside the surface of lower jaw.
The submandibular gland secretes ______ and is made of both serous and mucous cells.
The ______ is a ring of smooth muscle between pharynx and esophagus.
superior esophageal sphincter
_____ is a ring of smooth muscle between esophagus and stomach.
inferior esophageal sphincter
The mucosa of the esophageal walls is made of _____.
The order of the small intestines in order from stomach to large intestines.
Largest part of small intestines
Smallest part of small intestines
The ____ is the fan shaped folds of perioteneum that suspends jejunum and ileum from posterior abdominal wall.
_____ is a layer of fat that covers most of the abdominal organs.
____ produces bile to emulsify fats.
____ stores bile.
The _____ extends horizontally across the posterior abdominal wall (behind the stomach).
The ____ secretes pancreatic juices for digestion and hormones to aide in endocrine function.
The ____ lies next to sacrum and follows its curvature past the coccyx.
The ____ forms the last 2.5 - 4 cm of large intestines.
The ____ is the opening of the anal canal , contains the internal (________) and external (_______) sphincters.
The somatic cells contain ___ of chromosomes.
23 pairs = 46 chromosomes
There are __ pairs of autosomes.
____ contain genes that code for cellular functions as well as human characteristics (eye color, hair color, height).
Chromosomes that contain the same genes are _____.
1 pair of _____ chromosomes. Girls are XX and boys are ____.
Within each pair of chromosomes their is one chromosome from the ____ and 1 chromosome from the _____.
mother and father
Somatic cells replicate and divide through _____.
____ cells have 23 pairs of chromosomes.
Phases of mitosis
2 identical daughter cells
Two nuclei reform poles
chromosomes align with their centromeres on the equator and attach to the spindle
chromatids of each chromosome separate into daughter chromosomes and move to opposite poles
Sex cells replicate and divide through ____
___ divides teh cells only once.
___ divides teh cells twice.
_____ produces 2 daughter cells that are genetically identical.
_____ produces 4 daughter cells that are genetically different.
_____ produces daughter cells that are diploid.
_____ produces daughter cells that are haploid (contains 23 chromosomes)
____ includes a process called crossing over where genetic material is exchanged between homologous chromosomes.
In ___ the nucleus dissolves and replicated DNA condenses.
Chromosomes form a double line on either side of the equator instead of lining up on the equator in ____ during metaphase
_____ is the random alignment of homologous chromosomes.
____ of meiosis II does not contain crossing over.
____ sister chromatids separated.
_____ is the maturation of primary oocyte to a secondary oocyte.
Of the four daughter cells produced, only ___ fully matures.
______ production of sperm.
_____ is the transmission of genetic characteristics from parent to child.
_____ are discrete units of DNA that provide the instructions for the production of specific proteins.
___ is the location of the gene on a strand of DNA
____ are variants of one gene (you inherit a combination of two from your parents)
____ alleles are expressed while recessive alleles are masked.
____ alleles are only expressed if present on both homologous chromosomes.
If alleles are identical the individual is said to be ______.
If alleles are not identical (a person contains both a dominant and a recessive allele for the same gene) the individual is said to be _____.
_____ is the box used to sort out the inheritance patterns.
If either the father of mother contains both dominant alleles there is a ____% chance the children will have brown eyes.
______ is the genetic make up of an individual.
_____ is the physical expression of the genotype.
______ is when the dominant allele is always expressed in the phenotype, regardless of whether the individual is homozygous or heterozygous for that trait. Not all inherited traits follow this simple pattern but instead involve the interaction of multiple genes
strict dominant recessive inheritance
_____ is when the phenotype of heterozygous alleles is intermediate between the homozygous dominant or recessive allele
_____ is when two or more alleles appear to be equally dominant.
______ is when a ~ phenotype of heterozygous alleles is intermediate between the homozygous dominant or recessive allele. It can have three phenotypes.
Sickle cell is an ____ dominant trait.
Normal hemoglobin is represented by ____. Abnormal hemoglobin is represented by ___.
AA - normal erythrocytes
Aa - sickle cell carrier
aa - exhibit sickle cell anemia
____ is when two or more alleles appear to be equally dominant.
Blood types A and B are ____.
Blood type O is ____.
______ is when multiple genes interact to produce a phenotypic trait. Genes could be on same chromosome or on different chromosomes.
_____ traits are expressed by genes on the X or Y chromosomes.
X chromosomes contain ____ genes, most not involved in sex determination.
Y chromosome contains ____ genes, most code for male specific development.
____ recessive traits always expressed in males, only expressed by females if recessive allele found on both X chromosomes. Females tend to be carriers if they have only one recessive allele.
sex linked trait punnet square
The environment can influence genetic traits, especially during _____ and _____ development.
embryonic and fetal
Radiation, drugs, virsuses or alcohol and potential cause harm to the fetus and interfere with its normal _____.
______ is characterized by mental retardation and distinctive facial features.
fetal alcohol syndrome