Flashcards in Chapter 21 Deck (50)
Lymphatic function aids the _____ system by transporting/housing lymphocytes and other immune cells that help defend against pathogens
Lymphatic function aids the _____ system by returning excess fluid to venous blood to maintain fluid balance, blood volume and blood pressure
The lymphatic function has ____ function of its own.
15% of plasma lost to interstitial fluid when traveling through blood capillaries which is ___ liters a day.
Interstitial fluid moves into lymphatic capillaries due to _____ pressure
______ differ from blood capillaries:
larger in diameter
lack basement membrane
overlapping endothelial cells
Overlapping endothelial cells act as one way flaps to allow fluid to enter but prevent its loss in ____.
_____ hold endothelial cells to near by structures
Movement of lymph through vessels due to:
______ and respiratory pump. Pulsatile movement of blood in nearby arteries and rhythmic contraction of _______ in walls of larger lymph vessels (trunks and ducts)
skeletal muscle pumps
____ filter lymph as it passes through vessels
____ lympatic trunks drains head and neck
____ lymphatic truns drain upper limbs, breasts and superficial thoracic walls.
____ lymphatic trunks drain deep thoracic structures.
____ lymphatic trunks drain most abdominal structures.
____ lymphatic trunk drains lower limbs, abdominopelvic wall and pelvic organs.
_____ are involved in formation and maturation of lymphocytes
* red bone marrow and thymus
____ ~ serve to house both lymphocytes and other immune cells following their formation
*Lymphatic cells trapped within a reticular extracellular connective tissue matrix
*Sites where an immune response is initiated
*Lymph nodes, spleen, tonsils, lymphatic nodules and MALT
____ located witin the spongy bone of the flat bones of the skull, vertebrae, ribs, sternm, epiphyses of the humerus and femur.
red bone marrow
____ function in t lymphocyte maturation.
Thymus grows until puberty and then cells regress and are replaced by ____.
Cortex of the thymus contains ____ t lymphocytes
Medulla of the thymus contains ____ t lymphocytes
_____ secrete thymic hormones (thymulin) that participates in the maturation of T-lymphocytes
____ are the main lymphatic organ
____ are Small, round encapsulated structures located along the pathway of lymph vessels
____ filter lymph of unwanted substances.
There are between ___ and ___ lymph nodes throughout the body.
500 to 700
_______ house both proliferating B-lymphocytes and macrophages
Medulla has strands of connective tissue fibers that support B and T-lymphocytes and macrophages (called ______)
The germinal centers are surrounded by the _____ which contains T-lymphocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells
Lymph enters through ____ lymph vessels then leaves through one efferent lymph vessel
The ____ is responsible for phagocytosis of bacteria and other foreign materials in the blood as part of the body's defense
The ____ is responsible for Phagocytosis of old defective erythrocytes and platelets from circulation
The ____ acts as a blood reservoir and storage site for both erythrocytes and platelets
Largest lymphatic organ
The spleen lacks a cortex and medulla and is instead divided into _____.
red and white pulp
______ consists of spherical cluster of T-lymphocytes, B-lymphocytes and macrophages which surround a central artery
_____ contains erythrocytes, platelets, macrophages and B-lymphocytes
Blood Flow through spleen: splenic artery, central artery (of white pulp), splenic sinusoid (of red pulp), sinusoid capillaries, venules, splenic vein
____ are Un-encapsulated lymphatic structures containing lymphatic nodules
_____ Protect against foreign substances inhaled or ingested
Invaginated outer edges called ______ increase surface area
Small oval clusters of lymphatic cells not surrounded by capsule
______ located in lamina propria of mucosa
MALT (mucosa-associated lymphatic tissue) ~
_____ Defend against foreign substances that come in contact with mucosal membranes
____ found in Gastrointestinal, respiratory, urinary and reproductive tracts
_____ ~ scattered lymphatic nodules found in every body organ and within wall of the appendix
diffuse lymphatic tissue
MALT defends against ______ that come in contact with mucosal membranes.
_____ are MALT found in the small intestines, primarily in the ileum.