Flashcards in FINAL FINAL Deck (273)
Gonads produce ______ which create new individuals when merged.
The female gamete is an _______.
The male gamete is a _____.
_____ is when primordial follicles regress from 1.5 million --> 400,000.
Spermatids are formed in ______.
The ____ of sperm contains mitochondria necessary for energy production and a centriole.
_______ stimulation is needed for an erection and ______ is needed for ejaculation.
Prostrate enlargement occurs with age and can interferes with ______ and ______ functions.
sexual and urinary
_____ follicles are surrounded by thecal cells which secrete androgens needed to make estrogen.
At the end of the pre-embryonic period a ______ is left.
In the pre-embryonic stage it begins with fertilization which leads to a ______, then to a blastocyst.
A _____ is formed when the zona pellucida starts to degenerate allowing fluid to enter the morula forming a fluid filled cavity.
The two distinct component of a blastocyst?
trophoblast and embryoblast
_____ is responsible for relaxation of ligamentous joints such as sacroiliac joins and pubic symphysis.
____ is responsible for functional layer growth and prevention of menstruation
Fetal blood and maternal blood ___, but bloodstreams so are so close they allow for the exchanges of gases and nutrients.
do not mix unless something goes wrong
Left and right sides of the embryo curve and migrate toward the midline during ______
_____ are contractions (braxton-hicks) are not strong enough to results in the three stages of True labor.
Labor is also known as ________.
Increased levels of progesterone lead to an increase in breathing rate, increasing the mothers ______
____ is the establishment of primary germ layers by the epiblast.
______ is when uterine contractions that increase in intensity and regulatory and that results in changes to the cervix
The _____ causes the mother to metabolize more fatty acids, saving glucose for the fetus.
______ are hormone like substances released from seminal vesicles that promotes widening and dilation of external os of cervix
Labor - positive feedback
Positive feedback mechanism
Contractions intensify causing fetus’s head to push against the cervix
This stimulates the stretching and dilation of the cervix
This stimulates the release of more oxytocin
Contractions also stimulate the placenta to secrete more prostaglandins
End of positive feedback is when the fetus and placenta are expelled from the body
True labor has three stages:
dilation, expulsion, placental
The longest of the three stages of true labor.
During the ____ stage the amniotic sac releases the amniotic fluid (water breaking)
The three primary germ layers
The pituitary gland is made by the _____.
At the end of the 1st trimester the mother is carrying a ______.
A series of mitotic divisions resulting in an increase in cell number, but not an increase in the overall size of the structure is called ______.
At the 16-cell stage (4 divisions) the zygote is called a _____ and enters the ______ of the uterus.
The left ventricular wall is thicker than the right ventricular wall because ________.
pump blood with greater pressure
If the vagal nerve to the heart was cut what would happen?
It would cause a increase in heart rate
Which does NOT help maintain lymph flow?
a. smooth muscle contraction
c. beating cilia against pseudostratified epithelium
c. skeleton muscle contraction
beating cilia against pseudostratified epithelium
The presence of fatty chyme in the small intestines in the small intestines stimulates it to release ______ to release _________.
a. gastrin/ liver
b. cck / gallblader secretion
c. secretin / stomach secretion
d. cck / pancreatic secretion
B. CCK/gallbladder secretion
An actively contracting muscle will produce acid molecules lowering pH causing hemoglobin to release _______ oxygen.
more oxygen and the curve will shift to the right
Oxygen Saturation curve
The stomach lining is protected from stomach acid by the ________.
a. bicarbonate layer
b. gap junctions
Negative feedback inhibition occurs when :
TH to AP
The zona glomerulsa of the adrenal cortex helps to regulate:
salt/water balance (aldosterone)
Reduced hormone concentration in the blood often causes target cells to _______.
upregulate receptors to increase sensitivity
To compensate for significant blood loss the ANS triggers ________.
vasoconstriciton and an increased heart rate
How are NA levels and BP related?
increased NA levels, cause increased blood volume, increase BP
The mechanism that establishes the medullary osmotic gradient depends mostly on the permability properties of the ______.
loop of henle (nephron loop)
Insulin glucose curve
Chris secreted less insulin or his insulin has less effect
Which structure in the heart gives rise to this electrical area on the action potential curve (plateau)?
VG calcium in
VG potassium out
balancing each other = plateau
Which is an example of a positive feedback loop?
Opening NA channel causing more ions to flow in channels MORE MORE MORE
Which would happen to a women that lacked thecal cells?
The organ involved in reducing the chances of autoimmune disorder?
When someone loses a lot of blood they tend to not urinate for a few days because. _________.
Glomerular BP decreased
After eating too much it can be hard to breath because _______.
full stomach impedes diaphragm contraction
Influence blood pressure:
excessive rbc production would increase blood pressure
Increased release in both glucose and fatty acid are not caused by ______.
PTH - only influences calcium release
Release of breast milk occurs when ______ cause _______ contract.
oxytocin causes the release
contracts myoepitheal cells?
Not a function of liver:
synthesize chylomicrons - in intestines
The lungs do not collapse do not collapse after exhalation because
intrapleural pressure is lower than intrapulmonary
When blood becomes more alkaline than normal the renal tubules secrete ______.
bicarbonate and reabsorbing H+ ions
If a patient loses a lot of blood the aorta will have less stretch, what will happen?
cardiac output will increase
Ovulation occurs when during your 28 day cycle?
What triggers menstruation?
a decrease in all hormone, but especially estrogen and progesterone
In the scrotum cools down the testicular artery via the ______.
______ cells are non dividing support cells that protect developing sperm by creating the blood testis barrier.
The flow of sperm
Seminiferous tubules --> rete testis --> efferent ducturles --> epididymis --> vas deferens --> ejaculatory duct --> prostatic urethra
Where would you find the intersitial cells and what do they do.
outside of the seminiferous tubules and they make androgens
What binds testosterone to keep it in the testis and where does it come from?
ABP, susententacular cells
What two muscles within the testis help to move them for optimal temperature?
dartos and cremaster
Semen normally contain ______ sperm.
______ is needed to neutralize the acidity of the vagina as well as nourish the sperm.
During the ______ phase of female sexual response mammary glands, clitoris, vaginal wall, bulbs of the vetibule and labia become engorged; vestibular glands within vagina produce mucin for lubrication; uterus shifts from anteverted position to more erect position, inferior part of vaginal wall constricts slightly.
At the 16 cell stage (4 divisions) the zygote is called a ______. This division takes place within the zona pellucida.
During implantation what two layers does the trophoblast divide into?
cytorophoblast and synctiotrophoblast
The embryoblast differentiates into what two layers?
hypoblast and epiblast
The _____ is formed by both cytotrophoblast cells and synctiotrophoblast (trophoblast)
chorion, which is the fetal layer of the placenta
What is the function of relaxin?
promotes blood vessel growth in uterus
Estrogen/progesterone/HPL cause _____.
increased insulin resistance
___ is produced by the synctiotrophoblast and signals corpus luteum to continue secreting estrogen/progesterone to thicken and maintain uterine lining.
The extraembryonic membrane contains the yolk sac, _____ and chorion.
The _______ develops into the pituitary gland.
The placenta secrete HCT, CRH, relaxing, and estrogen/progesterone, but not _____.
What two hormones cause labor to increase?
estrogen and oxytocin
Which hormone is responsible for a mothers increase in oxygen consumption?
True Breast Milk vs Colustrum
several growth factors
essential fatty acids
specific enzymes for digestion
high in IgA
lower in fat
higher in calcium
_______ digestion involves specific enzymes to break chemical bonds, making smaller molecules for absorption.
______ digestion is when food is physically broken down. (no chemical changes)
______ is the alternating contraction sequence causing the pushing of ingested material through the GI tract.
______ is the kneading motion within different regions of the GI tract that lack directional movement.
All ____ decidous teeth are lost and relaced with ____ permanent teeth.
_____ do not included in the deciduous teeth.
ICPM stands for
incisor/ canines/ premolars/ molars
This is the dental formula for most children
This is the dental formula for most adults
The superior 1/3 of the esophagus is _____.
skeletal muscle fibers
The middle 1/3 of the esophagus is ______.
skeletal and smooth muscle
The bottom 1/3 of the esophagus is _____.
______ line the stomach lumen and extend into gastric pits. They secrete alkaline product with mucin to prevent ulceration of the stomach lining.
surface mucous cells
______ line base of gastric pits into the gastric glands. They produce an acidic mucin to help maintain the secretion of the HCl.
mucous neck cells
The ______ reflex is initiated by the thought, smell, sight, or taste of food.
_____ absorb lipid and lipid-soluble vitamins that can't be absorbed into the bloodstream.
The ______ absorb water and electrolytes from remaining digestive material.
Pancreatic ____ digest starch.
Pancreastic ____ digest triglycerides.
______ needed for protein digestion.
____ are needed for digestion of nucleotides.
_____ is released in response to fat
_____ is released in response to acidic chyme.
Wave of peristalic muscular contraction moves through pylorus toward pyloric sphincter creating a pressure gradient to ______ the spincter.
Pepsinogen (inactive) is released into the lumen of the GI and converted to _______.
_____ nutrients must be obtained and absorbed by the digestive system.
_____ nutrients are provided by biochemical processes within the boy.
Glucose is a _____ nutrient.
Cholesterol is a _____ nutrient.
____ adds bulk to the GI tract and stimulates peristalsis of LI facilitating defections.
____ nitrogen balance is when more nitrogen is absorbed than is excreted.
i.e. growth, pregnancy, recovering from injury
____ nitrogen balance is when more nitrogen is excreted than absorbed.
i.e. malnutrition and blood loss
Water soluble vitamins
B and C
Fat soluble vitamins
Vitamin ___ for blood clotting
_____ minerals are needed at greater than 100 mg/day.
_____ minerals require less and 100 mg/day.
_______ provides visual for portions of the types of foods we need.
The _____ provides the serving sizes for the types of foods we need.
In the post absorptive state _____ is released.
In the absorptive state ____ is released.
_____ soluble levels can reach toxic levels.
Insulin stimulate glycogenesis in the liver and _____.
Insulin stimulates _______ and inhibits lipolysis in adipocytes.
Insulin stimulates most cells to increase _____ uptake increasing the rate of protein synthesis.
Glucagon stimulated glycogenolysis and ______ in liver cells.
______ are organic molecules required for normal metabolism.
_____ are inorganic ions with diverse functions within the body.
Fatty acids are ____ to monoglycerides to re form triglycerides than wrapped in protein to form a chylomicron. Then the chylomicron enters the lacteal.
______ starts chemical digestion of carbohydrates.
_____ is released when food enters the stomach by G cells.
______ nerve plexus innervates smooth muscle and glands of mucosa as well as submucosa.
submucosal nerve plexus
_____ nerve plexus is located between outer longitudinal and inner circular layers.
myenteric nerve plexus
The _____ system contains both submucosal and myenteric nerve plexi and are short reflexes.
Retroperitoneal organs: DARP
The stomach release ______ which is needed for absorption of vitamin B12.
The stomach mechanically digests the contents of the stomach into a semifluid mass called _____.
Chemical digestion of both protein and fat occurs in the _____.
Absorption in the stomach is limited to small, nonpolar substances such as _____.
alcohol and aspirin
_____ released when pH of stomach is too low. This inhibits acid secretion by directly affecting parietal, ECL and G cells.
Somatostatin ____ HCL release from chief cells.
____ contributes to the breakdown of plant cell walls.
The surface of the small intestine is increased by circular folds, villi, microvilli (brush border), but not _______.
Gastroileal reflex stimulates movement of contents ______.
ileum to cecum
fesces to rectum????
Blood mixes as it passes ____ the hepatic lobules between the hepatic artery and hepatic portal vein.
CCK stimulates smooth muscle in gallbladder wall to cause release of ___.
CCk relaxes _______ of hepatopancreatic ampulla.
BMR varies due to
lean body mass
levels of various hormones in blood
_____ makes you feel full.
_____ makes you feel hungry.
_______ induce the release of leptin from stomach lining.
_____ also release leptin.
____ contain all essential amino acids.
There are ___ essential and ___ nonessential amino acids in the body that makes up proteins.
_____ is needed for formation/maintenance of the skeleton, muscle contraction, exocytosis of neurotransmitters, and blood clotting.
______ stimulates the release of energy reserves from hepatocytes/adipocytes. (gluconeogenesis, glycogenolysis, lipolysis)
_______ stimulate the release of energy reserves from hepatocytes/adipocytes.
_____ stimulates the release of energy reserves from hepatocytes/adipocytes.
________ converting non-carbohydrates into glucose (type of interconversion).
During lipid metabolism, ________, is when fatty acids are broken down to acetyl CoA.
Cholesterol is synthesized into bile salts and released with bile in the _____.
____ is used as a component of the plasma membrane.
A precursor for steroid hormones, bile salts, and vitamin D.
_____ can be synthesized by the liver.
______ opposes HDL.
VLDL and LDL
The only essential fatty acids are?
omega 6 and 3
_____ fat has no double bonds
_____ fat has one double bond.
_____ fat has two or more double bonds.
Increased stretch of the myocardium results in an ______ in overlapping of actin and myosin within the sarcomere.
______ is when blood flows through two capillary beds connected by a portal vein.
capillary - portal vein - capillary
Due to the lungs not being function, blood pressure in the _____ side of the heart is greater than the _____ side of the heart.
As total cross sectional area increases, blood velocity _______.
decreases (less pressure)
As we inhale, the diaphragm compresses the abdominopelvic cavity _____ intra-abdominal pressure. This squeezes the abdominal vessels, moving the blood up to the _______.
_____ is the amount of friction the blood experiences as it is transported through the blood vessels.
______ is affected by the length of blood vessels and the blood viscosity and radius.
When bp is elevated urine formation is decreased by Antigotensen II, Aldosterone, and _____.
ANP increases ______, but still decreases blood pressure.
The body senses increased CO2 within the blood via chemoreceptors , stimulates ________.
The nodal cell RMP is _____.
The nodal cell threshold is ____.
With nodal cells _____ causes the action potential to reach threshold.
VG Na+ in
With nodal cells _____ causes depolarization.
VG Ca2+ in
With nodal cells _____ causes repolarization.
VG K+ out
From RMP to threshold is called _____.
_______ is the amount of blood that is pumped by a single ventricle in 1 minute.
HR x SV =
An _____ in HR and/or SV increases stroke volume.
_______ is the average measure of the blood pressure forces on the arteries.
mean arterial pressure
Diastolic BP + 1/3(Systolic - Diastolic)
110 mm HG or higher is ____ blood flow and causes edema.
too much (MAP)
70-110 mm HG is ____ blood flow.
Below 60 mm HG is ____ blood flow.
Skeletal muscle fibers need ______ and nodal cells do not.
The ____ produces angiotensinogen (inactive) constantly. When the kidneys release renin it converts angiotensinogen to angiotensin I.
Angiotensin I is then converted to angiotensin II by ____.
ACE (angiotensin converting enzyme)
When a coronary artery is narrowed or blocked, nearby arteries can branch out to carry blood to the area that is affected is called _______.
_______ capillaries allow for small plasma proteins to move between plasma and tissues causing a greater fluid exchange between ______ and intersitital fluid.
_____ are very large vessels that contain blood flow to tunica externa through network of small arteries.
Blood vessels are only innervated by _____ of ANS.
_______ division influences HR and SV..
_____ in the red bone marrow form platelets by allowing extensions of their cytoplasm into the capillaries.
The _____ coronary artery supplies the left and anterior sections of the heart.
The ideal blood pH range is ____.
7.35 - 7.45
The _____ atrium receives deoxygenated bloom.
The ______ is the outermost layer of the heart made of dense irregular ct.
The fibrous pericardium anchors the heart in the thoracic cavity and prevent ____ of chambers.
The ____ contains intercalated discs, desmosomes, and gap junctions.
The ______ keep the AVs closed when ventricles are contracting.
______ is measured when the atria start to relax and the ventricles start to contract causing no movement of blood.
The ____ zone are the passageways that serve to transport atmospheric air into the lungs. (nose to terminal bronchiole)
____ is protein that increases mucus viscosity and traps dust/dirt/microorgaisms.
_____ is when air is forced past vocal cords during expiration while intrinsic laryngeal muscles narrow (arytenoid cartilages) opening of rima glottidis.
Lateral dimension changes occur due to the elevation and depression of the ______.
During quiet expiration the intrapulmonary pressure increase because the ______.
recoil of the elastic fibers
Ventilation _____ is altered by changes in bronchodilation and constriction.
Glomerular ____ occurs due to pressure differences between the glomerulus and glomerular capsule.
______ is the passive movement of water from blood plasma within the glomerular capillaries to capsular space of glemerular capsule.
With the myogenic response the afferent arteriole vasocontricts causing BP to decrease and vasodilates causing BP to ____increase.
_____ is the maximum amount of a substance that can be reabsorbed across the tubule epithelium in a given time period.
With _____ all the nutrients are reabsorbed completely in the PCT.
____ inhibits PO43 reabsorption in the PCT.
PTH stimulates Ca2+ reabsorption in _____.
Individuals with a higher % body fluid correlates to _____.
Nonelectrolytes have less _____with same concentration .
____ occurs when the arterial blood pH is below 7.35.
____ occurs when arterial blood pH is above 7.45.
_____ acidosis occurs with severe diahrrhea
metabolic alkalosis occurs with excessive ____>
_____ (nosebleeds) are common in the respiratory region because the extensive vascular network.
Type I, Type II, and Dust cells are types of ______.
_____ determined by length and thickness of vocal cords.
_____ is determined by amount of tension on vocal folds. (frequency of sound waves)
______ is determined by force of air passing across vocal cords
Boyle's law says if the pressure of the gas decreases, the volume of the container _____.
Intrapulmonary pressure ____ when inhaling.
_________ stimulate breathing when there is an increase in H+, PcO2 or a decrease in PO2 levels.
_______ resistance can be affected by decreased elasticity of lungs, change in bronchiole diameter, or collapse of alveoli
air flow resistance
Carbon dioxide transport is dependent on ____ of CO2 being dissolved as bicarbonate in plasma.
The kidneys form ______, produce/release EPO, regulate ion levels, filter blood and convert into urine.
Glomerular hydrostatic pressure will always be _____ than filtration pressure.
Net filtration pressure is influenced by increases in the amount of filtrate formed, increase in solutes and water in tubular fluid, increase in urine, and decrease in _____.
____ control of the GFR are external to the kidney and involve nervous or hormonal regulation.
Sodium resabsorption involves aldosterone - everything...obligatory ...pumps
The elimination of drugs and bioactive substance is secreted from blood into the _____.
During micturition, the detrusor muscle ______.
When electrolytes (K+) in intracellular fluid (ICF) than ____.
If there is a fluid imbalance not do to output its due to ____.
The thirst center is stimulated by the hypothalmus if ______.
bp is decrease, decreased salivary secrtions, increased blood osmolarity
An imbalance of ____ is lethal.
renin is stimulated in response to low bp and a _____ in everything.
increased blood osmolarity initiates ADH so the kidneys increased water reabsorption increases ______ of aquaporins.
ANP opposes all other hormones in regulating ______.
angiotensin II, ADH, aldosterone
Increased PCO2 above 45 in the arteries is caused by ______.
The ______ line of defense includes physical barriers, secretions, normal flora, mucus, bacteria also inside tracts of the body.
first line of defense - innate
The second line of defense includes neutrophils, macophages, and ____ cells that phagocytize unwanted substances.
The second innate line fo defense includes basophils, mast cells, and ____.
natural killer cells
maybe not basos
A ____ is a membrane attack complex and it pokes a hole in the plasma membrane causing lysis.
_____ is an abnormal elevation of body temp of at least 1.8F caused by pyrogens . At the onset blood vessels to constrict. The pyrogens are targeting the hypothalmus and cause prostaglandins to increase the set point. It ends in _____ when the hypothalmus is no longer stimulated by pyrogens.
____ immunity is (cell mediated) when T cells differentiate into T helper cells and cytoxic t cells.
Activation of T cell occurs once T cells bind to its _____.
specific antigen - all answers
The FC region is not involved in inflammation.
The primary response with immunolgoic memmory can take 1-2 weeks for the production of anitbodies, but with a secondary response ____.
1 or 2 days to measure in titer
The General adaptation syndrome is also known as the stress response which is a nonspecific response of the body to any ______ made upon it.
The stages of the _____ include the alarm reaction (immediate), stage of resistance (few hours), and the stage of exhaustation (weeks or months).
general adaptation syndrome
Lymphatic capillaries are interspersed throghout areolar tissue among blood cappilary networks except in the red bone marrow, spleen, and ____.
The _____ surrounds the germinal centers in the lymph nodes and contains t lymphocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells.