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Flashcards in FINAL FINAL Deck (273)
1

Gonads produce ______ which create new individuals when merged.

gametes

2

The female gamete is an _______.

oocyte

3

The male gamete is a _____.

sperm

4

_____ is when primordial follicles regress from 1.5 million --> 400,000.

Atresia

5

Spermatids are formed in ______.

Spermiogenesis

6

The ____ of sperm contains mitochondria necessary for energy production and a centriole.

midpiece (neck)

7

_______ stimulation is needed for an erection and ______ is needed for ejaculation.

parasympathetic
sympathetic

8

Prostrate enlargement occurs with age and can interferes with ______ and ______ functions.

sexual and urinary

9

_____ follicles are surrounded by thecal cells which secrete androgens needed to make estrogen.

primordial

10

At the end of the pre-embryonic period a ______ is left.

blastocyst

11

In the pre-embryonic stage it begins with fertilization which leads to a ______, then to a blastocyst.

zygote

12

A _____ is formed when the zona pellucida starts to degenerate allowing fluid to enter the morula forming a fluid filled cavity.

blastocyst

13

The two distinct component of a blastocyst?

trophoblast and embryoblast

14

_____ is responsible for relaxation of ligamentous joints such as sacroiliac joins and pubic symphysis.

estrogen

15

____ is responsible for functional layer growth and prevention of menstruation

progesterone

16

Fetal blood and maternal blood ___, but bloodstreams so are so close they allow for the exchanges of gases and nutrients.

do not mix unless something goes wrong

17

Left and right sides of the embryo curve and migrate toward the midline during ______

transverse folding

18

_____ are contractions (braxton-hicks) are not strong enough to results in the three stages of True labor.

false labor

19

Labor is also known as ________.

parturition

20

Increased levels of progesterone lead to an increase in breathing rate, increasing the mothers ______

oxygen consumption

21

____ is the establishment of primary germ layers by the epiblast.

gastrulation

22

______ is when uterine contractions that increase in intensity and regulatory and that results in changes to the cervix

true labor

23

The _____ causes the mother to metabolize more fatty acids, saving glucose for the fetus.

HPL

24

______ are hormone like substances released from seminal vesicles that promotes widening and dilation of external os of cervix

prostaglandins

25

Labor - positive feedback

Positive feedback mechanism 
Contractions intensify causing fetus’s head to push against the cervix
This stimulates the stretching and dilation of the cervix
This stimulates the release of more oxytocin
Contractions also stimulate the placenta to secrete more prostaglandins
End of positive feedback is when the fetus and placenta are expelled from the body

26

True labor has three stages:

dilation, expulsion, placental

27

The longest of the three stages of true labor.

dilation stage

28

During the ____ stage the amniotic sac releases the amniotic fluid (water breaking)

dilation stage

29

The three primary germ layers

ectoderm
mesoderm
endoderm

30

The pituitary gland is made by the _____.

ectoderm

31

At the end of the 1st trimester the mother is carrying a ______.

festus

32

A series of mitotic divisions resulting in an increase in cell number, but not an increase in the overall size of the structure is called ______.

cleavage

33

At the 16-cell stage (4 divisions) the zygote is called a _____ and enters the ______ of the uterus.

morula
lumen

34

The left ventricular wall is thicker than the right ventricular wall because ________.

pump blood with greater pressure

35

If the vagal nerve to the heart was cut what would happen?

It would cause a increase in heart rate

36

vagal tone

?

37

Which does NOT help maintain lymph flow?
a. smooth muscle contraction
b. breathing
c. beating cilia against pseudostratified epithelium
c. skeleton muscle contraction

beating cilia against pseudostratified epithelium

38

The presence of fatty chyme in the small intestines in the small intestines stimulates it to release ______ to release _________.
a. gastrin/ liver
b. cck / gallblader secretion
c. secretin / stomach secretion
d. cck / pancreatic secretion

B. CCK/gallbladder secretion

39

An actively contracting muscle will produce acid molecules lowering pH causing hemoglobin to release _______ oxygen.

more oxygen and the curve will shift to the right

40

Oxygen Saturation curve

?

41

The stomach lining is protected from stomach acid by the ________.
a. bicarbonate layer
b. gap junctions

bicarbonate layer

42

Negative feedback inhibition occurs when :

TH to AP

43

The zona glomerulsa of the adrenal cortex helps to regulate:

salt/water balance (aldosterone)

44

Reduced hormone concentration in the blood often causes target cells to _______.

upregulate receptors to increase sensitivity

45

To compensate for significant blood loss the ANS triggers ________.

vasoconstriciton and an increased heart rate

46

How are NA levels and BP related?

increased NA levels, cause increased blood volume, increase BP

47

The mechanism that establishes the medullary osmotic gradient depends mostly on the permability properties of the ______.

loop of henle (nephron loop)

48

Insulin glucose curve

?
Chris secreted less insulin or his insulin has less effect

49

Which structure in the heart gives rise to this electrical area on the action potential curve (plateau)?

VG calcium in
VG potassium out
balancing each other = plateau

50

Which is an example of a positive feedback loop?

Opening NA channel causing more ions to flow in channels MORE MORE MORE

51

Which would happen to a women that lacked thecal cells?

sterility

52

The organ involved in reducing the chances of autoimmune disorder?

thymus

53

When someone loses a lot of blood they tend to not urinate for a few days because. _________.

Glomerular BP decreased

54

After eating too much it can be hard to breath because _______.

full stomach impedes diaphragm contraction

55

Influence blood pressure:

excessive rbc production would increase blood pressure

56

Increased release in both glucose and fatty acid are not caused by ______.

PTH - only influences calcium release

57

Release of breast milk occurs when ______ cause _______ contract.

oxytocin causes the release
contracts myoepitheal cells?

58

Not a function of liver:

synthesize chylomicrons - in intestines

59

The lungs do not collapse do not collapse after exhalation because

intrapleural pressure is lower than intrapulmonary

60

When blood becomes more alkaline than normal the renal tubules secrete ______.

bicarbonate and reabsorbing H+ ions

61

If a patient loses a lot of blood the aorta will have less stretch, what will happen?

cardiac output will increase

62

Ovulation occurs when during your 28 day cycle?

day 14

63

What triggers menstruation?

a decrease in all hormone, but especially estrogen and progesterone

64

In the scrotum cools down the testicular artery via the ______.

pampinform plexus

65

______ cells are non dividing support cells that protect developing sperm by creating the blood testis barrier.

sustentacular

66

The flow of sperm

Seminiferous tubules --> rete testis --> efferent ducturles --> epididymis --> vas deferens --> ejaculatory duct --> prostatic urethra

67

Where would you find the intersitial cells and what do they do.

outside of the seminiferous tubules and they make androgens

68

What binds testosterone to keep it in the testis and where does it come from?

ABP, susententacular cells

69

What two muscles within the testis help to move them for optimal temperature?

dartos and cremaster

70

Semen normally contain ______ sperm.

200-500 million

71

______ is needed to neutralize the acidity of the vagina as well as nourish the sperm.

seminal fluid

72

During the ______ phase of female sexual response mammary glands, clitoris, vaginal wall, bulbs of the vetibule and labia become engorged; vestibular glands within vagina produce mucin for lubrication; uterus shifts from anteverted position to more erect position, inferior part of vaginal wall constricts slightly.

excitement phase

73

At the 16 cell stage (4 divisions) the zygote is called a ______. This division takes place within the zona pellucida.

morula

74

During implantation what two layers does the trophoblast divide into?

cytorophoblast and synctiotrophoblast

75

The embryoblast differentiates into what two layers?

hypoblast and epiblast

76

The _____ is formed by both cytotrophoblast cells and synctiotrophoblast (trophoblast)

chorion, which is the fetal layer of the placenta

77

What is the function of relaxin?

promotes blood vessel growth in uterus

78

Estrogen/progesterone/HPL cause _____.

increased insulin resistance

79

___ is produced by the synctiotrophoblast and signals corpus luteum to continue secreting estrogen/progesterone to thicken and maintain uterine lining.

HCG

80

The extraembryonic membrane contains the yolk sac, _____ and chorion.

amnion

81

The _______ develops into the pituitary gland.

ecotderm

82

The placenta secrete HCT, CRH, relaxing, and estrogen/progesterone, but not _____.

HCG

83

What two hormones cause labor to increase?

estrogen and oxytocin

84

Which hormone is responsible for a mothers increase in oxygen consumption?

progesterone

85

True Breast Milk vs Colustrum

Breast
more fat
several growth factors
essential fatty acids
specific enzymes for digestion
more lactose

Colustrum
less fat
high in IgA
lower in fat
higher in calcium

86

_______ digestion involves specific enzymes to break chemical bonds, making smaller molecules for absorption.

chemical absorption

87

______ digestion is when food is physically broken down. (no chemical changes)

mechanical

88

______ is the alternating contraction sequence causing the pushing of ingested material through the GI tract.

peristalsis

89

______ is the kneading motion within different regions of the GI tract that lack directional movement.

mixing

90

All ____ decidous teeth are lost and relaced with ____ permanent teeth.

20
32

91

_____ do not included in the deciduous teeth.

molars

92

ICPM stands for

incisor/ canines/ premolars/ molars

93

This is the dental formula for most children

212/212

94

This is the dental formula for most adults

2123/2123

95

The superior 1/3 of the esophagus is _____.

skeletal muscle fibers

96

The middle 1/3 of the esophagus is ______.

skeletal and smooth muscle

97

The bottom 1/3 of the esophagus is _____.

smooth muscle

98

______ line the stomach lumen and extend into gastric pits. They secrete alkaline product with mucin to prevent ulceration of the stomach lining.

surface mucous cells

99

______ line base of gastric pits into the gastric glands. They produce an acidic mucin to help maintain the secretion of the HCl.

mucous neck cells

100

The ______ reflex is initiated by the thought, smell, sight, or taste of food.

cephalic

101

_____ absorb lipid and lipid-soluble vitamins that can't be absorbed into the bloodstream.

lacteal

102

The ______ absorb water and electrolytes from remaining digestive material.

large intestines

103

Pancreatic ____ digest starch.

amylase

104

Pancreastic ____ digest triglycerides.

lipase

105

______ needed for protein digestion.

inactive proteases

106

____ are needed for digestion of nucleotides.

nucleases

107

_____ is released in response to fat

CCk

108

_____ is released in response to acidic chyme.

secretin

109

Wave of peristalic muscular contraction moves through pylorus toward pyloric sphincter creating a pressure gradient to ______ the spincter.

open

110

Pepsinogen (inactive) is released into the lumen of the GI and converted to _______.

pepsin (active)

111

_____ nutrients must be obtained and absorbed by the digestive system.

essential

112

_____ nutrients are provided by biochemical processes within the boy.

nonessential

113

Glucose is a _____ nutrient.

nonessential

114

Cholesterol is a _____ nutrient.

nonessential

115

____ adds bulk to the GI tract and stimulates peristalsis of LI facilitating defections.

fiber

116

____ nitrogen balance is when more nitrogen is absorbed than is excreted.

positive
i.e. growth, pregnancy, recovering from injury

117

____ nitrogen balance is when more nitrogen is excreted than absorbed.

negative
i.e. malnutrition and blood loss

118

Water soluble vitamins

B and C

119

Fat soluble vitamins

KADE

120

Vitamin ___ for blood clotting

K

121

_____ minerals are needed at greater than 100 mg/day.

Major

122

_____ minerals require less and 100 mg/day.

trace

123

_______ provides visual for portions of the types of foods we need.

Myplate

124

The _____ provides the serving sizes for the types of foods we need.

food pyramid

125

In the post absorptive state _____ is released.

glucagon

126

In the absorptive state ____ is released.

insulin

127

_____ soluble levels can reach toxic levels.

fat

128

Insulin stimulate glycogenesis in the liver and _____.

muscles

129

Insulin stimulates _______ and inhibits lipolysis in adipocytes.

lipogenesis

130

Insulin stimulates most cells to increase _____ uptake increasing the rate of protein synthesis.

amino acid

131

Glucagon stimulated glycogenolysis and ______ in liver cells.

gluconeogenesis

132

______ are organic molecules required for normal metabolism.

vitamins

133

_____ are inorganic ions with diverse functions within the body.

minerals

134

Fatty acids are ____ to monoglycerides to re form triglycerides than wrapped in protein to form a chylomicron. Then the chylomicron enters the lacteal.

reattached

135

______ starts chemical digestion of carbohydrates.

salivary amylase

136

_____ is released when food enters the stomach by G cells.

gastrin

137

______ nerve plexus innervates smooth muscle and glands of mucosa as well as submucosa.

submucosal nerve plexus

138

_____ nerve plexus is located between outer longitudinal and inner circular layers.

myenteric nerve plexus

139

The _____ system contains both submucosal and myenteric nerve plexi and are short reflexes.

enteric

140

Retroperitoneal organs: DARP
outside

duodenum
ascending/descending colon
rectum
pancreas

141

The stomach release ______ which is needed for absorption of vitamin B12.

intrinsic

142

The stomach mechanically digests the contents of the stomach into a semifluid mass called _____.

chyme

143

Chemical digestion of both protein and fat occurs in the _____.

stomach

144

Absorption in the stomach is limited to small, nonpolar substances such as _____.

alcohol and aspirin

145

_____ released when pH of stomach is too low. This inhibits acid secretion by directly affecting parietal, ECL and G cells.

somatostatin

146

Somatostatin ____ HCL release from chief cells.

decreases

147

____ contributes to the breakdown of plant cell walls.

HCL

148

The surface of the small intestine is increased by circular folds, villi, microvilli (brush border), but not _______.

rugae

149

Gastroileal reflex stimulates movement of contents ______.

ileum to cecum
fesces to rectum????

150

Blood mixes as it passes ____ the hepatic lobules between the hepatic artery and hepatic portal vein.

into

151

CCK stimulates smooth muscle in gallbladder wall to cause release of ___.

bile

152

CCk relaxes _______ of hepatopancreatic ampulla.

smooth muscle

153

BMR varies due to

age
lean body mass
sex
levels of various hormones in blood

154

_____ makes you feel full.

leptin

155

_____ makes you feel hungry.

ghrelin

156

_______ induce the release of leptin from stomach lining.

proteins

157

_____ also release leptin.

adipocytes

158

____ contain all essential amino acids.

complete

159

There are ___ essential and ___ nonessential amino acids in the body that makes up proteins.

8 essential
12 nonessential

160

_____ is needed for formation/maintenance of the skeleton, muscle contraction, exocytosis of neurotransmitters, and blood clotting.

calcium

161

______ stimulates the release of energy reserves from hepatocytes/adipocytes. (gluconeogenesis, glycogenolysis, lipolysis)

growth hormone

162

_______ stimulate the release of energy reserves from hepatocytes/adipocytes.

thyroid hormones

163

_____ stimulates the release of energy reserves from hepatocytes/adipocytes.

cortisol

164

________ converting non-carbohydrates into glucose (type of interconversion).

gluconeogenesis

165

During lipid metabolism, ________, is when fatty acids are broken down to acetyl CoA.

beta oxidation

166

Cholesterol is synthesized into bile salts and released with bile in the _____.

small intestines

167

____ is used as a component of the plasma membrane.

cholesterol

168

A precursor for steroid hormones, bile salts, and vitamin D.

cholesterol

169

_____ can be synthesized by the liver.

cholesterol

170

______ opposes HDL.

VLDL and LDL

171

The only essential fatty acids are?

omega 6 and 3

172

_____ fat has no double bonds

saturated

173

_____ fat has one double bond.

unsaturated

174

_____ fat has two or more double bonds.

polyunsaturated

175

Increased stretch of the myocardium results in an ______ in overlapping of actin and myosin within the sarcomere.

increase

176

______ is when blood flows through two capillary beds connected by a portal vein.

portal system

capillary - portal vein - capillary

177

Due to the lungs not being function, blood pressure in the _____ side of the heart is greater than the _____ side of the heart.

right
left

178

As total cross sectional area increases, blood velocity _______.

decreases (less pressure)

179

As we inhale, the diaphragm compresses the abdominopelvic cavity _____ intra-abdominal pressure. This squeezes the abdominal vessels, moving the blood up to the _______.

increase
thoracic cavity

180

_____ is the amount of friction the blood experiences as it is transported through the blood vessels.

peripheral resistance

181

______ is affected by the length of blood vessels and the blood viscosity and radius.

peripheral resistance

182

When bp is elevated urine formation is decreased by Antigotensen II, Aldosterone, and _____.

ADH
antidiurectic hormone

183

ANP increases ______, but still decreases blood pressure.

urination

184

The body senses increased CO2 within the blood via chemoreceptors , stimulates ________.

carotid bodies

185

The nodal cell RMP is _____.

-60mv

186

The nodal cell threshold is ____.

-40mv

187

With nodal cells _____ causes the action potential to reach threshold.

VG Na+ in

188

With nodal cells _____ causes depolarization.

VG Ca2+ in

189

With nodal cells _____ causes repolarization.

VG K+ out

190

From RMP to threshold is called _____.

pacemaker potential

191

_______ is the amount of blood that is pumped by a single ventricle in 1 minute.

cardiac output

192

HR x SV =

cardiac output

193

An _____ in HR and/or SV increases stroke volume.

increases

194

_______ is the average measure of the blood pressure forces on the arteries.

mean arterial pressure

195

MAP =

Diastolic BP + 1/3(Systolic - Diastolic)

196

110 mm HG or higher is ____ blood flow and causes edema.

too much (MAP)

197

70-110 mm HG is ____ blood flow.

good

198

Below 60 mm HG is ____ blood flow.

insuffscient

199

Skeletal muscle fibers need ______ and nodal cells do not.

stimulation

200

The ____ produces angiotensinogen (inactive) constantly. When the kidneys release renin it converts angiotensinogen to angiotensin I.

liver

201

Angiotensin I is then converted to angiotensin II by ____.

ACE (angiotensin converting enzyme)

202

When a coronary artery is narrowed or blocked, nearby arteries can branch out to carry blood to the area that is affected is called _______.

collarteral circulation

203

_______ capillaries allow for small plasma proteins to move between plasma and tissues causing a greater fluid exchange between ______ and intersitital fluid.

fenestrated
blood

204

_____ are very large vessels that contain blood flow to tunica externa through network of small arteries.

vasa vasorum

205

Blood vessels are only innervated by _____ of ANS.

sympathetic division

206

_______ division influences HR and SV..

sympathetic

207

_____ in the red bone marrow form platelets by allowing extensions of their cytoplasm into the capillaries.

megakaryocytes

208

The _____ coronary artery supplies the left and anterior sections of the heart.

left coronary

209

The ideal blood pH range is ____.

7.35 - 7.45

210

The _____ atrium receives deoxygenated bloom.

right

211

The ______ is the outermost layer of the heart made of dense irregular ct.

fibrous pericardium

212

The fibrous pericardium anchors the heart in the thoracic cavity and prevent ____ of chambers.

overexpansion

213

The ____ contains intercalated discs, desmosomes, and gap junctions.

myocardium

214

The ______ keep the AVs closed when ventricles are contracting.

papillary muscles

215

______ is measured when the atria start to relax and the ventricles start to contract causing no movement of blood.

isovolumetric contaction

216

The ____ zone are the passageways that serve to transport atmospheric air into the lungs. (nose to terminal bronchiole)

conducting

217

____ is protein that increases mucus viscosity and traps dust/dirt/microorgaisms.

mucin

218

_____ is when air is forced past vocal cords during expiration while intrinsic laryngeal muscles narrow (arytenoid cartilages) opening of rima glottidis.

sound production

219

Lateral dimension changes occur due to the elevation and depression of the ______.

rib cage

220

During quiet expiration the intrapulmonary pressure increase because the ______.

recoil of the elastic fibers

221

Ventilation _____ is altered by changes in bronchodilation and constriction.

rates

222

Glomerular ____ occurs due to pressure differences between the glomerulus and glomerular capsule.

filtration

223

______ is the passive movement of water from blood plasma within the glomerular capillaries to capsular space of glemerular capsule.

glomerular filtration

224

With the myogenic response the afferent arteriole vasocontricts causing BP to decrease and vasodilates causing BP to ____increase.

increase

225

_____ is the maximum amount of a substance that can be reabsorbed across the tubule epithelium in a given time period.

transport max

226

With _____ all the nutrients are reabsorbed completely in the PCT.

nutrient reabsorption

227

____ inhibits PO43 reabsorption in the PCT.

PTH

228

PTH stimulates Ca2+ reabsorption in _____.

DCT

229

Individuals with a higher % body fluid correlates to _____.

less fat

230

Nonelectrolytes have less _____with same concentration .

osmotic pressure

231

____ occurs when the arterial blood pH is below 7.35.

acidosis

232

____ occurs when arterial blood pH is above 7.45.

alkalosis

233

_____ acidosis occurs with severe diahrrhea

metabolic

234

metabolic alkalosis occurs with excessive ____>

vomitting

235

_____ (nosebleeds) are common in the respiratory region because the extensive vascular network.

epistaxis

236

Type I, Type II, and Dust cells are types of ______.

alveolar cells

237

_____ determined by length and thickness of vocal cords.

range

238

_____ is determined by amount of tension on vocal folds. (frequency of sound waves)

pitch

239

______ is determined by force of air passing across vocal cords

loudness

240

Boyle's law says if the pressure of the gas decreases, the volume of the container _____.

increases.

241

Intrapulmonary pressure ____ when inhaling.

decreases

242

_________ stimulate breathing when there is an increase in H+, PcO2 or a decrease in PO2 levels.

Peripheral chemoreceptors

243

_______ resistance can be affected by decreased elasticity of lungs, change in bronchiole diameter, or collapse of alveoli

air flow resistance

244

Carbon dioxide transport is dependent on ____ of CO2 being dissolved as bicarbonate in plasma.

70%

245

The kidneys form ______, produce/release EPO, regulate ion levels, filter blood and convert into urine.

calcitriol

246

Glomerular hydrostatic pressure will always be _____ than filtration pressure.

greater ?

247

Net filtration pressure is influenced by increases in the amount of filtrate formed, increase in solutes and water in tubular fluid, increase in urine, and decrease in _____.

filtrate reabsorption

248

____ control of the GFR are external to the kidney and involve nervous or hormonal regulation.

extrinsic

249

Sodium resabsorption involves aldosterone - everything...obligatory ...pumps

?

250

The elimination of drugs and bioactive substance is secreted from blood into the _____.

PCT

251

During micturition, the detrusor muscle ______.

contracts

252

When electrolytes (K+) in intracellular fluid (ICF) than ____.

ECF

253

If there is a fluid imbalance not do to output its due to ____.

fluid sequestration

254

The thirst center is stimulated by the hypothalmus if ______.

bp is decrease, decreased salivary secrtions, increased blood osmolarity

255

An imbalance of ____ is lethal.

K+

256

renin is stimulated in response to low bp and a _____ in everything.

decrease
sympathetic division

257

increased blood osmolarity initiates ADH so the kidneys increased water reabsorption increases ______ of aquaporins.

number

258

ANP opposes all other hormones in regulating ______.

fluid output
angiotensin II, ADH, aldosterone

259

Increased PCO2 above 45 in the arteries is caused by ______.

respiratory acidosis

260

The ______ line of defense includes physical barriers, secretions, normal flora, mucus, bacteria also inside tracts of the body.

first line of defense - innate

261

The second line of defense includes neutrophils, macophages, and ____ cells that phagocytize unwanted substances.

dendritc cells

262

The second innate line fo defense includes basophils, mast cells, and ____.

natural killer cells
maybe not basos

263

A ____ is a membrane attack complex and it pokes a hole in the plasma membrane causing lysis.

MAC

264

_____ is an abnormal elevation of body temp of at least 1.8F caused by pyrogens . At the onset blood vessels to constrict. The pyrogens are targeting the hypothalmus and cause prostaglandins to increase the set point. It ends in _____ when the hypothalmus is no longer stimulated by pyrogens.

fever
defervescense

265

____ immunity is (cell mediated) when T cells differentiate into T helper cells and cytoxic t cells.

cellular immunity

266

Activation of T cell occurs once T cells bind to its _____.

specific antigen - all answers

267

The FC region is not involved in inflammation.

?

268

The primary response with immunolgoic memmory can take 1-2 weeks for the production of anitbodies, but with a secondary response ____.

1 or 2 days to measure in titer

269

The General adaptation syndrome is also known as the stress response which is a nonspecific response of the body to any ______ made upon it.

demand

270

The stages of the _____ include the alarm reaction (immediate), stage of resistance (few hours), and the stage of exhaustation (weeks or months).

general adaptation syndrome

271

Lymphatic capillaries are interspersed throghout areolar tissue among blood cappilary networks except in the red bone marrow, spleen, and ____.

CNS

272

The _____ surrounds the germinal centers in the lymph nodes and contains t lymphocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells.

mantle zone

273

Hormones released from hypothalamus stimulate all ap, but ____.

growth hormone