Flashcards in Chapter 27 Deck (222)
____ is the study of the means by which living organisms both obtain and utilize the nutrients they need to grow and sustain life.
____ are organic molecules (carbs, fat, proteins), vitamins and minerals the body needs.
_____ must be obtained and absorbed by the digestive system.
______ are provided by biochemical processes within the body.
Sugars, starches, and ____ are carbohydrates.
Monosaccharides and diasaccharides are types of _____.
Examples of Sugar
lactose from milk
maltose found in cereals
Polysaccharide of glucose is found in ______.
A refined starch is _____.
Examples of starches
potatoes, carrots, wheat, barley, rice, corn, beans, peas
_____ molecules, also known as fiber, of plants and animals that cannot be chemically digested and absorbed/
Examples of fiber
lentils, peas, beans, whole grains, oatmeal, berries, nuts
____ and starches are broken down by body into glucose.
Glucose ____ an essential nutrient.
Glucose oxidized in cellular respiration to create _____.
Fiber remains in ____ and adds bulk?
Bulk stimulates _____ of LI facilitating defecation. "keeps your regular"
Carbohydrates can decrease _____ levels in blood by eliminating bile salts from being reabsorbed.
Bile salt are made from ____.
Fat that is composed of glycerol and fatty acids is called _____.
______ fat has no double bonds. each carbon is saturated with ____.
Saturated fats are generally ____ at room temperature.
Examples of saturated fats.
fat in meat, milk, coconut oil, palm oil
____ fat has one double bond and is typically liquid at room temperature.
What type of fat is typically liquid at room temperature?
Examples of unsaturated fats
Nuts, canola oil, olive oil, sunflower oil
_____ fat has two or more double bonds and is ____ at room temperature.
Examples of polyunsaturated fat.
soybean oil, corn oil, safflower oil
The only essential fatty acids are?
omega 6 and omega 3 fatty acids
____ are used as an energy source.
Triglycerides are necessary for absorption of _____ vitamins.
____ is used as a component of the plasma membrane.
A precursor for steroid hormones, bile salts, and vitamin D.
Cholesterol comes from our ____ through animal base products such as ___, ____, and ___.
meat, eggs, milk
_____ can be synthesized by the liver.
If nonessential nutrients are not needed from our diet, how do we obtain them?
through biomechanical processes within the body
Potatoes, carrots, rice, corn and peas are what type of carb?
Why is glucose not an essential nutrient?
our bodies can make it
Why are omega-6 and omega-3 important lipids?
they are the only essential acids
What are cholesterols used for within the body?
plasma membrane component, precursor for steroid hormones, bile salts and vitamin D
____ are the most structurally and functionally diverse of macromolecules
There are ____ to ____ different proteins in the body.
50,000 to 100,000
Proteins are synthesized from ___ different amino acids.
There are ___ essential and ___ nonessential amino acids in the body that makes up proteins.
____ contain all essential amino acids.
____ do not contains all essential amino acids.
Examples of complete proteins
meats, poultry, fish, eggs, milk, cheese, yogurt
Examples of incomplete proteins
legumes, vegetables, grains
Specific dietary intake of proteins is dependent upon ____ and ___.
age and sex
The daily proteins servicing is ____ grams.
45 to 60
The protein intake should be higher for _____, ____, or after injury, ____ or stress.
pregnant women, children
______ cannot be stored in the body.
Essential amino acids are obtained through ____.
Nonessential amino acids are _____ by the body.
_____ is a chemical element needed for synthesizing nitrogen containing molecules such as DNA, RNA, and porphyrin (a component of heme in hemoglobin)
____ is the equilibrium between dietary intake and its loss in urine/feces.
_____ nitrogen balance is when more nitrogen is absorbed than excreted.
Positive nitrogen balance occurs during growth, pregnancy, and during ______.
recovery from injury
____ nitrogen balance is when more nitrogen is excreted than absorbed.
Negative nitrogen balance results from ____ or blood loss.
_____ are organic molecules required for normal metabolism.
____ are present only in small amounts in food.
What are the water soluble vitamins?
vitamin b and vitamin c
There are several types of vitamin ____ and they serve as coenzymes.
Vitamin ___ is required for the synthesis of collagen and has antioxidant properties.
Antioxidants remove _____ from the body.
_____ are chemical structures that have unpaired electrons and are highly reactive.
The human body does not store water soluble vitamins. The excess is lost in ______.
______ vitamins dissolve in fat and are absorbed by lacteals.
The fat soluble vitamins are ...
Vitamin A, Vitamin D, Vitamin K, Vitamin E
Retinol is also known as vitamin ____ and is a precursor for visual pigment retinal.
Calciferol is also known as vitamin ____ and is a modified form of calcitiriol.
Tocopherol is also known as vitamin _____ and helps stabilize/prevent damage to cell membranes.
Vitamin ____ is required for synthesis of blood clotting proteins.
Excess fat soluble vitamins are stored in the body fat and can reach _____.
_____ are inorganic ions with diverse functions within the body.
All ____ are essential.
_____ minerals needed at levels greater than 100 mg/day.
_____ minerals require less than 100 mg/day.
Examples of major minerals.
Examples of trace minerals
___ is found in hemoglobin where it binds oxygen and mitochondria as part of electron transport chain.
_____ is needed for formation/maintenance of the skeleton, muscle contraction, exocytosis of neurotransmitters, and blood clotting.
______ and ______ maintain resting membrane potential in excitable cell and needed for action potential.
sodium and potassium
_____ is needed for thyroid hormone production.
_____ play a role in protein synthesis and wound healing.
______ are the amount of each nutrient that must be obtained each day.
RDA's - recommended daily allowance
The recommended daily allowance's are decided on by ______.
the federal government (USDA)
Although recommended daily allowances are currently based on population studies, could be established for individual's based on ____.
genetic make up
In 2011, updates were made by the USDA from the food pyramid to _____.
MyPlate provides visual for ____ of the types of food we need.
_______ consists of half fruits/vegetables and half grain/protein and a side of dairy.
USDA's website www.choosepmyplate.gov suggests for people to _____, switch from whole milk to non-fat milk, reduce ___ intake and replace sugary drinks with water.
_____ makes you feel hungry.
_____ makes you feel full.
_______ induce the release of leptin from stomach lining.
_____ also release leptin.
Too much fat can lead to a ______ ---> feeling hungry more often ---> eating more -----> increasing fat stores
Insulin resistance is a result of a ____ sugar/simple carbohydrate diet that cause the release of high amount of insulin, which can lead to resistance.
Decreased uptake of glucose from blood causes body cells to feel ____ causing an increase in _____.
Decreased ____ causes increased levels of gherkin and decreased levels of leptin.
The ____ is the time you are eating, digesting, and absorbing nutrients.
The absorptive state lasts about ____ after a meal.
During the absorptive state concentrations of glucose, _____, and ______ are increasing within the blood.
triglycerides and amino acids
Insulin is a major _______.
Insulin stimulates ______ in the liver and muscle cells.
Insuline stimulates _____ and inhibits lipolysis in adipocytes.
Insuline stimulates most cells to increase AA uptake increasing the rate of _____.
The time between meals when the body relies on its stores of nutrients because no further absorption of nutrients is occurring is called _________.
post absorptive state
Glucagon is a major ______.
Glucagon stimulates _______ and _______ in liver cells
Glucagon stimulates ______ in the adipocytes
______ is after 4 hours the body switches from glucose to fatty acid catabolism, saving glucose for the ____.
glucose sparing effect
______ stimulates the release of energy reserves from hepatocytes/adipocytes. (gluconeogenesis, glycogenolysis, lipolysis)
______ stimulates the uptake of amino acids by body cells.
_______ stimulate the release of energy reserves from hepatocytes/adipocytes.
_______ stimulates the uptake of amino acids and ______ by body cells/neurons.
_____ stimulates the release of energy reserves from hepatocytes/adipocytes.
Cortisol stimulates _____ and decreased glucose uptake by the body cells.
_________ is released from the sympathetic division of the ANS.
Nor-epinephrine stimulates the release of glucose from _____.
What is the difference between the food pyramid and my plate?
The food pyramid gives number of servings, my plate give serving size visual on plate
Why is it a bad thing that adipose tissue releases leptin? Why would this not be a good thing?
We become leptin resistant if too much is released due to high amounts of fat causing a vicious cycle of eating and gaining weight.
What is the major hormone released during the absorptive state? What about the post absorptive state?
insulin during absorptive and glucagon during post absorptive
Formation of plasma proteins is a function of the _____.
Formation and release of bile in the small intestines for emulsification of lipids is a function of the _____.
The liver removes _____ from blood following erythrocyte destruction.
The liver functions as a ____ bank.
The liver stores glucose as _____.
The liver is responsible for the synthesis of ______.
The liver releases glucose by breaking down glycogen or creating it out of _____ products.
When fatty acids are broken down into 2 carbon units and then formed into acetyl CoA --> they enter the citric acid cycle is called
______ is when more Acetyl CoA than needed for citric acid cycle, it will be converted into ketone bodies by hepatocytes to be used in other body cells.
______ is when the body fails to adequately regulate ketone production (beta oxidation) causing such a severe accumulation of kept acids (ketone bodies) that the pH of the blood is substantially decreased.
Acetyl CoA can also be used to synthesize _______ by way of HMG-CoA reductase.
_____ is released into the blood as component of very low density lipoproteins (VLDLs)
Cholesterol is synthesized into bile salts and released with bile in the _____.
________ contain triglycerides and cholesterols packaged within proteins.
Very low density lipoproteins
_________ lipoproteins are assembled within the liver and released into blood.
Very low density
______ lipoproteins release triglycerides to all cells of peripheral tissues, but primarily adipose tissue.
very low density
very low density lipoproteins triglycerides changes the density converting it into a
_____ lipoproteins contain high amounts of cholesterol.
____ lipoproteins deliver cholesterol to cells by receptor mediated endocytosis.
_____ lipoproteins are used by all cells as part of plasma membrane.
________ lipoproteins are used by some tissues (testes, ovaries, adrenal glands) to produce steroid hormones.
_______ lipoproteins are produced in stages and function to oppose both VLDLs and LDLs.
_____ HDLs (proteins only) are created by liver and sent into blood.
HDLs circulate and collect lipids, both _______ and _______.
cholesterols and triglycerides
HDLs release lipids in ________ which are then converted into VLDLs.
If the body relies on fatty acid energy production for too long of a period and ketone bodies accumulate in the blood, what happens
ketoacidosis - blood pH substantially decreases
How does HDL oppose VLDL and LDL?
HDL collects triglycerides and cholesterols from the body and brings them to the liver
VLDL and LDL deposit triglycerides and cholesterols with the body cells
What's the difference between VLDL and LDL?
VLDL contain both triglycerides and cholesterols while LDL contain mainly cholesterols.
_______ when glucose molecules bonded together forming glycogen.
________ when glycogen begin broken down into glucose.
________ converting non-carbohydrates into glucose (type of interconversion).
During carbohydrate metabolism ______ and ________ are converted to glucose.
fructose and galactose
Monosaccharides are absorbed during carbohydrate metabolism from the _____ into the blood and enter hepatocytes.
During protein metabolism amino acids are used to form _____.
_______ is when amino acids converted from one form to another . (type of interconversion) (changes the side chain).
_______ is when an amine group is removed from amino acids.
_______ converted to urea and then eliminated through urine during deamination.
In deamination, remaining components are oxidized for _______.
During lipid metabolism, ______, is when fatty acids joined with glycerol to form triglycerides.
During lipid metabolism, _____, is when fatty acids released from triglycerides.
During lipid metabolism, ________, is when fatty acids are broken down to acetyl CoA.
During lipid metabolism, acetyl CoA is converted to _____ and used by other cells for cellular respiration.
During lipid metabolism, Acetyl CoA is used in _______.
Glycolysis occurs in _____ and does not require oxygen.
The products of glucose
2 pyruvate molecules
Pyruvate converts to ______ when not enough oxygen is available during glycolysis?
During the _________ pyruvate is converted to a acetyl CoA and CO2.
During the intermediate stage _____ NADH is produced per pyruvate.
During the citric acid cycle acetyl CoA binds ______ to form citric acid.
During the citric acid cycle produces ____ CO2, ___ ATP, ___ NADH, and ___ FADH2 per cycle
2 CO2, 1 ATP, 3 NADH and 1 FADH2
The electron transport chain transfers _______ and an electron from NADH and FADH2 forming ATP through __________.
During non-carbohydrate ATP generation, triglycerides are broken into ______ and ______.
glycerol and fatty acids
During non carbohydrate ATP generation, glycerol enters the pathway after converted into glucose by way of _______.
During non carbohydrate ATP generation, fatty acids enter pathway after _______ converts them into acetyl CoA.
During non carbohydrate ATP generation an amine group is removed forming ______.
During non carbohydrate ATP generation keotacids enter citric acid cycle at different steps depedning on the type of ________.
amino acid (side chain)
Amino acids enter via glycolysis after _______, during non carbohydrate ATP generation.
Amino acids enter via intermediate stage if in ___ form, converted into acetyl CoA during non carbohydrate ATP generation.
Amino acids enter via _______ cycle at specific points during non carbohydrate ATP generation.
What is gluconeogeneiss and why would your body be stimulated to do this?
The production glucose from non carbohydrate productions, when the body is low on glucose supplies.
How does the body create 12 of the amino acids needed by the body if there are only 8 essential amino acids in our diet?
What are the four stages of ATP production?
glycolysis, intermediate cycle, citric acid cycle, electron transport
If deamination of amino acids create ketoacids, do you thin this would cause the same problem as too much fatty acid ATP production?
Yes, use of proteins for an energy source can also cause ketoacidosis
_____ is the measure of energy used in a given period of time.
The amount of energy of the metabolic rate is measured in ____.
A ____ is the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water by 1 degree C.
1 kilocalorie = 1000 calories = 1 Calorie
Carbs produce ___ kilocalories per gram.
Triglycerides produce ____ kilocalories per gram.
Proteins produce ___ kilocalories per gram.
Body weight maintained when there is a balance between calories consumed in the diet and those _____ through metabolic processes and physical activity.
BMR is called _____.
basal metabolic rate
______ is the amount of energy required when an individual is at rest (and not eating)
Basal Metabolic Rate
____ is when a persons submerged in water, the change in the waters temperature is measured.
The _____ is an instrument used to measure oxygen consumption.
A respirometer indirectly measures BMR because of relationship between oxygen consumption and _____.
1 L of O2 consumed ='s ____ kilocalories of heat produced
BMR varies due to
lean body mass
levels of various hormones in blood
___% decrease in BMR occurs ever decade starting at 30.
People with a greater lean body mass have ____ BMRs.
Thyroid hormones _____ BMR.
TMR stands for
total metabolic rate
BMR + ______ = Total metabolic rate
energy needed for physical activity
TMR varies depeding on the amount of _________ and its activity.
Metabolic rate increases with _______ and stays elevated for hours.
TMR varies depending on their _____.
Metabolic rate increases after a meal but decreases after _______ have been absorbed.
TMR varies depending on ______ conditions.
changing environmental conditions
Metabolic rate increases when exposed to the _____.
Metabolic rate influences heat production in the body, thus _______.
______ is the temperature of the vital portions of the body (core) that consists of the head and torso.
Core body temperature
Body temperature is maintained constantly by fluctuations in the temperature of ________.
The _____ system control assists in temperature regulation.
Temperature regulation is mediated by the _____.
The nervous system controls sweat glands, skeletal muscles, and _______ to maintain temperature regulations.
peripheral blood vessels
_____ control assists in body temperature regulations.
The _______ most significant because it causes an increase in metabolic rate of all cells, primarily neurons (Na+/K+ pump)