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Flashcards in Chapter 27 Deck (222)
1

____ is the study of the means by which living organisms both obtain and utilize the nutrients they need to grow and sustain life.

Nutrition

2

____ are organic molecules (carbs, fat, proteins), vitamins and minerals the body needs.

nutrients

3

_____ must be obtained and absorbed by the digestive system.

essential nutrients

4

______ are provided by biochemical processes within the body.

Nonessential

5

Sugars, starches, and ____ are carbohydrates.

fiber

6

Monosaccharides and diasaccharides are types of _____.

sugars

7

Examples of Sugar

table sugar
maple syrup
fruits
lactose from milk
maltose found in cereals
honey
corn syrup
molasses

8

Polysaccharide of glucose is found in ______.

starches

9

A refined starch is _____.

cornstarch

10

Examples of starches

potatoes, carrots, wheat, barley, rice, corn, beans, peas

11

_____ molecules, also known as fiber, of plants and animals that cannot be chemically digested and absorbed/

Fibrous

12

Examples of fiber

lentils, peas, beans, whole grains, oatmeal, berries, nuts

13

____ and starches are broken down by body into glucose.

sugars

14

Glucose ____ an essential nutrient.

is not

15

Glucose oxidized in cellular respiration to create _____.

36 ATP

16

Fiber remains in ____ and adds bulk?

GI tract

17

Bulk stimulates _____ of LI facilitating defecation. "keeps your regular"

peristalsis

18

Carbohydrates can decrease _____ levels in blood by eliminating bile salts from being reabsorbed.

cholesterol

19

Bile salt are made from ____.

cholesterol

20

Fat that is composed of glycerol and fatty acids is called _____.

triglycerides

21

______ fat has no double bonds. each carbon is saturated with ____.

saturated
hydrogen

22

Saturated fats are generally ____ at room temperature.

solid

23

Examples of saturated fats.

fat in meat, milk, coconut oil, palm oil

24

____ fat has one double bond and is typically liquid at room temperature.

unsaturated

25

What type of fat is typically liquid at room temperature?

unsaturated

26

Examples of unsaturated fats

Nuts, canola oil, olive oil, sunflower oil

27

_____ fat has two or more double bonds and is ____ at room temperature.

polysaturated
liquid

28

Examples of polyunsaturated fat.

soybean oil, corn oil, safflower oil

29

The only essential fatty acids are?

omega 6 and omega 3 fatty acids

30

____ are used as an energy source.

triglycerides

31

Triglycerides are necessary for absorption of _____ vitamins.

fat soluble
ADEK

32

____ is used as a component of the plasma membrane.

cholesterol

33

A precursor for steroid hormones, bile salts, and vitamin D.

cholesterol

34

Cholesterol comes from our ____ through animal base products such as ___, ____, and ___.

diet
meat, eggs, milk

35

_____ can be synthesized by the liver.

choleseterol

36

If nonessential nutrients are not needed from our diet, how do we obtain them?

through biomechanical processes within the body

37

Potatoes, carrots, rice, corn and peas are what type of carb?

starch

38

Why is glucose not an essential nutrient?

our bodies can make it

39

Why are omega-6 and omega-3 important lipids?

they are the only essential acids

40

What are cholesterols used for within the body?

plasma membrane component, precursor for steroid hormones, bile salts and vitamin D

41

____ are the most structurally and functionally diverse of macromolecules

proteins

42

There are ____ to ____ different proteins in the body.

50,000 to 100,000

43

Proteins are synthesized from ___ different amino acids.

20

44

There are ___ essential and ___ nonessential amino acids in the body that makes up proteins.

8 essential
12 nonessential

45

____ contain all essential amino acids.

complete proteins

46

____ do not contains all essential amino acids.

incomplete proteins

47

Examples of complete proteins

meats, poultry, fish, eggs, milk, cheese, yogurt

48

Examples of incomplete proteins

legumes, vegetables, grains

49

Specific dietary intake of proteins is dependent upon ____ and ___.

age and sex

50

The daily proteins servicing is ____ grams.

45 to 60

51

The protein intake should be higher for _____, ____, or after injury, ____ or stress.

pregnant women, children
infection

52

______ cannot be stored in the body.

amino acids

53

Essential amino acids are obtained through ____.

nutrition

54

Nonessential amino acids are _____ by the body.

synthesized

55

_____ is a chemical element needed for synthesizing nitrogen containing molecules such as DNA, RNA, and porphyrin (a component of heme in hemoglobin)

nitrogen

56

____ is the equilibrium between dietary intake and its loss in urine/feces.

Nitrogen balance

57

_____ nitrogen balance is when more nitrogen is absorbed than excreted.

positive

58

Positive nitrogen balance occurs during growth, pregnancy, and during ______.

recovery from injury

59

____ nitrogen balance is when more nitrogen is excreted than absorbed.

negative

60

Negative nitrogen balance results from ____ or blood loss.

malnutrition

61

_____ are organic molecules required for normal metabolism.

vitamins

62

____ are present only in small amounts in food.

vitamins

63

What are the water soluble vitamins?

vitamin b and vitamin c

64

There are several types of vitamin ____ and they serve as coenzymes.

B

65

Vitamin ___ is required for the synthesis of collagen and has antioxidant properties.

C

66

Antioxidants remove _____ from the body.

free radicals

67

_____ are chemical structures that have unpaired electrons and are highly reactive.

free radicals

68

The human body does not store water soluble vitamins. The excess is lost in ______.

urine

69

______ vitamins dissolve in fat and are absorbed by lacteals.

fat soluble

70

The fat soluble vitamins are ...

Vitamin A, Vitamin D, Vitamin K, Vitamin E

71

Retinol is also known as vitamin ____ and is a precursor for visual pigment retinal.

Vitamin A

72

Calciferol is also known as vitamin ____ and is a modified form of calcitiriol.

Vitamin D

73

Tocopherol is also known as vitamin _____ and helps stabilize/prevent damage to cell membranes.

vitamin E

74

Vitamin ____ is required for synthesis of blood clotting proteins.

vitamin k

75

Excess fat soluble vitamins are stored in the body fat and can reach _____.

toxic levels

76

_____ are inorganic ions with diverse functions within the body.

minerals

77

All ____ are essential.

minerals

78

_____ minerals needed at levels greater than 100 mg/day.

Major

79

_____ minerals require less than 100 mg/day.

trace

80

Examples of major minerals.

Calcium
chloride
magnesium
phosphorus
potassium
sodium
sulfur

81

Examples of trace minerals

chromium
cobalt
copper
fluoride
iodine
iron
manganese
molybdenum
selenium
zinc

82

___ is found in hemoglobin where it binds oxygen and mitochondria as part of electron transport chain.

iron

83

_____ is needed for formation/maintenance of the skeleton, muscle contraction, exocytosis of neurotransmitters, and blood clotting.

calcium

84

______ and ______ maintain resting membrane potential in excitable cell and needed for action potential.

sodium and potassium

85

_____ is needed for thyroid hormone production.

Iodine

86

_____ play a role in protein synthesis and wound healing.

zinc

87

______ are the amount of each nutrient that must be obtained each day.

RDA's - recommended daily allowance

88

The recommended daily allowance's are decided on by ______.

the federal government (USDA)

89

Although recommended daily allowances are currently based on population studies, could be established for individual's based on ____.

genetic make up

90

In 2011, updates were made by the USDA from the food pyramid to _____.

MyPlate

91

MyPlate provides visual for ____ of the types of food we need.

portions

92

_______ consists of half fruits/vegetables and half grain/protein and a side of dairy.

MyPlate

93

USDA's website www.choosepmyplate.gov suggests for people to _____, switch from whole milk to non-fat milk, reduce ___ intake and replace sugary drinks with water.

eat less
salt

94

_____ makes you feel hungry.

Ghrelin

95

_____ makes you feel full.

Leptin

96

_______ induce the release of leptin from stomach lining.

Proteins

97

_____ also release leptin.

Adipocytes

98

Too much fat can lead to a ______ ---> feeling hungry more often ---> eating more -----> increasing fat stores

leptin resistance

99

Insulin resistance is a result of a ____ sugar/simple carbohydrate diet that cause the release of high amount of insulin, which can lead to resistance.

high

100

Decreased uptake of glucose from blood causes body cells to feel ____ causing an increase in _____.

starved
appetite

101

Decreased ____ causes increased levels of gherkin and decreased levels of leptin.

sleep

102

The ____ is the time you are eating, digesting, and absorbing nutrients.

absorptive state

103

The absorptive state lasts about ____ after a meal.

four hours

104

During the absorptive state concentrations of glucose, _____, and ______ are increasing within the blood.

triglycerides and amino acids

105

Insulin is a major _______.

regulatory hormone

106

Insulin stimulates ______ in the liver and muscle cells.

glycogenesis

107

Insuline stimulates _____ and inhibits lipolysis in adipocytes.

lipogenesis

108

Insuline stimulates most cells to increase AA uptake increasing the rate of _____.

protein synthesis

109

The time between meals when the body relies on its stores of nutrients because no further absorption of nutrients is occurring is called _________.

post absorptive state

110

Glucagon is a major ______.

regulatory hormone

111

Glucagon stimulates _______ and _______ in liver cells

glycogenolysis
gluconeogenesis

112

Glucagon stimulates ______ in the adipocytes

lipolysis

113

______ is after 4 hours the body switches from glucose to fatty acid catabolism, saving glucose for the ____.

glucose sparing effect
brain

114

______ stimulates the release of energy reserves from hepatocytes/adipocytes. (gluconeogenesis, glycogenolysis, lipolysis)

Growth hormone

115

______ stimulates the uptake of amino acids by body cells.

Growth hormone

116

_______ stimulate the release of energy reserves from hepatocytes/adipocytes.

thyroid hormones

117

_______ stimulates the uptake of amino acids and ______ by body cells/neurons.

Thyroid hormones
glucose

118

_____ stimulates the release of energy reserves from hepatocytes/adipocytes.

cortisol

119

Cortisol stimulates _____ and decreased glucose uptake by the body cells.

protein catabolism

120

_________ is released from the sympathetic division of the ANS.

nor-epinephrine

121

Nor-epinephrine stimulates the release of glucose from _____.

hepatocytes

122

What is the difference between the food pyramid and my plate?

The food pyramid gives number of servings, my plate give serving size visual on plate

123

Why is it a bad thing that adipose tissue releases leptin? Why would this not be a good thing?

We become leptin resistant if too much is released due to high amounts of fat causing a vicious cycle of eating and gaining weight.

124

What is the major hormone released during the absorptive state? What about the post absorptive state?

insulin during absorptive and glucagon during post absorptive

125

Formation of plasma proteins is a function of the _____.

liver

126

Formation and release of bile in the small intestines for emulsification of lipids is a function of the _____.

liver

127

The liver removes _____ from blood following erythrocyte destruction.

bilirubin

128

The liver functions as a ____ bank.

glucose`

129

The liver stores glucose as _____.

glycogen

130

The liver is responsible for the synthesis of ______.

cholesterol

131

The liver releases glucose by breaking down glycogen or creating it out of _____ products.

noncarbohydrate

132

When fatty acids are broken down into 2 carbon units and then formed into acetyl CoA --> they enter the citric acid cycle is called

beta oxidation

133

______ is when more Acetyl CoA than needed for citric acid cycle, it will be converted into ketone bodies by hepatocytes to be used in other body cells.

Ketogenesis

134

______ is when the body fails to adequately regulate ketone production (beta oxidation) causing such a severe accumulation of kept acids (ketone bodies) that the pH of the blood is substantially decreased.

Ketoacidosis

135

Acetyl CoA can also be used to synthesize _______ by way of HMG-CoA reductase.

cholesterol

136

_____ is released into the blood as component of very low density lipoproteins (VLDLs)

cholesterol

137

Cholesterol is synthesized into bile salts and released with bile in the _____.

small intestines.

138

________ contain triglycerides and cholesterols packaged within proteins.

Very low density lipoproteins

139

_________ lipoproteins are assembled within the liver and released into blood.

Very low density

140

______ lipoproteins release triglycerides to all cells of peripheral tissues, but primarily adipose tissue.

very low density

141

very low density lipoproteins triglycerides changes the density converting it into a

?

142

_____ lipoproteins contain high amounts of cholesterol.

low density

143

____ lipoproteins deliver cholesterol to cells by receptor mediated endocytosis.

low density

144

_____ lipoproteins are used by all cells as part of plasma membrane.

low density

145

________ lipoproteins are used by some tissues (testes, ovaries, adrenal glands) to produce steroid hormones.

low density

146

_______ lipoproteins are produced in stages and function to oppose both VLDLs and LDLs.

high density

147

_____ HDLs (proteins only) are created by liver and sent into blood.

empty

148

HDLs circulate and collect lipids, both _______ and _______.

cholesterols and triglycerides

149

HDLs release lipids in ________ which are then converted into VLDLs.

hepatocytes

150

If the body relies on fatty acid energy production for too long of a period and ketone bodies accumulate in the blood, what happens

ketoacidosis - blood pH substantially decreases

151

How does HDL oppose VLDL and LDL?

HDL collects triglycerides and cholesterols from the body and brings them to the liver

VLDL and LDL deposit triglycerides and cholesterols with the body cells

152

What's the difference between VLDL and LDL?

VLDL contain both triglycerides and cholesterols while LDL contain mainly cholesterols.

153

_______ when glucose molecules bonded together forming glycogen.

glycogenesis

154

________ when glycogen begin broken down into glucose.

glycogenolysis

155

________ converting non-carbohydrates into glucose (type of interconversion).

gluconeogenesis

156

During carbohydrate metabolism ______ and ________ are converted to glucose.

fructose and galactose

157

Monosaccharides are absorbed during carbohydrate metabolism from the _____ into the blood and enter hepatocytes.

small intestine

158

During protein metabolism amino acids are used to form _____.

proteins

159

_______ is when amino acids converted from one form to another . (type of interconversion) (changes the side chain).

transamination

160

_______ is when an amine group is removed from amino acids.

deamination

161

_______ converted to urea and then eliminated through urine during deamination.

Amine

162

In deamination, remaining components are oxidized for _______.

cellular respiration

163

During lipid metabolism, ______, is when fatty acids joined with glycerol to form triglycerides.

lipogenesis

164

During lipid metabolism, _____, is when fatty acids released from triglycerides.

lipolysis

165

During lipid metabolism, ________, is when fatty acids are broken down to acetyl CoA.

beta oxidation

166

During lipid metabolism, acetyl CoA is converted to _____ and used by other cells for cellular respiration.

ketone bodies

167

During lipid metabolism, Acetyl CoA is used in _______.

cholesterol synthesis.

168

Glycolysis occurs in _____ and does not require oxygen.

cytosol

169

The products of glucose

2 pyruvate molecules
2 ATP
2 NADH

170

Pyruvate converts to ______ when not enough oxygen is available during glycolysis?

pyruvate

171

During the _________ pyruvate is converted to a acetyl CoA and CO2.

intermediate stage

172

During the intermediate stage _____ NADH is produced per pyruvate.

1

173

During the citric acid cycle acetyl CoA binds ______ to form citric acid.

oxaloacetate

174

During the citric acid cycle produces ____ CO2, ___ ATP, ___ NADH, and ___ FADH2 per cycle

2 CO2, 1 ATP, 3 NADH and 1 FADH2

175

The electron transport chain transfers _______ and an electron from NADH and FADH2 forming ATP through __________.

hydrogen
oxidative phosphorylation

176

During non-carbohydrate ATP generation, triglycerides are broken into ______ and ______.

glycerol and fatty acids

177

During non carbohydrate ATP generation, glycerol enters the pathway after converted into glucose by way of _______.

glucooneogenesis

178

During non carbohydrate ATP generation, fatty acids enter pathway after _______ converts them into acetyl CoA.

beta xoidation

179

During non carbohydrate ATP generation an amine group is removed forming ______.

ketoacids

180

During non carbohydrate ATP generation keotacids enter citric acid cycle at different steps depedning on the type of ________.

amino acid (side chain)

181

Amino acids enter via glycolysis after _______, during non carbohydrate ATP generation.

gluconeogenesis

182

Amino acids enter via intermediate stage if in ___ form, converted into acetyl CoA during non carbohydrate ATP generation.

ketone

183

Amino acids enter via _______ cycle at specific points during non carbohydrate ATP generation.

citric acid

184

What is gluconeogeneiss and why would your body be stimulated to do this?

The production glucose from non carbohydrate productions, when the body is low on glucose supplies.

185

How does the body create 12 of the amino acids needed by the body if there are only 8 essential amino acids in our diet?

transamination

186

What are the four stages of ATP production?

glycolysis, intermediate cycle, citric acid cycle, electron transport

187

If deamination of amino acids create ketoacids, do you thin this would cause the same problem as too much fatty acid ATP production?

Yes, use of proteins for an energy source can also cause ketoacidosis

188

_____ is the measure of energy used in a given period of time.

metabolic rate

189

The amount of energy of the metabolic rate is measured in ____.

calories

190

A ____ is the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water by 1 degree C.

calorie

191

1 kilocalorie = 1000 calories = 1 Calorie

?

192

Carbs produce ___ kilocalories per gram.

4

193

Triglycerides produce ____ kilocalories per gram.

9

194

Proteins produce ___ kilocalories per gram.

4

195

Body weight maintained when there is a balance between calories consumed in the diet and those _____ through metabolic processes and physical activity.

expended

196

BMR is called _____.

basal metabolic rate

197

______ is the amount of energy required when an individual is at rest (and not eating)

Basal Metabolic Rate

198

____ is when a persons submerged in water, the change in the waters temperature is measured.

Calorimeter

199

The _____ is an instrument used to measure oxygen consumption.

respirometer

200

A respirometer indirectly measures BMR because of relationship between oxygen consumption and _____.

heat production

201

1 L of O2 consumed ='s ____ kilocalories of heat produced

4.8

202

BMR varies due to

age
lean body mass
sex
levels of various hormones in blood

203

___% decrease in BMR occurs ever decade starting at 30.

3%

204

People with a greater lean body mass have ____ BMRs.

higher

205

Thyroid hormones _____ BMR.

increases

206

TMR stands for

total metabolic rate

207

BMR + ______ = Total metabolic rate

energy needed for physical activity

208

TMR varies depeding on the amount of _________ and its activity.

skeletal msucle

209

Metabolic rate increases with _______ and stays elevated for hours.

vigorous exercise

210

TMR varies depending on their _____.

food intake

211

Metabolic rate increases after a meal but decreases after _______ have been absorbed.

nutrients

212

TMR varies depending on ______ conditions.

changing environmental conditions

213

Metabolic rate increases when exposed to the _____.

cold

214

Metabolic rate influences heat production in the body, thus _______.

body temperature

215

______ is the temperature of the vital portions of the body (core) that consists of the head and torso.

Core body temperature

216

Body temperature is maintained constantly by fluctuations in the temperature of ________.

peripheral regions

217

The _____ system control assists in temperature regulation.

nervous

218

Temperature regulation is mediated by the _____.

hypothalamus

219

The nervous system controls sweat glands, skeletal muscles, and _______ to maintain temperature regulations.

peripheral blood vessels

220

_____ control assists in body temperature regulations.

hormonal

221

The _______ most significant because it causes an increase in metabolic rate of all cells, primarily neurons (Na+/K+ pump)

thyroid hormone

222

Hormonal control of temperature regulations via these hormones

epinephrine
norepinephrine
growth hormone
testosterone
thryoid hormone