Flashcards in Chapter 17 Deck (199)
________ are ductless glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream to aid in homeostasis
______ are chemical messengers that initiate a change in a target cell
_________ have specific receptors for specific hormones
Similarities of Nervous vs Endocrine
- Both respond to stimuli by releasing a ligand (neurotransmitter, hormone)
- The ligands bind receptors on target cells causing a cellular response
Differences of Nervous vs Endocrine
- NS controls a specific location in the body by way of the neuron while ES releases hormone into the bloodstream thus causing a widespread response throughout body
- NS effect is rapid and short lived while the ES has a long response time and long lasting effect
A function of the endocrine is regulating development, growth, and metabolism. Through cell division and _____ (during growth) and both anabolic and catabolic processes.
A function of the endocrine system is maintaining homeostasis of blood composition and volume. Regulation of blood glucose, _____, ions (Na+, K+, etc) as well as the formed elements.
A function of the endocrine system is controlling digestive process that influence ______ and movement.
An endocrine function is controlling reproductive activities that affect development, function, and ____.
Endocrine tissue and gland are both composed of _____ tissue that release hormones, supported by a ____ tissue framework.
Pituitary, pineal, thyroid, parathyroid, and adrenal glands are all.
single organ, entirely endocrine in function
secretory cells housed in small clusters within organ that have some other primary functions
hypothalamus, skin, thyums, heart, liver, stomach, pancreas, small intestines, adipose tissue, kidneys and gonads
3 steps of hormone synthesis and release
1. hormonal stimulation
2. humoral stimulation
3. nervous system stimulation
the release of hormone in response to another hormone
the release of hormone in response to changes in a level of nutrient or ion in the blood
the release of the hormone in response to stimulation by the nervous system.
nervous system stimulation
physiological effects a result of hormone blood concentrations
blood hormone regulation
Two factors that influence blood hormone concentration
amount of time necessary to reduce the hormone concentration within the blood to one half of what had originally been secreted
Hormones are grouped according to ____.
Three general categories of hormones
____ are water soluble and the most common type of hormones
Hormone elimination can happen in 2 different ways; via enzymatic degradation (liver) and removal from blood through ________
excretion by kidneys or uptake by target cells.
Water-soluable hormones have a ____ half-life.
short (few minutes or less)
____ have the longest half-life.
_____ (a steroid) can last up to ____ days.
_____ are lipid-soluble molecules synthesized from cholesterol.
_____ are water-soluble (except thyroid hormones), modified amino acids also called monoamines.
estrogen, progesterone, testosterone, corticosteroids (cortisol) and mineralocorticoids (aldosterone)
types of steroids
catecholamine's (epi and nor-epi), thyroid hormones and melatnonin (pineal)
types of biogenic amines
formed from cholesterol
derived from amino acid that is modified.
_____ are signaling molecules that do not circulate within blood.
____ are the primary local hormone.
Three types of ____ are: prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes.
______ are the most diverse ______, stimulate pain receptors, reduce fever, and increase inflammatory response.
Prostaglandins are the most diverse Eicosandoid
Aspirin, ibuprofen and other NSAIDs block the formation of _____.
hormone works on the same cell secreted from
hormone works on neighboring cell to secretory cell
What three things can stimulate hormone release?
changes in an ion concentration
What are the three types of hormones?
What is a local hormone?
One that doesn't release into the blood but instead works on local cells
Lipid soluble hormones require _____ carrier proteins synthesized by the liver.
water-soluble carrier proteins
Carrier proteins can be ___ or ____.
specific (thyroxine-binding) or
Lipid soluble hormones
thyroid hormone (TH)
Water soluble amines
biogenic amines (except TH)
About ___ or lipid soluble hormones that are unbound are able to exit the blood and bind receptors of target organs.
1 - 10%
About ____ lipid soluble hormones are bound, readily available source to maintain homeostasis.
_____ hormones do not require carrier proteins.
Lipid soluble hormones are ___, ____ molecules that are lipophilic.
Lipid soluble hormones diffuse ____ through plasma membrane.
Lipid soluble hormones bind receptors within the cytosol/nucleus of the cell to form a ______. They then bind sections of DNA called ______, which causes the transcription of a specific mRNA and thus the synthesis of a specific protein. This results in either an alteration in cell structure (growth) or a shift in the cell's metabolic activities (if the new protein is an _____)
hormone-receptor complex (HRC)
hormone-response elements (HRE)
Water soluble hormones are ____ molecules, unable to ____.
unable to cross the plasma membrane.
Water soluble hormones must bind receptors on the plasma membrane to initiate a series of biochemical events within the cell, which is called _____.
The first messenger in _____ is the signalling molecule (hormone) which causes the formation of the second messenger.
The second messenger of signal transduction is a molecule that ____ cellular activity.
Signal transduction starts with the activation of a ____ protein.
REVIEW SLIDE SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION
Why does a lipid-soluble hormone need a carrier proteins within the blood?
A lipid soluble hormone is non polar which does not mix with the polar nature of the blood plasma.
Lipid soluble hormones cause what to occur?
the transcription of a specific mRNA and thus the synthesis of a specific protein
A water soluble hormone is considered a ____ messenger.
Activated G proteins can then activate what two other plasma proteins?
Adenylate cyclase activates cAMP which then activates ___.
protein kinase A
Phospholipase C splits PIP2 into
The pituitary gland also called the hypophysis is located ___ to the hypothalamus but is connected by way of the ____.
The pituitary gland consists of ___ lobes and can be found within the sella turcica.
The posterior pituitary gland is also called the ____,
Posterior pituitary gland is composed of the ____ and pars nervosa.
The posterior pituitary gland makes up about 1/4 of the pituitary ___.
Axons extend through the hypothalamo - hypophyseal tract from the hypothalamus to the ______.
The posterior pituitary gland has two hypothalamic nuclei; paraventricular and the ____.
Most of the pitutitary mass is called the ____.
There are three distinct areas of the anterior pituitary gland _______, ________, _______.
Hormones produced in _____ cells (neuronal cell body clusters) of the hypothlamus: paraventricular nucleus - oxytocin and supraoptic nucleus - ____.
Hormones are stored in vesicles within the synaptic knobs of the neurons located in the ____. hormones are released into blood when nerve signal is sent from the ____.
____ stimulates contraction of smooth muscles within uterus during delivery and breast during infant nursing.
_____ stimulates kidneys to decrease urine output, thirst centers to increase fluid intake and vasoconstriction if released in high enough doses.
_____ hormones stimulate the production and secretion of specific AP hormones.
releasing hormones (RHs)
Releasing Hormones of the AP
growth hormone GHRH
______ hormones decrease the production and secretion of specific AP hormones.
inhibiting hormones (IHs)
Inhibiting hormones of the AP
growth hormone GHIH
* only two that have inhibiting hormones
All AP hormones are _____ hormones (except prolactin). They stimulate other endocrine glands/cells to release their hormones.
Hormones that stimulate other endocrine glands/cells to release their hormones.
The hypothalamus can be stimulated by:
time of day
excerices to release GHRH which causes release of GH from AP
______, Growth hormone primary target, release insulin like growth factors (IGFs).
IGFs similar to growth hormone but create a greater response due to having a greater _____.
half life 20 hours vs 20 minutes
Increased levels of growth hormone and IGF blood concentrations stimulate the ______ to release GHIH and inhibit the release of GHRH as well as ____ from the AP.
All body cells have receptors for GH and ____.
GH and IGF both activate ______.
GH and IGF activating second messengers causes increased protein synthesis, increased cellular division, and or ______.
Growth hormone causes hepatocytes to stimulate to increase ______.
blood glucose levels.
Adipocytes are stimulated by the growth hormone to increase ____.
What is the hypothalamo-hyphyseal tract?
the axons from the hypothalamus to the pars nervosa of the posterior pituitary
The hormones that are released from the posterior pituitary are synthesized where?
In the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus
Of the 6 hormones released from the anterior pituitary, how many are stimulated to be released due to a releasing hormone from the hypothalamus?
What is a tropic hormone
a hormone that stimulates the release of another hormone
What does IGF stand for? Where are they synthesized? Why are they stronger than growth hormones?
Insulin-like growth factor; in the liver; because they have a longer halft live
Largest endocrine structure in the body?
The thyroid gland is composed of microscopic structures called _____.
Thyroid follicles contain a ___ (protein rich fluid) surrounded by follicular cells.
______ cells found between follicles of thyroid and release calcitonin.
_____ is a hormone that decreases blood calcium levels.
Follicular cells produce a glycoprotein called _____ which is secreted and stored within the colloid.
Within the colloid of a follicular cells thyroglobin (TGB) binds with ____ and forms DIT and MIT which are _______.
thyroid hormone precursors
When thyroid hormone is needed, DIT and MIT are taken from the colloid by the _____ and with the aid of a _____, form into the active forms of thyroid hormone (T3 and T4) which are then released into the blood stream.
Thyroid hormone (TH) ___ protein synthesis, in all cells, especially ____.
Thyroid hormone (TH) ____ production of Na+/K+ pumps (action of ____ pumps generates heat).
_____ is the increase of heat production of the body, as by the thyroid hormone.
Thyroid hormone (TH) stimulates hepatocytes (liver cells) to _____ blood glucose levels.
Thyroid hormone (TH) stimulates adipocytes (fat cells) to ____ lipolysis.
Thyroid hormone (TH) increases respiratory rate, ______, and _____.
heart rate and stroke volume
What is thyroglobin?
a glycoprotein made by the follicular cells and stored in the colloid
Once thyroglobin binds iodine it creates _____.
DIT and MIT
T3 and T4 are synthesized by the follicular cell with the aid of what organelle?
What is the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis?
TRH is released by the hypothalamus ----> which stimulates the release of TSH from the anterior pituitary (AP) ----> which stimulates teh release of TH from the thyroid
Thyroid hormone increases protein synthesis in which cells of the body?
all cells especially neurons
Adrenal glands are composed of a ____ and ____.
cortex and medulla
Adrenal medulla releases _______ (_______) in response to sympathetic nervous system.
catecholamine's (Epinephrine and Norepinephrine)
Adrenal cortex syntesizes more than ____ different lipid-soluble corticosteroids.
The adrenal cortex is divided into what three regions?
The outer layer of the adrenal cortex
Zona _____ synthesize mineralocorticoids to help regulate the composition and concentration of ___ in the body.
In the zona glomerulosa, _____, regulates Na+ and K+ concentrations int he blood/body fluids by regulating their secretions from the kidneys.
The middle layer of the adrenal cortex
The zona ____ synthesize glucocorticoids such as cortisol and corticosterone.
The inner most layer of the adrenal cortex
The zona ____ synthesize gonadocorticoids (sex hormones). Primarily male sex hormones called _____.
Cortisol and corticosterone increase ____ levels in blood in response to ____.
stress of injury.
Hypothalamus is stimulated by decreased levels of blood cortisol levels thus releasing _____ causing the release of _____ from the pituitary. This causes the release of cortisol and corticosterone (95% cortisol)
CRH (corticotropin releasing hormone)
ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone)
_____ and ____ are inhibited by increased levels of cortisol.
Cortisol is ____ soluble, binds receptors within cytosol causing changes in ___ activation.
Cortisol stimulates _____ to increase blood glucose levels.
hepatocytes (liver cells)
Cortisol stimulates adipocytes to increase ______.
Cortisol causes most cells (muscle, lymphatic, skin, bone) to increase _____ as well as decrease glucose uptake.
High does of cortisol increase retention of ____ and ____.
Na+ and H20
High doses of cortisol decrease _____.
High doses of cortisol suppress the _____.
High doses of cortisol inhibit ____ repair.
Cortisol causes increased glycogeonlysis and gluconeogenesis and ____ in the liver.
Cortisol causes increased lipolysis on adipose tissue and decreased ____.
General adaptation syndrome is also known as the ____.
____ is the nonspecific response of the body to any demand made upon it.
general adaptation syndrome
General adaptation syndrome stressors can be ___ or _____.
emotional or physical
Anxiety, anger, fear, and excitement are ______ stressors.
Fever, trauma, hermorrhage, surgery and malnutrition are ____ stressors.
The three stages of general adaptation syndrome stages
the alarm reaction
the stage of resistance
the stage of exhaustion
The alarm reaction is ____ and regulated by the ____ nervous system.
During the alarm reaction stage of general adaptation syndrome there is a release of ______.
epinephrine and norepinephrine
In the alarm reaction stage of general adaptation syndrome the is increased ____
respiration, blood pressure, etc.
The stage of ____ occurs after a few hours in during general adaptation syndrome.
In the stage of resistance of general adaptation syndrome once the glycogen stores are depleted, ____ is released.
During the stage of resistance of general adaptation syndrome there is an increased level of _____ and protein catabolism
blood glucose levels
The stage of _____ occurs after weeks or months in the general adaptation syndrome.
During the stage of exhaustion of general adaptation syndrome the ____ are depleted, and the body is weaker.
During the stage of exhaustion of the general adaptation syndrome there are increased levels of _____ causing fluid, electrolyte, and pH imbalance.
What type of hormone is released by the zona glomerulosa?
What type of hormone is released by the zona fasciculata?
What type of hormone is released by the zona reticularis?
In most cells, of the body, what is the effect of cortisol release?
protein catabolism and less glucose uptake
What are the three stages of the general adaptation syndrome or stress response?
The alarm reaction
The stage of resistance
The stage of exhaustion
The pancreas is considered a ____ gland because it has both endocrine and exocrine functions.
The pancreas's endocrine functions to regulate _____.
blood glucose concentrations
Endocrine cells found in pancreatic islets (islets of Langerhans) account for ____ of the pancreatic volume.
What are the two types of pancreatic islet cells?
Alpha cells secrete _____.
Beta cells secrete _____.
____ is released following food intake.
______ in beta cells detect an increase in blood glucose levels (normal 70-110 mg/dL)
Insulin is a ____ messenger.
Insulin stimulates increased _____ in the liver.
glycogenesis (s the process of glycogen synthesis, in which glucose molecules are added to chains of glycogen for storage.)
Insulin stimulates _____, removing fatty acids from blood in adipocytes.
In most cells, insulin increases the uptake of _____, causing an increase in protein anabolism (especially in muscle cells)
In most cells, insulin increase in glucose _____ especially in muscle cells and adipocytes. This happens by increasing glucose transport of proteins in the ____.
Insulin increases uptake of amino acids, which stimulates _____.
Insulin causes increased _____ in the liver and decreased _____ and ______.
Insulin causes increased ____ in the adipose connective tissue and decreased lipolysis.
____ is released in response to low blood glucose levels by alpha cells.
Glucagon is a ____ messenger that stimulates cAMP.
Glucagon increases glyconeolysis and glyconeogeneis and decreases ____>
Glucagon increases _____ and decreases lipogenesis in adipocytes.
Pineal gland releases _____ which regulates our circadian rhythms.
Parathyroid glands releases _____ which stimulates release of calcium from bones, kidneys to conserve calcium and stimulate release of calcitriol from kidneys which is needed to absorb ____ from our diet.
The thymus releases ____ hormones and participates in _______.
The heart releases ____ hormone
Kidneys release _____.
Liver releases _____.
Adipose tissue releases ____, that regulates food intake by binding neurons within hypothalamus that control appetite (increases).
Stomach/small intestine: releases _____ to increase stomach activity.
Stomach/small intestine: releases ____ to stimulate release of liver and pancreatic secretions.
Stomach/small intestine: releases ______ which stimulates the release of bile from the gallbladder.
Adipose tissue releases _____.
Adipose tissue releases leptin which regulates food intake by binding neurons within hypothlamaus that control ______.
The endocrine system regulates the development, growth, and ______
The endocrine system functions to maintain homeostasis of blood _____.
composition and volume
The endocrine system controls _______.