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Flashcards in Chapter 17 Deck (199)
1

________ are ductless glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream to aid in homeostasis

Endocrine glands

2

______ are chemical messengers that initiate a change in a target cell

hormones

3

_________ have specific receptors for specific hormones

target cells

4

Similarities of Nervous vs Endocrine

- Both respond to stimuli by releasing a ligand (neurotransmitter, hormone)
- The ligands bind receptors on target cells causing a cellular response

5

Differences of Nervous vs Endocrine

- NS controls a specific location in the body by way of the neuron while ES releases hormone into the bloodstream thus causing a widespread response throughout body
- NS effect is rapid and short lived while the ES has a long response time and long lasting effect

6

A function of the endocrine is regulating development, growth, and metabolism. Through cell division and _____ (during growth) and both anabolic and catabolic processes.

differentiation

7

A function of the endocrine system is maintaining homeostasis of blood composition and volume. Regulation of blood glucose, _____, ions (Na+, K+, etc) as well as the formed elements.

amino acids

8

A function of the endocrine system is controlling digestive process that influence ______ and movement.

secretory processes

9

An endocrine function is controlling reproductive activities that affect development, function, and ____.

sexual behaviors.

10

Endocrine tissue and gland are both composed of _____ tissue that release hormones, supported by a ____ tissue framework.

epithelial tissue
connective

11

Pituitary, pineal, thyroid, parathyroid, and adrenal glands are all.

endocrine organs

12

single organ, entirely endocrine in function

endocrine organs

13

secretory cells housed in small clusters within organ that have some other primary functions

endocrine tissues

14

hypothalamus, skin, thyums, heart, liver, stomach, pancreas, small intestines, adipose tissue, kidneys and gonads

endocrine tissues

15

3 steps of hormone synthesis and release

1. hormonal stimulation
2. humoral stimulation
3. nervous system stimulation

16

the release of hormone in response to another hormone

hormonal stimulation

17

the release of hormone in response to changes in a level of nutrient or ion in the blood

humoral stimulation

18

the release of the hormone in response to stimulation by the nervous system.

nervous system stimulation

19

physiological effects a result of hormone blood concentrations

blood hormone regulation

20

Two factors that influence blood hormone concentration

hormone synthesis
hormone elimination

21

amount of time necessary to reduce the hormone concentration within the blood to one half of what had originally been secreted

half life

22

Hormones are grouped according to ____.

chemical structures

23

Three general categories of hormones

steroids
biogenic amines
proteins

24

____ are water soluble and the most common type of hormones

proteins

25

Hormone elimination can happen in 2 different ways; via enzymatic degradation (liver) and removal from blood through ________

excretion by kidneys or uptake by target cells.

26

Water-soluable hormones have a ____ half-life.

short (few minutes or less)

27

____ have the longest half-life.

steroids

28

_____ (a steroid) can last up to ____ days.

testosterone
12

29

_____ are lipid-soluble molecules synthesized from cholesterol.

steroids

30

_____ are water-soluble (except thyroid hormones), modified amino acids also called monoamines.

biogenic amines

31

estrogen, progesterone, testosterone, corticosteroids (cortisol) and mineralocorticoids (aldosterone)

types of steroids

32

catecholamine's (epi and nor-epi), thyroid hormones and melatnonin (pineal)

types of biogenic amines

33

formed from cholesterol

steroids

34

derived from amino acid that is modified.

biogenic amines

35

_____ are signaling molecules that do not circulate within blood.

local hormones

36

____ are the primary local hormone.

eicosanoids

37

Three types of ____ are: prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes.

eicosanoids

38

______ are the most diverse ______, stimulate pain receptors, reduce fever, and increase inflammatory response.

Prostaglandins are the most diverse Eicosandoid

39

Aspirin, ibuprofen and other NSAIDs block the formation of _____.

prostaglandins

40

hormone works on the same cell secreted from

autocrine stimulation

41

hormone works on neighboring cell to secretory cell

paracrine stimulation

42

What three things can stimulate hormone release?

another hormone
changes in an ion concentration
nervous stimulation

43

What are the three types of hormones?

steroids
biogenic amines
proteins

44

What is a local hormone?

One that doesn't release into the blood but instead works on local cells

45

Lipid soluble hormones require _____ carrier proteins synthesized by the liver.

water-soluble carrier proteins

46

Carrier proteins can be ___ or ____.

specific (thyroxine-binding) or
nonselective (albumin)

47

Lipid soluble hormones

steroids
calcitriol
thyroid hormone (TH)

48

Water soluble amines

proteins
biogenic amines (except TH)

49

About ___ or lipid soluble hormones that are unbound are able to exit the blood and bind receptors of target organs.

1 - 10%

50

About ____ lipid soluble hormones are bound, readily available source to maintain homeostasis.

90-99%

51

_____ hormones do not require carrier proteins.

water-soluble hormones

52

Lipid soluble hormones are ___, ____ molecules that are lipophilic.

small
nonpolar

53

Lipid soluble hormones diffuse ____ through plasma membrane.

directly

54

Lipid soluble hormones bind receptors within the cytosol/nucleus of the cell to form a ______. They then bind sections of DNA called ______, which causes the transcription of a specific mRNA and thus the synthesis of a specific protein. This results in either an alteration in cell structure (growth) or a shift in the cell's metabolic activities (if the new protein is an _____)

hormone-receptor complex (HRC)
hormone-response elements (HRE)
enzyme

55

Water soluble hormones are ____ molecules, unable to ____.

polar
unable to cross the plasma membrane.

56

Water soluble hormones must bind receptors on the plasma membrane to initiate a series of biochemical events within the cell, which is called _____.

signal transduction

57

The first messenger in _____ is the signalling molecule (hormone) which causes the formation of the second messenger.

signal transduction

58

The second messenger of signal transduction is a molecule that ____ cellular activity.

modifies

59

Signal transduction starts with the activation of a ____ protein.

G

60

REVIEW SLIDE SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION

!

61

Why does a lipid-soluble hormone need a carrier proteins within the blood?

A lipid soluble hormone is non polar which does not mix with the polar nature of the blood plasma.

62

Lipid soluble hormones cause what to occur?

the transcription of a specific mRNA and thus the synthesis of a specific protein

63

A water soluble hormone is considered a ____ messenger.

first

64

Activated G proteins can then activate what two other plasma proteins?

Adenylate cyclase
phopholipase C

65

Adenylate cyclase activates cAMP which then activates ___.

protein kinase A

66

Phospholipase C splits PIP2 into

DAG
IP3

67

The pituitary gland also called the hypophysis is located ___ to the hypothalamus but is connected by way of the ____.

inferior
infundibulum

68

The pituitary gland consists of ___ lobes and can be found within the sella turcica.

two

69

The posterior pituitary gland is also called the ____,

neurohypophysis

70

Posterior pituitary gland is composed of the ____ and pars nervosa.

infundibulum

71

The posterior pituitary gland makes up about 1/4 of the pituitary ___.

mass.

72

Axons extend through the hypothalamo - hypophyseal tract from the hypothalamus to the ______.

pars nervousa.

73

The posterior pituitary gland has two hypothalamic nuclei; paraventricular and the ____.

supraoptic

74

Most of the pitutitary mass is called the ____.

adenohypophysis

75

There are three distinct areas of the anterior pituitary gland _______, ________, _______.

pars distalis
pars tuberalis
pars intermedia

76

Hormones produced in _____ cells (neuronal cell body clusters) of the hypothlamus: paraventricular nucleus - oxytocin and supraoptic nucleus - ____.

neurosecretory cells
ADH

77

Hormones are stored in vesicles within the synaptic knobs of the neurons located in the ____. hormones are released into blood when nerve signal is sent from the ____.

posterior pituitary
hypothalamus

78

____ stimulates contraction of smooth muscles within uterus during delivery and breast during infant nursing.

oxytocin

79

_____ stimulates kidneys to decrease urine output, thirst centers to increase fluid intake and vasoconstriction if released in high enough doses.

ADH (vasopressin)

80

_____ hormones stimulate the production and secretion of specific AP hormones.

releasing hormones (RHs)

81

Releasing Hormones of the AP

thyrotropin TRH
prolactin PRH
gonadotropin GnRH
corticoropic CRH
growth hormone GHRH

82

______ hormones decrease the production and secretion of specific AP hormones.

inhibiting hormones (IHs)

83

Inhibiting hormones of the AP

prolactin PRL
growth hormone GHIH
* only two that have inhibiting hormones

84

All AP hormones are _____ hormones (except prolactin). They stimulate other endocrine glands/cells to release their hormones.

tropic

85

Hormones that stimulate other endocrine glands/cells to release their hormones.

tropic hormones

86

The hypothalamus can be stimulated by:

age
time of day
nutrient level
stress
excerices to release GHRH which causes release of GH from AP

87

______, Growth hormone primary target, release insulin like growth factors (IGFs).

hepatocytes

88

IGFs similar to growth hormone but create a greater response due to having a greater _____.

half life 20 hours vs 20 minutes

89

Increased levels of growth hormone and IGF blood concentrations stimulate the ______ to release GHIH and inhibit the release of GHRH as well as ____ from the AP.

hypothalamus
GH

90

All body cells have receptors for GH and ____.

IGF.

91

GH and IGF both activate ______.

second messengers

92

GH and IGF activating second messengers causes increased protein synthesis, increased cellular division, and or ______.

cell differentiation

93

Growth hormone causes hepatocytes to stimulate to increase ______.

blood glucose levels.

94

Adipocytes are stimulated by the growth hormone to increase ____.

lipolysis

95

What is the hypothalamo-hyphyseal tract?

the axons from the hypothalamus to the pars nervosa of the posterior pituitary

96

The hormones that are released from the posterior pituitary are synthesized where?

In the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus

97

Of the 6 hormones released from the anterior pituitary, how many are stimulated to be released due to a releasing hormone from the hypothalamus?

all six

98

What is a tropic hormone

a hormone that stimulates the release of another hormone

99

What does IGF stand for? Where are they synthesized? Why are they stronger than growth hormones?

Insulin-like growth factor; in the liver; because they have a longer halft live

100

Largest endocrine structure in the body?

thyroid gland

101

The thyroid gland is composed of microscopic structures called _____.

thyroid follicles

102

Thyroid follicles contain a ___ (protein rich fluid) surrounded by follicular cells.

colloid

103

______ cells found between follicles of thyroid and release calcitonin.

parafollicular cells

104

_____ is a hormone that decreases blood calcium levels.

calcitonin

105

Follicular cells produce a glycoprotein called _____ which is secreted and stored within the colloid.

thyroglobin (TGB)

106

Within the colloid of a follicular cells thyroglobin (TGB) binds with ____ and forms DIT and MIT which are _______.

iodine
thyroid hormone precursors

107

When thyroid hormone is needed, DIT and MIT are taken from the colloid by the _____ and with the aid of a _____, form into the active forms of thyroid hormone (T3 and T4) which are then released into the blood stream.

follicular cell
lysosome

108

Hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis

LIST

109

Thyroid hormone (TH) ___ protein synthesis, in all cells, especially ____.

increases
neurons

110

Thyroid hormone (TH) ____ production of Na+/K+ pumps (action of ____ pumps generates heat).

increases
more

111

_____ is the increase of heat production of the body, as by the thyroid hormone.

calorigenic effect

112

Thyroid hormone (TH) stimulates hepatocytes (liver cells) to _____ blood glucose levels.

increase

113

Thyroid hormone (TH) stimulates adipocytes (fat cells) to ____ lipolysis.

increase

114

Thyroid hormone (TH) increases respiratory rate, ______, and _____.

heart rate and stroke volume

115

What is thyroglobin?

a glycoprotein made by the follicular cells and stored in the colloid

116

Once thyroglobin binds iodine it creates _____.

DIT and MIT

117

T3 and T4 are synthesized by the follicular cell with the aid of what organelle?

lysosome

118

What is the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis?

TRH is released by the hypothalamus ----> which stimulates the release of TSH from the anterior pituitary (AP) ----> which stimulates teh release of TH from the thyroid

119

Thyroid hormone increases protein synthesis in which cells of the body?

all cells especially neurons

120

Adrenal glands are composed of a ____ and ____.

cortex and medulla

121

Adrenal medulla releases _______ (_______) in response to sympathetic nervous system.

catecholamine's (Epinephrine and Norepinephrine)

122

Adrenal cortex syntesizes more than ____ different lipid-soluble corticosteroids.

25

123

The adrenal cortex is divided into what three regions?

zona glomerulosa
zona fasciculata
zona reticularis

124

The outer layer of the adrenal cortex

zona glomerulosa

125

Zona _____ synthesize mineralocorticoids to help regulate the composition and concentration of ___ in the body.

glomerulosa
ions

126

In the zona glomerulosa, _____, regulates Na+ and K+ concentrations int he blood/body fluids by regulating their secretions from the kidneys.

aldosterone

127

The middle layer of the adrenal cortex

zona fasciculata

128

The zona ____ synthesize glucocorticoids such as cortisol and corticosterone.

fasciculata

129

The inner most layer of the adrenal cortex

zona reticularis

130

The zona ____ synthesize gonadocorticoids (sex hormones). Primarily male sex hormones called _____.

reticularis
androgens

131

Cortisol and corticosterone increase ____ levels in blood in response to ____.

nutrient levels
stress of injury.

132

Hypothalamus is stimulated by decreased levels of blood cortisol levels thus releasing _____ causing the release of _____ from the pituitary. This causes the release of cortisol and corticosterone (95% cortisol)

CRH (corticotropin releasing hormone)
ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone)

133

_____ and ____ are inhibited by increased levels of cortisol.

CRH
ACTH

134

Cortisol is ____ soluble, binds receptors within cytosol causing changes in ___ activation.

lipid
gene

135

Cortisol stimulates _____ to increase blood glucose levels.

hepatocytes (liver cells)

136

Cortisol stimulates adipocytes to increase ______.

lipolysis

137

Cortisol causes most cells (muscle, lymphatic, skin, bone) to increase _____ as well as decrease glucose uptake.

protein catabolism

138

High does of cortisol increase retention of ____ and ____.

Na+ and H20

139

High doses of cortisol decrease _____.

inflammation

140

High doses of cortisol suppress the _____.

immune system

141

High doses of cortisol inhibit ____ repair.

connective tissue

142

Cortisol causes increased glycogeonlysis and gluconeogenesis and ____ in the liver.

decreased glycogenesis

143

Cortisol causes increased lipolysis on adipose tissue and decreased ____.

lipogenesis

144

General adaptation syndrome is also known as the ____.

stress response

145

____ is the nonspecific response of the body to any demand made upon it.

general adaptation syndrome

146

General adaptation syndrome stressors can be ___ or _____.

emotional or physical

147

Anxiety, anger, fear, and excitement are ______ stressors.

emotional

148

Fever, trauma, hermorrhage, surgery and malnutrition are ____ stressors.

physical

149

The three stages of general adaptation syndrome stages

the alarm reaction
the stage of resistance
the stage of exhaustion

150

The alarm reaction is ____ and regulated by the ____ nervous system.

immediate
sympathetic

151

During the alarm reaction stage of general adaptation syndrome there is a release of ______.

epinephrine and norepinephrine

152

In the alarm reaction stage of general adaptation syndrome the is increased ____

respiration, blood pressure, etc.

153

The stage of ____ occurs after a few hours in during general adaptation syndrome.

resistance

154

In the stage of resistance of general adaptation syndrome once the glycogen stores are depleted, ____ is released.

cortisol

155

During the stage of resistance of general adaptation syndrome there is an increased level of _____ and protein catabolism

blood glucose levels

156

The stage of _____ occurs after weeks or months in the general adaptation syndrome.

exhaustion

157

During the stage of exhaustion of general adaptation syndrome the ____ are depleted, and the body is weaker.

fat

158

During the stage of exhaustion of the general adaptation syndrome there are increased levels of _____ causing fluid, electrolyte, and pH imbalance.

aldosterone

159

What type of hormone is released by the zona glomerulosa?

mineralocorticoids (aldosterone)

160

What type of hormone is released by the zona fasciculata?

glucocorticoids (cortisol)

161

What type of hormone is released by the zona reticularis?

gonadocorticoids (androgens)

162

In most cells, of the body, what is the effect of cortisol release?

protein catabolism and less glucose uptake

163

What are the three stages of the general adaptation syndrome or stress response?

The alarm reaction
The stage of resistance
The stage of exhaustion

164

The pancreas is considered a ____ gland because it has both endocrine and exocrine functions.

heterocrine gland

165

The pancreas's endocrine functions to regulate _____.

blood glucose concentrations

166

Endocrine cells found in pancreatic islets (islets of Langerhans) account for ____ of the pancreatic volume.

1%

167

What are the two types of pancreatic islet cells?

alpha cells
beta cells

168

Alpha cells secrete _____.

glucagon.

169

Beta cells secrete _____.

insulin

170

____ is released following food intake.

insulin

171

______ in beta cells detect an increase in blood glucose levels (normal 70-110 mg/dL)

chemoreceptors

172

Insulin is a ____ messenger.

first

173

Insulin stimulates increased _____ in the liver.

glycogenesis (s the process of glycogen synthesis, in which glucose molecules are added to chains of glycogen for storage.)

174

Insulin stimulates _____, removing fatty acids from blood in adipocytes.

increased lipogenesis

175

In most cells, insulin increases the uptake of _____, causing an increase in protein anabolism (especially in muscle cells)

amino acids

176

In most cells, insulin increase in glucose _____ especially in muscle cells and adipocytes. This happens by increasing glucose transport of proteins in the ____.

uptake
plasma membrane

177

Insulin increases uptake of amino acids, which stimulates _____.

protein anaabolism

178

Insulin causes increased _____ in the liver and decreased _____ and ______.

Increased glycogenesis
Decreased glycogenolysis
decreased glycogeneogenesis

179

Insulin causes increased ____ in the adipose connective tissue and decreased lipolysis.

lipogenesis

180

____ is released in response to low blood glucose levels by alpha cells.

glucagon

181

Glucagon is a ____ messenger that stimulates cAMP.

first

182

Glucagon increases glyconeolysis and glyconeogeneis and decreases ____>

glycogenesis

183

Glucagon increases _____ and decreases lipogenesis in adipocytes.

lipolysis

184

Pineal gland releases _____ which regulates our circadian rhythms.

melatonin

185

Parathyroid glands releases _____ which stimulates release of calcium from bones, kidneys to conserve calcium and stimulate release of calcitriol from kidneys which is needed to absorb ____ from our diet.

PTH
calcium

186

The thymus releases ____ hormones and participates in _______.

thymic
T-lymphocyte maturation

187

The heart releases ____ hormone

atrial natriuretic

188

Kidneys release _____.

erythropoietin

189

Liver releases _____.

angiotensinogen

190

Adipose tissue releases ____, that regulates food intake by binding neurons within hypothalamus that control appetite (increases).

leptin

191

Stomach/small intestine: releases _____ to increase stomach activity.

gastrin

192

Stomach/small intestine: releases ____ to stimulate release of liver and pancreatic secretions.

secretin

193

Stomach/small intestine: releases ______ which stimulates the release of bile from the gallbladder.

cholecystokinin (CCK)

194

Adipose tissue releases _____.

leptin

195

Adipose tissue releases leptin which regulates food intake by binding neurons within hypothlamaus that control ______.

appetite
(increases)

196

The endocrine system regulates the development, growth, and ______

metabolism

197

The endocrine system functions to maintain homeostasis of blood _____.

composition and volume

198

The endocrine system controls _______.

digestive processes

199

The endocrine system controls the ______

reproductive activities