Chapter 23 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 23 Deck (293)
1

____ are respiratory tracts that move air from atmosphere to alveoli and back.

air passageway

2

_______ is where oxygen diffuses from alveoli into blood and carbon dioxide diffuses from blood to alveoli.

site for oxygen/carbon dioxide exchange

3

The olfactory receptors are located in the superior region of the nasal cavity and are responsible for _____.

detection of odors

4

Vocal cords are responsible for sound production and sinuses for sound ____.

resonation

5

The _____ zone consists of the nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and bronchioles (nose to end of terminal bronchioles). These structures form a continuous passageway for air to move in and out of the lungs.

conducting

6

The ____ zone consists of the respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, and alveoli. The area contains structures that participate in gas exchange with the blood.

respiratory

7

____ is produced by the mucous and serous glands located in the lamina propria of respiratory mucosa (and goblet cells).

mucus

8

4 components of mucus

1. mucin
2. lysozyme
3. defensins
4. immunoglobins

9

_____ is protein that increases mucus viscosity; which traps more inhaled dust, dirt particles, microorganisms and pollen.

mucin

10

____ are the antibacterial enzyme contained in mucus.

lysozymes

11

____ are the antimicrobial proteins in mucus.

defensins

12

______ are a component of mucus.

immunoglobins - IgA

13

____ region contains olfactory epithelium.

olfactory region

14

The superior region in the nasal cavity is called the _____ region.

olfactory

15

Airborne chemicals dissolve in mucus to simulate ____ receptors in the olfactory region.

olfactory

16

_____ region has extensive vascular network.

respiratory

17

Because the respiratory region has an extensive vascular network, nosebleeds are common due to the superficial nature, referred to as _____.

epistaxis

18

_____ is immediately internal to the nostrils.

nasal vestibule

19

The nasal vestibule is immediately internal to nostrils which contain course hairs called ______ to trap large particulates.

vibrissae

20

______ are composed of elastic connective tissue which extends from thyroid cartilage to arytenoid cartilages.

vocal ligaments

21

Vocal ligaments covered in mucosa form ______.

vocal folds

22

____ also extend from thyroid cartilage to arytenoid cartilages, and to the corniculate cartilages.

vestibular ligaments

23

Vestibular ligaments covered with mucosa form ______.

vestibular folds

24

Skeletal muscles within the larynx cause ____ cartilages to pivot resulting in a change to the dimension of the rim glottides.

arytenoid

25

The conducting zone extends from the ____ to the ____.

nose to the terminal bronchioles

26

The respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, and alveoli are considered part of the ____ zone.

respiratory

27

Nosebleeds occur in what region of the nasal cavity?

respiratory zone

28

_____ receptors can be found in the olfactory region of the nasal cavity.

smelling

29

Vocal ligaments extend from the thyroid cartilage to the _____ aril ages.

arytenoid

30

Pivoting of the arytenoid cartilages changes the dimension of the _____.

rima glottidis

31

______ is air forced past vocal cords during expiration while intrinsic laryngeal muscles narrow opening of rims glottidis.

sound production

32

Characteristics of sound include: range, loudness, and ____.

pitch.

33

_____ is determined by length and thickness of vocal folds.

range

34

A range goes from soprano to ____.

bass

35

____ is determined by the amount of tension on vocal folds.

pitch

36

Increased pitch results in an ______ in tension of the vocal folds.

increased

37

The ___ of sound waves determines pitch.

frequency

38

Loudness is determined by force of air passing across _____.

vocal cords

39

Speech requires participation of pharynx, nasal and oral cavities, paranasal sinuses, lips, ______ and ______.

teeth and tongue

40

Two cell types form the alveolar wall; ______ and _______.

type I cell
type II cell

41

Type I cells are also called ______ cells.

squamous alveolar

42

Type II cells are also called _____.

septal cells

43

_____ cells make up approximately 95% of alveolar surface area.

Type I

44

Type I cells form the thin walls that make the _____.

alveoli.

45

The internal surface of the alveolar walysare moist, making the alveoli prone to ____ due to surface tension.

collapse

46

Type II cells secret ______ surfactant.

pulmonary

47

_____ is oily fluid that coats the inner alveolar surface.

pulmonary surfactant

48

Surfactant molecules tightly pack together during expiration to keep alveoli from ____.

collapsing

49

Alveolar macrophages are also called ____.

dust cells.

50

The alveolar cells include; type I cells, type II cells, and ____.

alveolar macrophages

51

_____ engulf microorganisms or particulate material that reach alveoli.

alveolar macrophages

52

The _____ is a thin barrier that oxygen and carbon dioxide diffuse across during gas exchange int he lungs.

respiratory membrane

53

The respiratory membrane consists of two _____ that are fused.

basement membranes

54

One basement membrane of the respiratory membrane consists of ________.

alveolar epithelium

55

One basement membrane of the respiratory membrane consists of ______.

capillary endothelium

56

The _____ conducts blood to and from the alveoli within the lungs to replenish oxygen level and get rid of carbon dioxide.

pulmonary circulation

57

The pulmonary circuit contains the pulmonary trunk, arteries, and ____.

veins

58

The pulmonary circuit starts from the right ventricle of the heart and ends at the _______.

left atrium of the heart.

59

Bronchial circulation is a component of the ____ circuit that transports oxygenated blood to the tissues of the lungs.

systemic

60

Bronchial arteries branch from the _____.

descending thoracic aorta

61

Bronchial veins drain into _____.

superior vena cava

62

Some of the oxygenated blood drains into pulmonary veins, thus blood exiting lungs is slightly less oxygenated than the blood immediately leaving get the ______.

pulmonary capillaries

63

What type of alveolar cells secretes surfactant to keep lungs from collapsing?

type II

64

What is the difference between the pulmonary and bronchial circulations to the lungs?

Pulmonary circulation is taking oxygen poor blood to and from the lungs for gas exchange between blood and atmosphere.

Bronchial circulation is taking oxygen rich blood to tissue of lungs where blood returns oxygen poor to the superior vena cava or mixes with blood in the pulmonary veins heading back to the heart.

65

Lung inflation occurs due to expanding properties of the chest wall and because of the _______.

recoiling properties of the lungs

66

Surface tension caused by serous fluid within the pleural cavity causes lungs to 'cling' to the internal surface of the chest wall causing _____.

chest wall expantion

67

Elastic fibers within lungs are stretched when lungs expand, but naturally want to ____ pulling the lungs back in.

recoil

68

______ is generated due to suction action of surface tension and recoiling elastic fibers.

Intrapleural pressue

69

____ (within lungs) is greater than intrapleural pressure.

Intrapulmonary pressure

70

___ pressure keeps lungs inflated.

intrapulmonary

71

______ is also referred to as breathing.

pulmonary ventilation

72

______ is the movement of respiratory gases between atmosphere and alveoli of lungs.

pulmonary ventilation

73

______ exchange of respiratory gases between the alveoli and the blood in the pulmonary capillaries.

external respiration

74

_____ is the transport of respiratory gases within the blood between the lungs and systemic cells of the body.

gas transport

75

______ is the exchange of respiratory gases between the blood in the systemic capillaries and the systemic cells of the body.

internal respiration

76

The first four steps of the respiratory process involve the movement of ____ and the last four steps of the respiratory process involve the movement of ____.

oxygen
carbon dioxide

77

The 1st four steps of the respiratory process

1. breath in air containing O2
2. O2 moves into the blood
3. Blood containing O2
4. O2 moves into systemic cells

78

The last four steps of the respiratory process

5. CO2 moves into blood
6. Blood containing CO2
7. CO2 moves into the alveoli
8. Air containing CO2

79

_____ dimension changes as a result of movement of the diaphragm.

vertical

80

_____ dimension changes occur when rib cage is elevated or visa versa, rib cage depresses.

lateral

81

_____ dimension changes occur as inferior portion of the sternum moves anteriorly, or posteriorly.

anterior-posterior

82

Thoracic cavity dimensions change because of ______ and _______.

inspiration and expiration

83

The thoracic cavity expands during ______.

inspiration

84

The thoracic cavity contracts during _____.

expiration

85

Chest wall and lungs expand during _____.

inspiration

86

The diaphragm contracts (flattens) during ____.

inspiration.

87

The diaphragm relaxes during _____.

expiration.

88

During inspiration ribs are _____ and the thoracic cavity ____.

elevated
widens

89

During expiration ribs are ____ and the thoracic cavity _______.

depressed
narrows

90

The inferior portion of the sternum moves ______ during inspiration.

anteriorly

91

The inferior portion of the sternum moves _____ during expiration.

posteriorly

92

What is intrapleural pressure?

The pressure within the pleural cavity

93

What is intrapulmonary pressure?

The pressure within the lungs

94

What are the four respiratory processes?

pulmonary ventilation, external respiration, gas transport, internal respiration

95

Vertical dimension changes occur due to the contraction of the ______.

diaphragm

96

Lateral dimension changes occur due to the contraction of the _____.

rib cage

97

Anterior-posterior dimension changes occur due to the movement of the ____.

sternum.

98

Volume changes in the thoracic cavity cause gas pressure _____ in the thoracic cavity.

changes

99

At a constant temperature, the pressure of a gas decreases if the volume of the container _____ is referred to as boil's law.

increases

100

Pressure decreases as volume ____ according boyle's law.

increases

101

Pressure increases as volume ______ according to Boyle's law.

decreases

102

Boyle's gas law states that air moves to where there is _____.

less pressure

103

_____ is the pressure gases in the air exert in the environment.

atmospheric pressure

104

____ lbs per square inch ='s 1 atmosphere (atm) = 760 mm Hg

14.7

105

The air thins with increased altitude (aka _______).

lower atmospheric pressure

106

_____ is the collective volume of the alveoli within the lungs.

alveolar volume

107

_____ volume is associated with intrapulmonary pressure (pressure within alveoli).

alveolar

108

____ is pressure exerted within the pleural cavity.

intrapleural pressure

109

____ pressure is always slightly lower than intrapulmonary pressure so lungs stay inflated. (____ mm Hg).

Intrapleural pressure
756 mm Hg

110

_____ during quiet inspiration both intrapulmonary and atmospheric pressures are at ____ mm Hg prior to inspiration.

Initially
760

111

Intrapleural pressure slightly lower at ___ mm Hg.

756

112

During quiet inspiration the diaphragm and external intercostals ______ pulling open the thoracic cavity.

contract

113

During quiet inspiration pleural cavity volume increases and intrapleural pressure _____ to 754 mm Hg.

decreases

114

During quiet inspiration surface tensions plus lungs open causing a decrease in intrapulmonary pressure to _____ mm Hg.

759

115

During quiet inspiration, we inspire ____ of air.

500 mL

116

At sea level, how much is atmospheric pressure?

760 mm Hg

117

Why is intrapleural pressure lower than intrapulmonary pressure?

So that the lungs stay inflated

118

During inspiration, the diaphragm and external intercostals contract, pulling the thoracic cavity open. What happens to intrapleural pressure? What does this cause.

It decreases to 754 mm Hg
The pulling open of the lungs, decreasing the intrapulmonary pressure to 759 mm Hg causing air to flow int the lungs

119

During quiet expiration, ____, both intrapulmonary and atmospheric pressures are at ___ mm Hg prior to expiration.

760 mm Gh

120

Intrapleural pressure is slightly lower at ____ mm Hg.

754

121

Diaphragm and external intercostals relax ____ thoracic cavity volume.

decreasing

122

During quiet expiration, the pleural cavity volume decreases and the intrapleural pressure ____ to ____ mm Hg.

increases
756 mm Hg

123

Elastic recoil pulls lungs closed causing an increase in ______ pressure to _____ mm Hg.

intrapulmonary pressure
761 mm Hg

124

Air is ___ the alveoli to the atmosphere.

forced out

125

4 Steps of Quiet Inspiration & Expiration

1. Intrapulmonary pressure = atmospheric pressure ( atm and intrapulmonary = 760 & intrapleural = 756)
2. Intrapulmonary pressure becomes less than atmospheric pressure; air flows in (at = 760, intrapulmonary = 759, intrapleural = 754)
3. Intrapulmonary pressure = atmospheric pressure (760 mm Hg & the intrapleural pressure is 754 mm Hg)
4. Intrapulmonary pressure becomes greater than atmospheric pressure; airflows out (atm = 760, Intrapleural = 756, Intrapulmonary 761)

126

The respiratory system is innervated by the ______.

autonomic nervous system

127

The sympathetic, _____ spinal nerves control bronchodilation.

T1-T5

128

The parasympathetic, ____ nerve controls bronchoconstriciton.

vagus (X)

129

Autonomic nuclei within the brainstem

?

130

The nervous control of breathing in the medulla oblongata occurs within the _____ and ______.

Ventral respiratory group (VRG)
Dorsal respiratory group (DRG)

131

The Pons is also involved in the nervous control of breathing in the _____ center.

pneumotaxic

132

Upper motor neurons from the _____ synapse with lower motor neurons in the spinal cord. These lower motor neurons include the phrenic nerves and the ____ nerves.

VRG
intercostal nerves

133

____ nerves innervate the diaphragm.

Phrenic

134

____ nerves innervated the intercostal muscles.

Intercostal

135

____ are the primary sensory receptors involved in altering breathing.

chemoreceptors

136

Chemoreceptors monitor fluctuations in both ___ concentrations as well as respiratory gases (Pco2 and Po2) in both the ____ and blood.

H+
CSF and blood

137

Chemoreceptors in the _____ are central chemoreceptors.

brain

138

Peripheral chemoreceptors are located in the _____ and the _____.

aortic arch and the carotid arteries

139

Peripheral chemoreceptors detect increased CO2, increased H+, and _____.

decreased O2.

140

Central chemoreceptors are located within the _____.

medulla oblongata

141

____ chemoreceptors monitor pH changes in CSF induced by changes in blood PCO2.

Central

142

The _____ chemoreceptors, aortic bodies, send signals to the DRG through _____.

peripheral
CN IX

143

The ____ chemoreceptors, carotid bodies, send signals to the DRG through _____.

peripheral
CN X

144

____ chemoreceptors detect changes in both H+ and Pco2 concentrations within arterial blood.

Peripheral

145

An ____ in H+ and Pco2 concentrations within arterial blood could be caused by either kidney failure or diabetes mellitus.

increase

146

Peripheral chemoreceptors can also be stimulated by larges changes in blood ____.

Po2

147

_____ are located within joints and muscles, stimulated by body movement, and causes an increase in breathing ____.

proprioceptors
depth

148

_____ are located in the visceral pleura and smooth muscle of bronchiole, stimulated by stretching, and inhibits inspiration activities (keeps lungs from over expanding).

Baroreceptors

149

_______ are located within the respiratory passageways, stimulated by dust and other particulates, and imitate sneezing and coughing relaxes.

Irritant receptors

150

During quiet expiration, why does the intrapulmonary pressure increase?

b/c of the decrease in alveolar volume, recoil of the elastic fibers

151

What are the two respiratory centers within the medulla.

VRG - ventral respiratory group
DRG - dorsal respiratory group

152

What two lower motor neurons can be stimulated from the upper motor neuron stemming from the VRG?

Phrenic (diaphragm) and intercostal nerves

153

Central chemoreceptors monitor what in the CSF?

H+ concentrations

154

Peripheral chemoreceptors monitor what in the blood?

H+ and PCO2, or large changes in PO2

155

What other types of receptors can trigger an change in respiration?

Proprioceptors
baroreceptors
irritant receptors

156

____ is the rate of quiet breathing.

Eupnea

157

Rate of Eupnea is ___ second inspiration, ___ second expiration, and 12 breaths per minute.

2 second inspiration
3 second expiration

158

Rate of quiet breathing, Eupnea, only requires ___% of total body energy expenditure.

5%

159

Change in ___ is the altering amount of time spent in both inspiration and expiration.

rate

160

Change in ___ is the stimulation of accessory muscles, which results in greater thoracic volume changes.

depth

161

The most important stimulus affecting breathing rate and depth is blood _____ levels.

Picot levels

162

___ is the absence of breathing.

Apnea

163

Apnea occurs during swallowing, holding breath, drug-induced (anesthesia), or _____ disease or trauma.

neurologic

164

____ is the amount of air that moves into/out of respiratory tract with each breath.

airflow

165

Airflow is affected by pressure gradient and _____.

resistance.

166

______ is the difference between atmospheric pressure and intrapulmonary pressure.

pressure gradient

167

The pressure gradient can be changed by altering the volume of the ____.

thoracic cavity

168

_____ are the factors that make it more difficult to move air from atmosphere through respiratory passageway into alveoli.

resistance

169

An example of _____ is a decrease in elasticity of the chest wall and lungs (pulmonary fibrosis).

resistance

170

An example of resistance is a change in _____ diameter (size of passageways).

bronchiole

171

______ by the parasympathetic division, a change in bronchiole diameter.

bronchoconstriciton

172

______ by the sympathetic division, a change in bronchiole diameter.

bronchodilation

173

Accumulation of mucus or inflammation in _____ causes resistance via a decrease in the size of passageways.

bronchioles

174

The collapse of alveoli, is a type of _____.

resistance

175

Increased surface tension due to type ___ cells not secreting enough surfactant causes respiratory _____ syndrome in infants. (collapse of alveoli)

distress

176

_____ is the case with which the lungs and chest wall expand.

compliance

177

____ is the amount of air inhaled in 1 minute.

pulmonary ventilation

178

Normal tidal volume is ____ per breath.

500 mL

179

Respiratory rate is ___ breathes per minute.

12

180

Total pulmonary ventilation is ________.

6000 ml/min or 6L/min

181

_____ is the amount of air that reaches the alveoli and is available for gas exchange per minute.

alveolar ventilation

182

____ is the amount of air left in conducting zone that never reaches alveoli (average volume is ___).

anatomic dead space
150 ml

183

Alveolar ventilation will be less than _____ ventilation due to dead space.

pulmonary
i.e.
500 ml - 150ml = 350 ml x 12 bpm = 4200 m./mn or 4.2 L

184

Physiologic dead space occurs due to respiratory disorders result in decreased number of ____ participation in gas exchange.

alveoli

185

____ is the pressure exerted by each gas within a mixture of gases.

partial pressure

186

____ pressure is the total pressure of all gases collectedly.

atmospheric pressure or atm

187

____ includes nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, water vapor and other minor gases.

Atmospheric pressure

188

____ states that the total pressure in a mixture of gases is equal to the sum of the individual partial pressures.

Dalton's law

189

____ are partial pressure for a specific gas is higher in one region than in another.

partial pressure gradients

190

Gas moves _____ the region of its higher partial pressure ___ the region of its lower partial pressure.

from
to

191

Both alveolar gas exchange and_____ gas exchange depend upon partial pressure gradients.

systemic

192

What is the most important concentration within he blood that affects rate and depth of breathing?

PCO2

193

Air flow resistance can be affected by ...

decreased elasticity of lungs
change in bronchiole diameter
collapse of aveoli

194

____ is the chemical principles governing the exchange of gas between air and a liquid (blood)

gas solubility

195

____ states that at a given temperature, the solubility of a gas in a liquid is dependent upon the partial pressure of gas in the air and the volume of gas dissolved in a specified volume of liquid (solubility coefficient).

Henry's law

196

______ is the volume of gas dissolved in a specified volume of liquid.

the solubility coefficient

197

_____ is more soluble than oxygen which is more soluble than _____.

carbon dioxide
nitrogen

198

Gases with ____ solubility coefficients require larger pressure gradients to push the gas into the liquid.

low

199

Partial pressure in gases in alveoli are different than partial pressures with the _____.

atmosphere

200

More ____ is present within alveoli during alveolar gas exchange.

water vapor

201

Oxygen diffuses out of alveoli into blood and carbon dioxide diffuses from _____.

blood into alveoli

202

PO2 is _____ in alveoli ____ mm Hg than in atmosphere, 159 mm Hg.

lower
159 mm Hg

203

PCO2 is ____ in the alveoli ____ mm Hg than in atmosphere, 0.3 mm Hg

higher
40 mm Hg

204

These remain constant because of our rhthymic breathing.

?

205

During external respiration PO2 is greater in the alveoli (104 mm Hg) than in the blood (40 mm Hg), thus oxygen moves from ____ to _____.

alveoli to blood

206

During external respiration PCO2 is greater in the blood (45 mm Hg) than in the alveoli (40 mm Hg) thus carbon dioxide moves from the ____ to the ____.

blood
alveoli

207

Efficiency of diffusion is dependent upon anatomic features of the ____.

respiratory membrane

208

The _____ of the respiratory membrane makes diffusion efficient.

large surface area, about the size of half a tennis court

209

The respiratory membrane has ______, about 0.5 micrometers between alveolar and capillary endothelial cells.

minimal thickness

210

To maximize gas exchange smooth muscles of both the bronchioles and the arterioles that carry blood to pulmonary capillaries can _____ and _____.

contract and relax

211

Ventilation responds to changes in ____.

PCO2

212

Ventilation is altered by changes in _______ and construction.

bronchodilation

213

Perfusion response to changes in _____.

PCO2 and PO2

214

Perfusion is altered by changes in pulmonary _____ and _______.

arteriole dilation and constriction

215

During ventilation bronchioles _____ and the amount of air within the bronchiole increases.

dilates

216

During ventilation bronchioles ______ decreasing PCO2 in the air within the bronchiole.

constricts

217

During perfusion the arterioles ______ to either increase PO2 or decrease PCO2 in blood.

dilate

218

Arterioles construction during perfusion to increase PO2 or Increase ____ in the blood.

PCO2

219

Breathing that is too slow or is called ____.

bradypnea

220

Breathing that is too shallow is called ____.

hypopnea

221

_____ that is either too slow or too shallow to adequately meet the metabolic need of the body.

hypoventilation

222

____ is caused by airway obstruction, pneumonia, brainstem injury, obesity, and any other condition that interferes with pulmonary ventilation or alveolar gas exchange.

hypoventilation

223

During hypoventilation ____ levels decrease and ____ levels increase in the alveoli causing a smaller partial pressure gradient.

O2 decrease
CO2 increase

224

During hypoventilation O2 levels decrease and CO2 levels increase in the ____ causing a smaller partial pressure gradient.

alveoli

225

Lower amounts of oxygen diffusion from alveoli into the blood causing a decrease in blood PO2, ______ which can lead to low oxygen in the tissue , ______.

hypoxemia
hypoxia

226

Lower amounts of carbon dioxide diffuse from blood to alveoli causing blood PCO2 to increase, ________.

hypercapnia

227

____ is the breathing rate or depth that is increased above the body's demand.

hyperventilation

228

Hyperventilation is caused by anxiety, panic, or ____.

ascending to a high altitude.

229

Hyperventilation increases PO2 levels and decreases PCO2 levels in alveoli which causes an increase in ______.

partial pressure gradient

230

During hyperventilation additional oxygen does not enter the blood despite the steeper PO2 gradient because ______.

hemoglobin 98% saturated already during normal breathing

231

During hyperventilation additional carbon dioxide leaves the blood to enter the alveoli due to steep _______.

PCO2 gradient

232

During hyperventilation blood PCO2 level decrease below normal which is called ______.

hypocapnia

233

______ causes vasoconstriction of blood vessels as well as a decrease in blood H+ concentrations which can results in respiratory alkalosis.

Hypocapnia

234

What does 100% hemoglobin saturation mean?

hemoglobin is bound to 4 oxygen molecules

235

What does the oxygen hemoglobin saturation curve tell us?

the relationship between PO2 and hemoglobin O2 saturation

236

What is oxygen reserve?

the oxygen that is still attached to hemoglobin after the blood passes through the systemic capillaries.

237

What other things can influence the release of oxygen from hemoglobin?

binding of H+or CO2, increased temperature or 2,3-BPG

238

What does a shift right int he hemoglobin saturation curve mean?

There is a change in the body which stimulates additional release of oxygen from hemoglobin, such as increased temp or blood pH.

239

Internal respiration is a result of partial pressure of gases in systemic cells due to _____.

cellular respiration

240

Internal respiration

?

241

Gases with ___ solubility coefficients require ______ pressure gradients to push the gas into he liquid.

low
larger

242

Why are the partial pressures of O2 and CO2 different within the alveoli, compared to the atmosphere?

Air mixes with anatomic dead space, O2 and CO2 exchange with blood within alveoli, more water vapor in alveoli

243

What's the difference between ventilation and perfusion?

Ventilation is a change in bronchiole diameter where perfusion is the change in arteriole diameter

244

During external respiration: PO2 is lower in the alveoli than in the pulmonary capillaries, which causes oxygen to move from the blood into the alveoli.

false

245

During the internal respiration: PO2 i lower in the systemic cells than in the systemic capillaries, which causes oxygen to move from the blood into the systemic cells.

true

246

Oxygen transport dependent upon solubility coefficient of oxygen in blood plasma and the ____.

presence of hemoglobin

247

The solubility coefficient of oxygen in blood plasma is ____, less than 2% of oxygen is dissolved in the plasma.

very low

248

The presence of hemoglobin is ____% of oxygen in blood transported within erythrocytes bound to the iron within hemoglobin.

98%

249

Hemoglobin that is oxygen bound is called ______.

oxyhemoglobin

250

Hemoglobin that is without bound oxygen is called ______.

deoxyhemoglobin

251

Carbon dioxid transport is dependent upon CO2 dissolved plasma, CO2 attached to the glib portion of hemoglobin, and _________.

bicarbonate (HCO2) dissolved in plasma.

252

____% of CO2 can diffuse into plasma.

7%

253

CO2 attached to the global portion of hemoglobin can transport ___% of CO2 as carbaminohemoglobin compound.

23%

254

As bicarbonate (HCO3) dissolved in plasma ____% of CO2 diffuses into erythrocytes and combine with water to form bicarbonate and H+, bicarbonate then diffuses into he plasma.

70% ???

255

In systemic capillaries CO2 diffuses into an erythrocyte, joins H2O to form carbonic anhydrase (H2CO3) which then splits into _______ and ____.

bicarbonate and hydrogen ion

256

In systemic capillaries bicarbonate leaves erythrocyte and chloride ion moves into cells to prevent a change in charge, _____.

chloride shift

257

Conversion of bicarbonate to carbon dioxide in pulmonary capillaries occurs when bicarbonate moves in the erythrocyte as ________ move out.

chloride ions

258

Conversion of bicarbonate to carbon dioxide in pulmonary capillaries occurs when bicarbonate recombines with a hydrogen ion to form ______ which dissociates into carbon dioxide and water.

carbonic anhydrase

259

Conversion of bicarbonate to carbon dioxide in pulmonary capillaries occurs when carbon dioxide diffuses out of the ________ into the plasma and then diffuses into the alveoli.

erythrocyte

260

Hemoglobin transports three substances: oxygen attached to iron, carbon dioxide bound to the global, and ____ bound to the global.

hydrogen ions

261

The binding or releasing of one substance causes a conformation change in the hemoglobin that influences the ability to _____ the other two substances.

bind or release

262

How much oxygen in the blood is attached to hemoglobin?

98%

263

Carbon dioxide is primarily carried within the blood as ______.

bicarbonate

264

Where is CO2 converted into bicarbonate?

within the erythrocytes

265

What is created when CO2 binds with H2O.

carbonic anhydrase

266

What is the chloride shift?

a chloride ion enters the erythrocyte when a bicarbonate molecule leaves to balance the charge

267

What three things are transported by hemoglobin?

oxygen, carbondioxide and hydrogen ions

268

Hemoglobin can find up to ___ O2 molecules (four iron atoms)

four

269

Percent O2 saturation is the amount of _____.

oxygen bound to hemoglobin

270

____ hemoglobin saturation occurs when bound to 4 O2 molecules.

100%

271

__% hemoglobin saturated when only bound to 1 O2 molecule.

25%

272

Cooperative binding effect is when the binding of each O2 molecule makes it progressively easier for each addition ____.

o2 molecule to bind to an available iron.

273

The oxygen hemoglobin saturation curve relates the PO2 and percent _____ of hemoglobin.

O2 saturation of hemoglobin

274

Initial increases in PO2 on the oxygen hemoglobin saturation curve cause _____ in hemoglobin saturation.

relatively large changes in hemoglobin saturation
up to 60 mm Hg

275

On the oxygen hemoglobin saturation curve any changes above ____ mm Hg only have relatively small changes in hemoglobin saturation.

60 mm Hg

276

Deoxyhemoglobin + O2 oxyghemoglobin

?

277

If alveolar PO2 is 104 mm Hg. What would be the hemoglobin saturation be after the blood passed through the pulmonary capillaries?

98

278

Climbing a mountain decrease PO2 int eh atmosphere which in turn _____ the PO2 in the alveoli.

decreases

279

Elevation of 9000 ft, PO2 is 65 mm Hg, what is the hemoglobin saturation level?

?

280

Elevation of 17000 feet, PO2 is 40 mm Hg, what is the hemoglobin saturation level?

?

281

Altitude sickness normally occurs at altitudes greater than ___ feet.

8200 feet

282

PO2 in systemic cells during rest is 40 mm Hg, thus the hemoglobin saturation is ____%

75%

283

Hemoglobin in blood is 98% saturated as it _____.

enters systemic capillaries.

284

During rest, only _____ of oxygen transported by hemoglobin is released.

20-25%

285

____ is the amount of oxygen that remains bound to hemoglobin after passing through the systemic capillaries.

oxygen reserve

286

Vigorous exercise decreases PO2 to _____ in systemic cells.

PO2 to 20 mm Hg

287

_____ increased temp interferes with hemoglobin's ability to find and hold oxygen

temperature

288

_____ is known as Bohr effect.

H+ binding to hemoglobin

289

The presence of 2,3-BPG causes released of additional oxygen as blood moves through _____.

systemic capillaries.

290

Thyroid hormone, epinephrine, growth hormone and testosterone stimulates production of ______.

2,3 - BPG

291

CO2 binding to hemoglobin causes the release of more _____.

oxygen

292

_____ iw when more oxygen released from hemoglobin the more carbon dioxide binds to ti.

Haldane effect

293

Review oxygen release curves

?