Flashcards in Chapter 23 Deck (293)
____ are respiratory tracts that move air from atmosphere to alveoli and back.
_______ is where oxygen diffuses from alveoli into blood and carbon dioxide diffuses from blood to alveoli.
site for oxygen/carbon dioxide exchange
The olfactory receptors are located in the superior region of the nasal cavity and are responsible for _____.
detection of odors
Vocal cords are responsible for sound production and sinuses for sound ____.
The _____ zone consists of the nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and bronchioles (nose to end of terminal bronchioles). These structures form a continuous passageway for air to move in and out of the lungs.
The ____ zone consists of the respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, and alveoli. The area contains structures that participate in gas exchange with the blood.
____ is produced by the mucous and serous glands located in the lamina propria of respiratory mucosa (and goblet cells).
4 components of mucus
_____ is protein that increases mucus viscosity; which traps more inhaled dust, dirt particles, microorganisms and pollen.
____ are the antibacterial enzyme contained in mucus.
____ are the antimicrobial proteins in mucus.
______ are a component of mucus.
immunoglobins - IgA
____ region contains olfactory epithelium.
The superior region in the nasal cavity is called the _____ region.
Airborne chemicals dissolve in mucus to simulate ____ receptors in the olfactory region.
_____ region has extensive vascular network.
Because the respiratory region has an extensive vascular network, nosebleeds are common due to the superficial nature, referred to as _____.
_____ is immediately internal to the nostrils.
The nasal vestibule is immediately internal to nostrils which contain course hairs called ______ to trap large particulates.
______ are composed of elastic connective tissue which extends from thyroid cartilage to arytenoid cartilages.
Vocal ligaments covered in mucosa form ______.
____ also extend from thyroid cartilage to arytenoid cartilages, and to the corniculate cartilages.
Vestibular ligaments covered with mucosa form ______.
Skeletal muscles within the larynx cause ____ cartilages to pivot resulting in a change to the dimension of the rim glottides.
The conducting zone extends from the ____ to the ____.
nose to the terminal bronchioles
The respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, and alveoli are considered part of the ____ zone.
Nosebleeds occur in what region of the nasal cavity?
_____ receptors can be found in the olfactory region of the nasal cavity.
Vocal ligaments extend from the thyroid cartilage to the _____ aril ages.
Pivoting of the arytenoid cartilages changes the dimension of the _____.
______ is air forced past vocal cords during expiration while intrinsic laryngeal muscles narrow opening of rims glottidis.
Characteristics of sound include: range, loudness, and ____.
_____ is determined by length and thickness of vocal folds.
A range goes from soprano to ____.
____ is determined by the amount of tension on vocal folds.
Increased pitch results in an ______ in tension of the vocal folds.
The ___ of sound waves determines pitch.
Loudness is determined by force of air passing across _____.
Speech requires participation of pharynx, nasal and oral cavities, paranasal sinuses, lips, ______ and ______.
teeth and tongue
Two cell types form the alveolar wall; ______ and _______.
type I cell
type II cell
Type I cells are also called ______ cells.
Type II cells are also called _____.
_____ cells make up approximately 95% of alveolar surface area.
Type I cells form the thin walls that make the _____.
The internal surface of the alveolar walysare moist, making the alveoli prone to ____ due to surface tension.
Type II cells secret ______ surfactant.
_____ is oily fluid that coats the inner alveolar surface.
Surfactant molecules tightly pack together during expiration to keep alveoli from ____.
Alveolar macrophages are also called ____.
The alveolar cells include; type I cells, type II cells, and ____.
_____ engulf microorganisms or particulate material that reach alveoli.
The _____ is a thin barrier that oxygen and carbon dioxide diffuse across during gas exchange int he lungs.
The respiratory membrane consists of two _____ that are fused.
One basement membrane of the respiratory membrane consists of ________.
One basement membrane of the respiratory membrane consists of ______.
The _____ conducts blood to and from the alveoli within the lungs to replenish oxygen level and get rid of carbon dioxide.
The pulmonary circuit contains the pulmonary trunk, arteries, and ____.
The pulmonary circuit starts from the right ventricle of the heart and ends at the _______.
left atrium of the heart.
Bronchial circulation is a component of the ____ circuit that transports oxygenated blood to the tissues of the lungs.
Bronchial arteries branch from the _____.
descending thoracic aorta
Bronchial veins drain into _____.
superior vena cava
Some of the oxygenated blood drains into pulmonary veins, thus blood exiting lungs is slightly less oxygenated than the blood immediately leaving get the ______.
What type of alveolar cells secretes surfactant to keep lungs from collapsing?
What is the difference between the pulmonary and bronchial circulations to the lungs?
Pulmonary circulation is taking oxygen poor blood to and from the lungs for gas exchange between blood and atmosphere.
Bronchial circulation is taking oxygen rich blood to tissue of lungs where blood returns oxygen poor to the superior vena cava or mixes with blood in the pulmonary veins heading back to the heart.
Lung inflation occurs due to expanding properties of the chest wall and because of the _______.
recoiling properties of the lungs
Surface tension caused by serous fluid within the pleural cavity causes lungs to 'cling' to the internal surface of the chest wall causing _____.
chest wall expantion
Elastic fibers within lungs are stretched when lungs expand, but naturally want to ____ pulling the lungs back in.
______ is generated due to suction action of surface tension and recoiling elastic fibers.
____ (within lungs) is greater than intrapleural pressure.
___ pressure keeps lungs inflated.
______ is also referred to as breathing.
______ is the movement of respiratory gases between atmosphere and alveoli of lungs.
______ exchange of respiratory gases between the alveoli and the blood in the pulmonary capillaries.
_____ is the transport of respiratory gases within the blood between the lungs and systemic cells of the body.
______ is the exchange of respiratory gases between the blood in the systemic capillaries and the systemic cells of the body.
The first four steps of the respiratory process involve the movement of ____ and the last four steps of the respiratory process involve the movement of ____.
The 1st four steps of the respiratory process
1. breath in air containing O2
2. O2 moves into the blood
3. Blood containing O2
4. O2 moves into systemic cells
The last four steps of the respiratory process
5. CO2 moves into blood
6. Blood containing CO2
7. CO2 moves into the alveoli
8. Air containing CO2
_____ dimension changes as a result of movement of the diaphragm.
_____ dimension changes occur when rib cage is elevated or visa versa, rib cage depresses.
_____ dimension changes occur as inferior portion of the sternum moves anteriorly, or posteriorly.
Thoracic cavity dimensions change because of ______ and _______.
inspiration and expiration
The thoracic cavity expands during ______.
The thoracic cavity contracts during _____.
Chest wall and lungs expand during _____.
The diaphragm contracts (flattens) during ____.
The diaphragm relaxes during _____.
During inspiration ribs are _____ and the thoracic cavity ____.
During expiration ribs are ____ and the thoracic cavity _______.
The inferior portion of the sternum moves ______ during inspiration.
The inferior portion of the sternum moves _____ during expiration.
What is intrapleural pressure?
The pressure within the pleural cavity
What is intrapulmonary pressure?
The pressure within the lungs
What are the four respiratory processes?
pulmonary ventilation, external respiration, gas transport, internal respiration
Vertical dimension changes occur due to the contraction of the ______.
Lateral dimension changes occur due to the contraction of the _____.
Anterior-posterior dimension changes occur due to the movement of the ____.
Volume changes in the thoracic cavity cause gas pressure _____ in the thoracic cavity.
At a constant temperature, the pressure of a gas decreases if the volume of the container _____ is referred to as boil's law.
Pressure decreases as volume ____ according boyle's law.
Pressure increases as volume ______ according to Boyle's law.
Boyle's gas law states that air moves to where there is _____.
_____ is the pressure gases in the air exert in the environment.
____ lbs per square inch ='s 1 atmosphere (atm) = 760 mm Hg
The air thins with increased altitude (aka _______).
lower atmospheric pressure
_____ is the collective volume of the alveoli within the lungs.
_____ volume is associated with intrapulmonary pressure (pressure within alveoli).
____ is pressure exerted within the pleural cavity.
____ pressure is always slightly lower than intrapulmonary pressure so lungs stay inflated. (____ mm Hg).
756 mm Hg
_____ during quiet inspiration both intrapulmonary and atmospheric pressures are at ____ mm Hg prior to inspiration.
Intrapleural pressure slightly lower at ___ mm Hg.
During quiet inspiration the diaphragm and external intercostals ______ pulling open the thoracic cavity.
During quiet inspiration pleural cavity volume increases and intrapleural pressure _____ to 754 mm Hg.
During quiet inspiration surface tensions plus lungs open causing a decrease in intrapulmonary pressure to _____ mm Hg.
During quiet inspiration, we inspire ____ of air.
At sea level, how much is atmospheric pressure?
760 mm Hg
Why is intrapleural pressure lower than intrapulmonary pressure?
So that the lungs stay inflated
During inspiration, the diaphragm and external intercostals contract, pulling the thoracic cavity open. What happens to intrapleural pressure? What does this cause.
It decreases to 754 mm Hg
The pulling open of the lungs, decreasing the intrapulmonary pressure to 759 mm Hg causing air to flow int the lungs
During quiet expiration, ____, both intrapulmonary and atmospheric pressures are at ___ mm Hg prior to expiration.
760 mm Gh
Intrapleural pressure is slightly lower at ____ mm Hg.
Diaphragm and external intercostals relax ____ thoracic cavity volume.
During quiet expiration, the pleural cavity volume decreases and the intrapleural pressure ____ to ____ mm Hg.
756 mm Hg
Elastic recoil pulls lungs closed causing an increase in ______ pressure to _____ mm Hg.
761 mm Hg
Air is ___ the alveoli to the atmosphere.
4 Steps of Quiet Inspiration & Expiration
1. Intrapulmonary pressure = atmospheric pressure ( atm and intrapulmonary = 760 & intrapleural = 756)
2. Intrapulmonary pressure becomes less than atmospheric pressure; air flows in (at = 760, intrapulmonary = 759, intrapleural = 754)
3. Intrapulmonary pressure = atmospheric pressure (760 mm Hg & the intrapleural pressure is 754 mm Hg)
4. Intrapulmonary pressure becomes greater than atmospheric pressure; airflows out (atm = 760, Intrapleural = 756, Intrapulmonary 761)
The respiratory system is innervated by the ______.
autonomic nervous system
The sympathetic, _____ spinal nerves control bronchodilation.
The parasympathetic, ____ nerve controls bronchoconstriciton.
Autonomic nuclei within the brainstem
The nervous control of breathing in the medulla oblongata occurs within the _____ and ______.
Ventral respiratory group (VRG)
Dorsal respiratory group (DRG)
The Pons is also involved in the nervous control of breathing in the _____ center.
Upper motor neurons from the _____ synapse with lower motor neurons in the spinal cord. These lower motor neurons include the phrenic nerves and the ____ nerves.
____ nerves innervate the diaphragm.
____ nerves innervated the intercostal muscles.
____ are the primary sensory receptors involved in altering breathing.
Chemoreceptors monitor fluctuations in both ___ concentrations as well as respiratory gases (Pco2 and Po2) in both the ____ and blood.
CSF and blood
Chemoreceptors in the _____ are central chemoreceptors.
Peripheral chemoreceptors are located in the _____ and the _____.
aortic arch and the carotid arteries
Peripheral chemoreceptors detect increased CO2, increased H+, and _____.
Central chemoreceptors are located within the _____.
____ chemoreceptors monitor pH changes in CSF induced by changes in blood PCO2.
The _____ chemoreceptors, aortic bodies, send signals to the DRG through _____.
The ____ chemoreceptors, carotid bodies, send signals to the DRG through _____.
____ chemoreceptors detect changes in both H+ and Pco2 concentrations within arterial blood.
An ____ in H+ and Pco2 concentrations within arterial blood could be caused by either kidney failure or diabetes mellitus.
Peripheral chemoreceptors can also be stimulated by larges changes in blood ____.
_____ are located within joints and muscles, stimulated by body movement, and causes an increase in breathing ____.
_____ are located in the visceral pleura and smooth muscle of bronchiole, stimulated by stretching, and inhibits inspiration activities (keeps lungs from over expanding).
_______ are located within the respiratory passageways, stimulated by dust and other particulates, and imitate sneezing and coughing relaxes.
During quiet expiration, why does the intrapulmonary pressure increase?
b/c of the decrease in alveolar volume, recoil of the elastic fibers
What are the two respiratory centers within the medulla.
VRG - ventral respiratory group
DRG - dorsal respiratory group
What two lower motor neurons can be stimulated from the upper motor neuron stemming from the VRG?
Phrenic (diaphragm) and intercostal nerves
Central chemoreceptors monitor what in the CSF?
Peripheral chemoreceptors monitor what in the blood?
H+ and PCO2, or large changes in PO2
What other types of receptors can trigger an change in respiration?
____ is the rate of quiet breathing.
Rate of Eupnea is ___ second inspiration, ___ second expiration, and 12 breaths per minute.
2 second inspiration
3 second expiration
Rate of quiet breathing, Eupnea, only requires ___% of total body energy expenditure.
Change in ___ is the altering amount of time spent in both inspiration and expiration.
Change in ___ is the stimulation of accessory muscles, which results in greater thoracic volume changes.
The most important stimulus affecting breathing rate and depth is blood _____ levels.
___ is the absence of breathing.
Apnea occurs during swallowing, holding breath, drug-induced (anesthesia), or _____ disease or trauma.
____ is the amount of air that moves into/out of respiratory tract with each breath.
Airflow is affected by pressure gradient and _____.
______ is the difference between atmospheric pressure and intrapulmonary pressure.
The pressure gradient can be changed by altering the volume of the ____.
_____ are the factors that make it more difficult to move air from atmosphere through respiratory passageway into alveoli.
An example of _____ is a decrease in elasticity of the chest wall and lungs (pulmonary fibrosis).
An example of resistance is a change in _____ diameter (size of passageways).
______ by the parasympathetic division, a change in bronchiole diameter.
______ by the sympathetic division, a change in bronchiole diameter.
Accumulation of mucus or inflammation in _____ causes resistance via a decrease in the size of passageways.
The collapse of alveoli, is a type of _____.
Increased surface tension due to type ___ cells not secreting enough surfactant causes respiratory _____ syndrome in infants. (collapse of alveoli)
_____ is the case with which the lungs and chest wall expand.
____ is the amount of air inhaled in 1 minute.
Normal tidal volume is ____ per breath.
Respiratory rate is ___ breathes per minute.
Total pulmonary ventilation is ________.
6000 ml/min or 6L/min
_____ is the amount of air that reaches the alveoli and is available for gas exchange per minute.
____ is the amount of air left in conducting zone that never reaches alveoli (average volume is ___).
anatomic dead space
Alveolar ventilation will be less than _____ ventilation due to dead space.
500 ml - 150ml = 350 ml x 12 bpm = 4200 m./mn or 4.2 L
Physiologic dead space occurs due to respiratory disorders result in decreased number of ____ participation in gas exchange.
____ is the pressure exerted by each gas within a mixture of gases.
____ pressure is the total pressure of all gases collectedly.
atmospheric pressure or atm
____ includes nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, water vapor and other minor gases.
____ states that the total pressure in a mixture of gases is equal to the sum of the individual partial pressures.
____ are partial pressure for a specific gas is higher in one region than in another.
partial pressure gradients
Gas moves _____ the region of its higher partial pressure ___ the region of its lower partial pressure.
Both alveolar gas exchange and_____ gas exchange depend upon partial pressure gradients.
What is the most important concentration within he blood that affects rate and depth of breathing?
Air flow resistance can be affected by ...
decreased elasticity of lungs
change in bronchiole diameter
collapse of aveoli
____ is the chemical principles governing the exchange of gas between air and a liquid (blood)
____ states that at a given temperature, the solubility of a gas in a liquid is dependent upon the partial pressure of gas in the air and the volume of gas dissolved in a specified volume of liquid (solubility coefficient).
______ is the volume of gas dissolved in a specified volume of liquid.
the solubility coefficient
_____ is more soluble than oxygen which is more soluble than _____.
Gases with ____ solubility coefficients require larger pressure gradients to push the gas into the liquid.
Partial pressure in gases in alveoli are different than partial pressures with the _____.
More ____ is present within alveoli during alveolar gas exchange.
Oxygen diffuses out of alveoli into blood and carbon dioxide diffuses from _____.
blood into alveoli
PO2 is _____ in alveoli ____ mm Hg than in atmosphere, 159 mm Hg.
159 mm Hg
PCO2 is ____ in the alveoli ____ mm Hg than in atmosphere, 0.3 mm Hg
40 mm Hg
These remain constant because of our rhthymic breathing.
During external respiration PO2 is greater in the alveoli (104 mm Hg) than in the blood (40 mm Hg), thus oxygen moves from ____ to _____.
alveoli to blood
During external respiration PCO2 is greater in the blood (45 mm Hg) than in the alveoli (40 mm Hg) thus carbon dioxide moves from the ____ to the ____.
Efficiency of diffusion is dependent upon anatomic features of the ____.
The _____ of the respiratory membrane makes diffusion efficient.
large surface area, about the size of half a tennis court
The respiratory membrane has ______, about 0.5 micrometers between alveolar and capillary endothelial cells.
To maximize gas exchange smooth muscles of both the bronchioles and the arterioles that carry blood to pulmonary capillaries can _____ and _____.
contract and relax
Ventilation responds to changes in ____.
Ventilation is altered by changes in _______ and construction.
Perfusion response to changes in _____.
PCO2 and PO2
Perfusion is altered by changes in pulmonary _____ and _______.
arteriole dilation and constriction
During ventilation bronchioles _____ and the amount of air within the bronchiole increases.
During ventilation bronchioles ______ decreasing PCO2 in the air within the bronchiole.
During perfusion the arterioles ______ to either increase PO2 or decrease PCO2 in blood.
Arterioles construction during perfusion to increase PO2 or Increase ____ in the blood.
Breathing that is too slow or is called ____.
Breathing that is too shallow is called ____.
_____ that is either too slow or too shallow to adequately meet the metabolic need of the body.
____ is caused by airway obstruction, pneumonia, brainstem injury, obesity, and any other condition that interferes with pulmonary ventilation or alveolar gas exchange.
During hypoventilation ____ levels decrease and ____ levels increase in the alveoli causing a smaller partial pressure gradient.
During hypoventilation O2 levels decrease and CO2 levels increase in the ____ causing a smaller partial pressure gradient.
Lower amounts of oxygen diffusion from alveoli into the blood causing a decrease in blood PO2, ______ which can lead to low oxygen in the tissue , ______.
Lower amounts of carbon dioxide diffuse from blood to alveoli causing blood PCO2 to increase, ________.
____ is the breathing rate or depth that is increased above the body's demand.
Hyperventilation is caused by anxiety, panic, or ____.
ascending to a high altitude.
Hyperventilation increases PO2 levels and decreases PCO2 levels in alveoli which causes an increase in ______.
partial pressure gradient
During hyperventilation additional oxygen does not enter the blood despite the steeper PO2 gradient because ______.
hemoglobin 98% saturated already during normal breathing
During hyperventilation additional carbon dioxide leaves the blood to enter the alveoli due to steep _______.
During hyperventilation blood PCO2 level decrease below normal which is called ______.
______ causes vasoconstriction of blood vessels as well as a decrease in blood H+ concentrations which can results in respiratory alkalosis.
What does 100% hemoglobin saturation mean?
hemoglobin is bound to 4 oxygen molecules
What does the oxygen hemoglobin saturation curve tell us?
the relationship between PO2 and hemoglobin O2 saturation
What is oxygen reserve?
the oxygen that is still attached to hemoglobin after the blood passes through the systemic capillaries.
What other things can influence the release of oxygen from hemoglobin?
binding of H+or CO2, increased temperature or 2,3-BPG
What does a shift right int he hemoglobin saturation curve mean?
There is a change in the body which stimulates additional release of oxygen from hemoglobin, such as increased temp or blood pH.
Internal respiration is a result of partial pressure of gases in systemic cells due to _____.
Gases with ___ solubility coefficients require ______ pressure gradients to push the gas into he liquid.
Why are the partial pressures of O2 and CO2 different within the alveoli, compared to the atmosphere?
Air mixes with anatomic dead space, O2 and CO2 exchange with blood within alveoli, more water vapor in alveoli
What's the difference between ventilation and perfusion?
Ventilation is a change in bronchiole diameter where perfusion is the change in arteriole diameter
During external respiration: PO2 is lower in the alveoli than in the pulmonary capillaries, which causes oxygen to move from the blood into the alveoli.
During the internal respiration: PO2 i lower in the systemic cells than in the systemic capillaries, which causes oxygen to move from the blood into the systemic cells.
Oxygen transport dependent upon solubility coefficient of oxygen in blood plasma and the ____.
presence of hemoglobin
The solubility coefficient of oxygen in blood plasma is ____, less than 2% of oxygen is dissolved in the plasma.
The presence of hemoglobin is ____% of oxygen in blood transported within erythrocytes bound to the iron within hemoglobin.
Hemoglobin that is oxygen bound is called ______.
Hemoglobin that is without bound oxygen is called ______.
Carbon dioxid transport is dependent upon CO2 dissolved plasma, CO2 attached to the glib portion of hemoglobin, and _________.
bicarbonate (HCO2) dissolved in plasma.
____% of CO2 can diffuse into plasma.
CO2 attached to the global portion of hemoglobin can transport ___% of CO2 as carbaminohemoglobin compound.
As bicarbonate (HCO3) dissolved in plasma ____% of CO2 diffuses into erythrocytes and combine with water to form bicarbonate and H+, bicarbonate then diffuses into he plasma.
In systemic capillaries CO2 diffuses into an erythrocyte, joins H2O to form carbonic anhydrase (H2CO3) which then splits into _______ and ____.
bicarbonate and hydrogen ion
In systemic capillaries bicarbonate leaves erythrocyte and chloride ion moves into cells to prevent a change in charge, _____.
Conversion of bicarbonate to carbon dioxide in pulmonary capillaries occurs when bicarbonate moves in the erythrocyte as ________ move out.
Conversion of bicarbonate to carbon dioxide in pulmonary capillaries occurs when bicarbonate recombines with a hydrogen ion to form ______ which dissociates into carbon dioxide and water.
Conversion of bicarbonate to carbon dioxide in pulmonary capillaries occurs when carbon dioxide diffuses out of the ________ into the plasma and then diffuses into the alveoli.
Hemoglobin transports three substances: oxygen attached to iron, carbon dioxide bound to the global, and ____ bound to the global.
The binding or releasing of one substance causes a conformation change in the hemoglobin that influences the ability to _____ the other two substances.
bind or release
How much oxygen in the blood is attached to hemoglobin?
Carbon dioxide is primarily carried within the blood as ______.
Where is CO2 converted into bicarbonate?
within the erythrocytes
What is created when CO2 binds with H2O.
What is the chloride shift?
a chloride ion enters the erythrocyte when a bicarbonate molecule leaves to balance the charge
What three things are transported by hemoglobin?
oxygen, carbondioxide and hydrogen ions
Hemoglobin can find up to ___ O2 molecules (four iron atoms)
Percent O2 saturation is the amount of _____.
oxygen bound to hemoglobin
____ hemoglobin saturation occurs when bound to 4 O2 molecules.
__% hemoglobin saturated when only bound to 1 O2 molecule.
Cooperative binding effect is when the binding of each O2 molecule makes it progressively easier for each addition ____.
o2 molecule to bind to an available iron.
The oxygen hemoglobin saturation curve relates the PO2 and percent _____ of hemoglobin.
O2 saturation of hemoglobin
Initial increases in PO2 on the oxygen hemoglobin saturation curve cause _____ in hemoglobin saturation.
relatively large changes in hemoglobin saturation
up to 60 mm Hg
On the oxygen hemoglobin saturation curve any changes above ____ mm Hg only have relatively small changes in hemoglobin saturation.
60 mm Hg
Deoxyhemoglobin + O2 oxyghemoglobin
If alveolar PO2 is 104 mm Hg. What would be the hemoglobin saturation be after the blood passed through the pulmonary capillaries?
Climbing a mountain decrease PO2 int eh atmosphere which in turn _____ the PO2 in the alveoli.
Elevation of 9000 ft, PO2 is 65 mm Hg, what is the hemoglobin saturation level?
Elevation of 17000 feet, PO2 is 40 mm Hg, what is the hemoglobin saturation level?
Altitude sickness normally occurs at altitudes greater than ___ feet.
PO2 in systemic cells during rest is 40 mm Hg, thus the hemoglobin saturation is ____%
Hemoglobin in blood is 98% saturated as it _____.
enters systemic capillaries.
During rest, only _____ of oxygen transported by hemoglobin is released.
____ is the amount of oxygen that remains bound to hemoglobin after passing through the systemic capillaries.
Vigorous exercise decreases PO2 to _____ in systemic cells.
PO2 to 20 mm Hg
_____ increased temp interferes with hemoglobin's ability to find and hold oxygen
_____ is known as Bohr effect.
H+ binding to hemoglobin
The presence of 2,3-BPG causes released of additional oxygen as blood moves through _____.
Thyroid hormone, epinephrine, growth hormone and testosterone stimulates production of ______.
2,3 - BPG
CO2 binding to hemoglobin causes the release of more _____.
_____ iw when more oxygen released from hemoglobin the more carbon dioxide binds to ti.