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Flashcards in Chapter 20 Deck (234)
1

Vessel walls are compose of 3 ___ (layers) surround a lumen

tunic

2

opening through a vessel

lumen

3

the inner most layer of a blood vessel

tunica interna (intima)

4

This tunic is composed of an inner enothelium (simple squamous ET)

tunica interna (intima)

5

This tunic is surrounded by the sub-enothelium (areolar CT)

tunica interna (intima)

6

The middle layer or tunic of the blood vessel

tunica media

7

this layer of the blood vessel is composed of smooth muscle

tunica media

8

the outtermost layer of the blood vessel

tunica externa

9

this layer of the blood vessel is composed of dense irregular connective tissue

tunica externa

10

Very large vessels contain blood flow to tunica externa through a network of small arteries called the ___.

vasa vasorum

11

Arteries have thicker tunica ____, veins have thicker tunica _____.

media
externa

12

Veins have a larger ___ than arteries and contain valves.

lumen

13

Arteries contain more collage and elastic fibers and so can withstand a higher range of ______.

blood pressure (40-100 mm Hg)

14

Veins can withstand a blood pressure from __ to ___ mm Hg.

0-20

15

_____ are strong, elastic vessels adapted for carrying blood away from the heart under high pressure.

elastic arteries

16

The largest arteries are called ___. or ______.

elastic or conducting arteries

17

Elastic arteries contain large amounts of elastic fibers through ____.

all three tunics

18

Elastic arteries allow for stretching of arteries during _____ and recoiling during ______.

ventricular systole
ventricular diastole

19

The elastic arteries include the aorta, pulmonary trunk, brachiocephalic, common carotid, subclavian, and ____ arteries.

common iliac arteries

20

Lumen diameters of elastic arteries range from 2.5 to ___ centimeter.

1

21

Elastic arteries branch into ____ arteries.

muscular

22

Muscular arteries are also called ____ arteries because the distribute blood to specific body regions and organs.

distributing

23

Muscular arteries have thicker tunica ___.

media

24

In muscular arteries the elastic fibers are confined to two Circumscribed sheets: _____ and _____.

internal elastic lamina
external elastic lamina

25

separates the tunica media from the tunica intima

internal elastic lamina

26

separates the tunica media from the tunica externa

external elastic lamina

27

A relatively greater amount of muscle gives muscular arteries a greater ability to _____ and ______ than elastic arteries.

vasoconstrict and vasodate

28

Muscular arteries include the brachial, anterior tibial, and ____.

coronary arteries

29

The lumen diameter range of muscular arteries is ___ to ___.

1 centimeter to 0.3 millimeters

30

The smallest of the arteries are _______.

arterioles

31

Arterioles are not ____.

named

32

The lumen diameter of arterioles range from 0.3 millimeters to ____ micrometers

10

33

Larger arterioles contain all three tunics with very little smooth muscle while the smallest arterioles contain just a ____ and a single layer of _____ around it.

tunica interna
smooth muscle

34

Smooth muscle in arterioles are always contracted slightly causing ______.

vasomotor tone

35

Arterioles play a significant role in blood pressure regulation and _____

blood flow

36

_____ connect arterioles to venules, 1 mm in length and only 8-10 micrometers in diameter.

Capillaries

37

There are three types of capillaries: continuous, fenestrated, and ____.

sinusoid

38

The most common type of capillaries

continuous

39

Continuous capillaries contain a continuous _____ layer and basement membrane.

endothelial

40

Continuous capillaries have ____ between cells that allow for small substances (glucose, ion, amino acids) to move between blood plasma and tissues.

gaps

41

____ capillaries are found in muscle, skin, lungs, and CNS.

Continuous

42

____ capillaries are composed of continuous endothelial lining and basement membrane, but the endothelial cells contain fenestrations (pores)

fenestrated capillaries

43

Fenestrated capillaries allow for small plasma proteins to move between plasma and _____.

tissues

44

Fenestrated capillaries allow for greater fluid transport between blood and ___ fluid.

interstitial

45

Fenestrated capillaries are found in the _____ and assist in nutrient absorption.

small intestines

46

Fenestraed capillaries are found in the ___ of eye an assist in aqueous humor production.

ciliary process

47

Fenestrated capillaries are found in the ____ of the brain in CSF production.

choroid plexus of the brain

48

Fenestrated capillaries are found in the ___ .

endocrine glands

49

Fenestrated capillaries are found in the ____ and help filter blood.

kidneys

50

___ capillaries are also called discontinuous capillaries.

sinusoid

51

Sinusoid capillaries have an ____ endothelial lining with large openings and either no basement membrane or a _____ one.

incomplete
discontinuous

52

____ capillaries allow for larger substances (such as formed elements) between blood plasma and tissues.

sinusoid

53

Sinusoid capillaries are found in ____, the liver, and spleen, and _____.

red bone marrow
some endocrine glands

54

Capillaries do not function independently; rather, a group of capillaries (10 to 100) function together and form a ____.

capillary bed

55

A capillary bed is fed by a _____, a branch from arterioles and are continuous with venules by way of a thoroughfare channel.

metarterioles

56

True capillaries branch from _____.

metarterioles

57

Blood flow into true capillaries is controlled by _____ located between the metarteriole and the capillaries.

precapillary sphincters

58

The precapillary sphincters go through cycles of contracting and relaxing at a rate of about 5 to 10 cycles per minute. These cycles process is called ____.

vasomotion

59

____ are vessels which are adapted to carrying blood back to the heart under low pressure.

veins

60

Capillaries merge to form ___.

venules

61

The smallest of veins are called ____ and have lumen in diameter ranging from 8-100 micrometers.

venules

62

Venules are companions with ____.

arterioles

63

Venules merge to form small to medium sized veins which merge to form _____.

large veins

64

Small/medium veins companion with ____ arteries (have similar structure).

muscular arteries

65

Large veins companion with _____ (have similar structure).

elastic arteries

66

Why do arteries contain more collagen and elastic fibers than veins?

to be able to withstand a greater amount and variance of blood pressure

67

The flow from elastic arteries to large veins.

elastic arteries
muscular arteries
arterioles
capillaries
venule
small/medium veins
large veins

68

What type of blood vessel has the greatest influence on blood pressure?

arterioles

69

Valves in the veins have anatomic structure similar to ____ valves.

semilunar valve

70

The largest percentage of blood, 70%, is within the ____ circulation.

systemic

71

55% of blood distribution at rest is found in the ____.

systemic veins (blood reservoirs)

72

At rest __% of blood is found within the pulmonary circulation.

18%

73

At rest ___% of blood found within the heart.

12%

74

Venoconstriction shifts blood in systemic veins back into circulation when needed such as ___.

exercise

75

Simple pathways contain only one artery, called an ___, one capillary bed, and one vein. (spleen)

end artery

76

_______ pathways contain various pathway combinations which include differing number of arteries, capillary beds, and veins.

Alternative

77

Three types of alternative pathways are designated as _____ (the joining together of blood vessels) One type is designated as the ____.

anastomoses
portal system

78

Two or more arteries converging to supply one body region

arteriole anastomosis
i.e. superior/inferior gastric or coronary arteries

79

Two or more veins draining one body region

venous anastomosis
i.e. basilic, brachial, and cephalic

80

carry blood from artery directly to vein

arteriovenous anastomosis (shunts)
i.e. fingers, toes, palms, ears

81

blood flows through two capillary beds connected by portal vein

portal system
i.e. liver

82

Two coronary anastomosis

right and left coronary arteries

83

The coronary artery that feeds lateral wall of right ventricle and posterior wall of both ventricles

right coronary artery

84

The coronary artery that feeds lateral wall of left ventricle and anterior wall of both ventricles

left coronary artery

85

The coronary arteries form an arterial anastomosis but more accurately, due to the fact the arteries do not cover the same areas of the heart, they form _______.

functional end arteries

86

____ is the narrowing or occluding of coronary arteries

Atherosclerosis (coronary artery disease)

87

____ is the pain in the chest, arm, shoulder from decreased blood supply to the heart.

angina pectoris

88

____ results from sudden and complete occlusion of a coronary artery causing death of heart tissue due to lack of blood supply.

Myocardial infarction (heart attack)

89

Symptoms of a heart attack include: angina pectoris, weakness, shortness of breath, nausea, vomiting, anxiety, and ____.

increased sweating

90

When a coronary artery is narrowed or blocked, nearby arteries can branch out to carry blood to teh area this affected

collateral ciruculation

91

When a coronary artery is narrowed and collateral circulation occurs it might let ____ recover and function properly if done quickly enough.

myocytes

92

____ cannot regenerate, thus scar tissue fills teh damaged area (instead of muscle) if blood flow is not restored quickly)

myocytes

93

_____ surgically inserts a vein to allow oxygenated blood to bypass teh occluded artery and reach teh affect myocardium

coronary bypass surgery

94

Blood is drained from the digestive organs and spleen into a ___, which takes the blood to the liver before it drains to the inferior vena cava.

hepatic portal vein

95

The hepatic portal system allows the ___to process blood coming from digestive organs before it returns to the heart and is pumped to the rest of the body. (rids blood of harmful substances such as alcohol, and toxins)

liver

96

The hepatic portal system allows the liver to recycle components of the ____ broken down in the spleen.

erythrocytes

97

The hepatic portal system has three branches: splenic vein, ___ vein, and ___ vein.

inferior/superior mesenteric

98

All three branches (splenic, inferior/superior mesenteric) plus the ___ veins drain into the hepatic portal vein.

gastric veins

99

Hepatic portal vein takes the blood to the liver, blood then drains from the liver through hepatic veins to the _____.

inferior vena cava

100

___ vein brings oxygen and nutrient rich blood from the placenta through the ductus venosus, past the liver, to the IVC, where the ____ blood mixes with the _____ blood. Then the SVC an IVC empty into the right atrium. Due to the lungs not being functional, blood pressure in teh right side of the heart is greater than the ____ side.

Umbilical
oxygenated blood
deoxygenated blood
left

101

In fetal circulation, high blood pressure in the right side of the heart causes most of the blood to be ___ from the right atrium to the left atrium through the ____ and then into the left ventricle where it is then pumped in to the aorta. Blood that made it to the right ventricle (didn't go through the foramen ovale) is pumped into the pulmonary trunk where the blood is then shunted into teh aorta through the ____.
The aorta carries mixed blood to teh body. Within the body, fetal vessels contain many ___, directeing blood away from organs not yet functional to function organs. Deoxygenated blood returns to the _____ through umbilical arteries.

shunted
foramen ovale
ductus arteriosus
shunts
placenta

102

Postnatal Circulation Changes:
Babies first breath drops the pulmonary pressure, allowing ____ to dilate.

pulmonary arteries

103

Postnatal Circulation Changes:
Pressure on the right side of heart deceases, as pressure on left side of heart increases, leading to ____.

systemic circulation

104

Postanatal Circulation Changes:
All fetal cardiovascular structures turn into ligaments except the foramen ovale, which turns into the _____.

fossa ovalis

105

The postnatal structure for the ductus arteriosus

ligamentum arteriosum

106

The postanatal structure for ductus venosus

ligamentum venosum

107

The postnatal structure for foramen ovale

fossa ovalis

108

The postnatal structure for umbilical arteries

medial umbilical ligaments

109

The postnatal structure for umbilical vein

round ligament of liverligamentum teres

110

Why is the pressure greater on the right side of the fetal heart but greater on the left side after birth?

Blood can’t flow into closed vessels to the lungs thus right side of heart harder to pump blood (blood has to go through one of two shunts to get to the aorta).
Birth causes the opening of the pulmonary blood vessel with the first breath, decreasing how hard the right side has to pump, putting the pressure now on the left side to pump the blood to the body.

111

____ area is the diameter of vessel's lumen.

cross-sectional

112

____ area estimates the lumen diameters in all of a single type of vessel (artery, capillary)

Total cross-sectional

113

Total cross-sectional area and blood flow velocity have an ____ relationship

inverse

114

Increasing cross-sectional area ___ blood flow velocity (less pressure)

decreases

115

Functional significance to slower rate of blood flow through capillaries

?

116

In capillary exchange oxygen, some hormones and nutrients move by ____ from the blood (higher) into the interstitial fluid (lower)

diffusion

117

In capillary exchange carbon dioxide and wastes ___ from tissues (higher) back into teh blood (lower)

diffuse

118

In capillary exchange certain hormones (such as insulin) and fatty acids, transported from blood to interstitial fluid (or vice versa) through ____.

vescicular transport

119

uses pinocytosis to move substance from one side of endothelial cell to other side

vesicular transport

120

the movement of large amounts of fluids and tehir dissolved substances in one direction down a pressure gradient.

bulk flow

121

is the movement of fluid, by bulk flow, out of the capillary and into the interstitial fluid (occurs on arterial end of capillary)

filtration

122

Reabsorption is the movement of fluid, by bulk flow, into the blood from the interstitial fluid (occurs on venous end of capillary)
Not all fluid filtered out gets reabsorbed, leaving fluid in tissues…

reabsorption

123

The physical force exerted by a fluid on a structure

hydrostatic pressure

124

force exerted by blood against vessel wall

Blood hydrostatic pressure (HPb)

125

force of interstitial fluid on external surface of blood vessel

Interstitial fluid hydrostatic pressure (HPif)

126

HPb promotes filtration from ____

capillary

127

The ‘pull’ of water into an area by osmosis due to the higher concentration of solutes

colloid osmotic pressure

128

force that draws fluid back in to the blood due to proteins in blood (opposed HPb)

blood colloid osmotic pressure

129

~ force that draws fluid back into the interstitial fluid due to solute concentration

Intersitial fluid colloid osmotic pressure

130

COPb promotes ______

reabsorption

131

Difference between the net hydrostatic pressure and the net colloid osmotic pressure.

net filtration
NFP = (HPb – HPif) – (COPb – COPif)
(+) results indicate filtration (fluids from blood to tissue)
(-) results indicate reabsorption (fluids from tissue to blood)

132

When total cross-sectional area increases, what happens to blood flow velocity? Which blood vessel has the greatest TCA?

It decreases (slows), capillaries

133

What's the difference between filtration and absorption?

Filtration is the movement of fluid and ions OUT of the blood
Reabsorption is the movement of fluid and ions INTO the blood

134

Hydrostatic pressure promotes __________ while colloid pressure promotes ___________.

filtration
reabsorption

135

What does this equation tell you?

NFP = (HPb – HPif) – (COPb – COPif)
How much net filtration or net reabsorption occurred between a particular tissue and the blood

136

The process by which a tissue itself, regulates or controls its local blood flow, in response to its changing metabolic needs

autoregulation

137

If a tissue is not receiving enough blood:
Oxygen and nutrient levels _____ in the tissue.
Carbon dioxide, lactate, H+ and K+ levels ____ in the tissue. Changes in these concentrations act as local vasodilators on the __________opening capillaries to the affected tissue

decline
increase
precapillary sphincters

138

~ local blood flow is restored to the affected tissue, but with a marked increase in blood flow
Additional blood required to resupply oxygen and nutrient levels and rid tissue of wastes

reactive hyperemia

139

The force per unit area that blood exerts against the inside wall of a vessel

blood pressure

140

Blood pressure changes from one end of the blood vessel to the other

blood pressure gradient

141

BP highest in _____, as heart is forcing blood into arteries with each ventricular contraction

arteries

142

BP lowest in ____, as blood flow velocity decreases as it goes through the capillaries

veins

143

maximal stretching of arteries due to ventricular systole

systolic pressure

144

maximal recoil of arteries, occurs during ventricular diastole

diastolic pressure

145

A normal blood pressure reading

120/80

146

amount of pressure change between ventricular relaxation and contraction

pulse pressure

147

Pulse pressure
Measure of the elasticity and recoil of arteries

systolic bp - diastolic bp

148

pulse presse less than 40 mm Hg

poor heart function

149

pulse pressue of 40 mm hg

normal

150

pulse pressure greater than 60 mm Hg

cardiovascular risk

151

~ average measure of the blood pressure forces on the arteries

Mean arterial pressure
MAP = Diastolic BP + 1/3 Pulse pressure

152

Mean arterial pressure provides a numberical value for how well body tissues and organs are ____.

perfused

153

Diastolic BP lasts ___ than systolic BP

longer

154

MAP of 60 or lower

insufficient blood flow

155

MAP of 70 - 110

good

156

MAP of 110 or high

too much blood flow and causes edema

157

What does pulse pressure measure?

The elasticity and recoil of the arteries

158

______ Assists in the movement of blood within limbs

skeletal muscle pump

159

_______ contract, squeezing blood through the veins and towards the heart

Skeletal muscles

160

Exercise utilizes the ____ to get blood back to heart more quickly and efficiently

skeletal muscle pump

161

inactivity causes blood ____ in leg veins leading to deep vein thrombosis (DVT, blood clots within veins)

pooling

162

____ can be fatal if embolus breaks off and ends up inlungs

DVT

163

Assists movement of blood within thoracic cavity

respiratory pump

164

Diaphragm contracts as we ____, expanding the thoracic cavity. This causes the intrathoracic pressure to ____, allowing blood vessels to open

inhale
decrease

165

Flattening of diaphragm compresses the abdominopelvic cavity ____ intra-abdominal pressure. This squeezes the abdominal vessels, moving the blood up to the _____.

increasing
thoracic cavity.

166

Diaphragm relaxes when we ____, compressing thoracic cavity. This causes intrathoracic pressure to increase causing compression of ______ to empty into the heart

exhale
vena cava

167

Abdominopelvic cavity _____, decreasing intra-abdominal pressure
This allows abdominal veins to _____ and fill from legs and organs.

expands
open

168

Amount of friction the blood experiences as it is transported through the blood vessels

peripheral resistance

169

Peripheral resistance is affect by blood vessel radius, _____ and _____.

blood viscosity
blood vessel length

170

thickness of blood

blood viscosity

171

Greater blood viscosity leads to ___ resistance to flow

greater

172

An anemic person has ____ viscosity thus a ____ resistance.

lesser
lesser

173

Longer vessels ___ resistance.

increase

174

Greater friction fluid experiences as it travels through ___ vessels.

longer

175

Gaining weigh ___ vessel length causing ___ resistance.

lengthens
greater

176

Greater vessel ___ leads to less resistance to flow

diameter

177

Vasoconstriction and dilation occur in all vessels, but the most influential is in teh ______ and ___.

muscular arteries and arterioles

178

size of lumen - has the biggest influence on peripheral resistance

blood vessel radius

179

Blood vessels are only innervated by the ____ division of the ANS.

sympathetic

180

Vasoconstriction/ dilation are dependent upon receptors in ____ of teh tunic media.

smooth muscle cells

181

Name four hormones that regulation blood pressure.

Angiotensin II, Aldosterone, ADH, ANP

182

Which three hormones decrease urine output?

Angiotensin II, Aldosterone, ADH

183

Which hormone increases urine output?

ANP

184

Which hormone is released from the heart?

ANP

185

What is needed to convert angiotensinogen into angiotensin I? And where is it produced?

Renin, in the kidneys

186

Vasocontriction/dilation dependent upon receptors in smooth muscle cells of _______.

tunic media

187

Receptors are specific to their location of blood vessels in body..
_____receptors cause vasoconstriction in response to NE. _____ receptors cause vasodilation in response to EPI.

Alpha 1
Beta 2

188

Activation of sympathetic division causes increased peripheral resistance, larger circulating blood volume, and ______.

redistribution of blood flow

189

more blood vessels constricted than dilated increasing blood pressure

increased peripheral resistance

190

venoconstriction increases venous return to heart thus increasing blood pressure

larger circulating blood volume

191

greater flow to heart and skeletal muscles

redistribution of blood flow

192

____ is the amount of blood that moves through the cardiovascular system per unit time. It is influenced by both blood pressure gradient and peripheral resistance.

total blood flow

193

total blood flow =

MAP / Resistance (of blood as it moves through vessels)

194

Blood flow is directly related to the pressure gradient. Pressure gradient _____, blood flow increases.

increases

195

Blood flow is indirectly related to peripheral resistance. Resistance _______, blood flow decreases.

increases

196

Increased cardiac output increases the ________, thus increases blood flow (directly related).

pressure gradient

197

Vasodilation _______ peripheral resistance, thus increasing blood flow (indirectly related).

decreases

198

Decreased ______ decreases the pressure gradient, thus decreases blood flow.

cardiac output

199

Vasoconstriction _____ peripheral resistance, thus decreasing blood flow.

increases

200

What's the difference between the skeletal muscle pump and the respiratory pump?

Skeletal muscle pump is the contraction/relaxation cycle of the muscles that moves the blood through the venous system
Respiratory pump is the changing pressures within the thoracic and abdominal cavities that moves the blood through the venous system

201

What are the three things that effect peripheral resistance?

Blood viscosity, blood vessel length and radius

202

Blood vessels are only controlled by the ___________ division of the ANS.

Sympathetic

203

Beta-2 receptors cause ____________ while alpha-1 receptors cause ______________.

vasodilation
vasoconstriction

204

If cardiac output increased, what would happen to total blood flow?

It would increase

205

If peripheral resistance is increased due to clogged blood vessels, what would happen to total blood flow?

It would decrease

206

Why is total blood flow important?

It effects how quickly our body cells can receive nutrients and oxygen needed for energy production and growth. As well as riding the body cells of wastes which can build up and cause electrolyte or acid/base imbalances

207

Blood pressure must be high enough to maintain adequate perfusion of all ___.

tissues

208

Regulation of blood pressure is cardiac output, peripheral resistance and _____.

blood volume

209

Regulation of blood pressure is controlled in the short term by the ____.

nervous system

210

Regulation of blood pressure is controlled in the long term by the ________.

endocrine system

211

Sensory receptors that respond to stretch (as in the blood vessel walls)

baroreceptors

212

Two main baroreceptors located in tunica externa of the ______and carotid sinuses (internal carotid artery).

aortic arch

213

Aortic arch receptors transmit signal to cardiovascular center (in medulla oblongata) through the ____.

vagus nerve

214

Carotid sinus receptors transmit signal through _______ nerve

glossopharyngeal

215

Activated response to changes in stretch of the blood vessel wall. Leads to increased blood pressure.

baroreceptors reflexes

216

If blood pressure_____ baroreceptors decrease frequency of nerve signals to cardiovascular center.

decreases

217

If blood pressure _____ signals thru sympathetic pathways increase and decrease thru parasympathetic pathways. Leads to increased blood pressure.

decreases

218

If blood pressure _____ HR and SV increase = increase in CO, vasoconstriction increases peripheral resistance as well as venous return. Leads to increased blood pressure.

decreases

219

if blood pressure _____ Baroreceptors increase frequency of nerve signals to cardiovascular center. Leads to decreased blood pressure.

increases

220

If blood pressure _____ signals thru sympathetic pathways decrease and increases thru parasympathetic pathways. Leads to decreased blood pressure.

increases

221

If blood pressure ____ HR and SV decrease = decreases CO, vasodilation decreases peripheral resistance and shifts more blood into the venous reservoirs. Leads to decreased blood pressure.

increases.

222

Although ____ are more important in regulating respiration, are also secondarily involved in regulating blood pressure.

chemoreceptors

223

When ____ are stimulated, they initiate chemoreceptor reflexes. (negative feedback loops)

chemoreceptors

224

The two main chemoreceptors are the _____ located int eh arch of the aorta and and carotid body located at the bifurcation of the common carotid arteries.

aortic bodies

225

Chemoreceptors send the aortic signal through CN X and carotid signals through ____.

CN IX

226

Chemoreceptors are stimulated by increased ___ levels, decreased pH or very decreased ___ levels.

CO2
O2

227

Once chemoreceptors are stimulated increase frequency of stimulation to vasomotor centers which ___ signals to sympathetic pathways. Blood vessels constrict causing increase resistance and more blood entering the circulation from the venous reservoirs
This causes increased blood pressure, which increases blood flow to lungs with allows for an increase in respiratory gas exchange

increase

228


Angiotensin II

Liver produces angiotensinogen (inactive hormone) constantly
Kidneys releases renin (enzyme) when blood pressure is low
Renin converts angiotensinogen to angiotensin I
Angiotensin I is then converted to angiotensin II by angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) (found in high concentrations in the pulmonary capillary endothelium)

229

Functions of ANgiotensis II

Vasoconstrictor
Stimulates thirst
Decreases urine formation
Stimulates release of aldosterone and antidiuretic hormone

230

Released from adrenal cortex
Increases absorption of sodium and water in kidney

aldosterone

231

Released from posterior pituitary
Increases absorption of water in kidneys, stimulates thirst center, in extreme cases can cause vasoconstriction

Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

232

Angiotensin II, aldosterone and ADH ____ urine output to maintain blood volume and blood pressure

decreases

233

Angiotensin II and ADH (in high doses) _____ resistance and blood pressure

increase

234

Released from the atrium of heart in response to increased stretch of atrial walls
Stimulates vasodilation and increases urine output
Both decrease blood pressure

Atrial Natriuretic Peptide (ANP)