Chapter 18 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 18 Deck (422)
1

Within our bodies is a connective tissue, ________, so valuable that donating a portion of it to someone else can save that person's life.

blood

2

____ is regenerated continuously and is responsible for transporting the gases, nutrients, and hormones our bodies need for proper functioning.

blood

3

Blood is considered a ____ because it contains formed elements (red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets) and dissolved proteins in a liquid ground substance called ____.

fluid connective tissue
plasma

4

__ to ___ liters of this blood is continuously pumped through our blood vessels.

4 to 6 liters

5

Blood is the specialized fluid that is transported through the ______, which is composed of the heart and blood vessels.

cardiovascular system

6

Blood vessels form a circuit away from the heart and back to the heart that includes arteries, ____, and veins.

capillaries

7

_____ transport blood away from the heart, whereas ____ transport blood toward the heart.

arteries
veins

8

____ are permeable, microscopic vessels between arteries and veins. They serve as the sites of exchange between the _____ and ___.

capillaries
blood and body tissues

9

It is from our capillaries that oxygen and nutrients ___ the blood, and carbon dioxide and cellular wastes ___ the blood.

exit
enter

10

Blood is composed of ____ and plasma.

formed elements
(leukocytes, erythrocytes and platelets)

11

___ function to transport respiratory gases in the blood.

Erythrocytes (red blood cells)

12

____ contribute to defending the body against pathogens.

Leukocytes (white blood cells)

13

____ help clot the blood and prevent blood loss from damaged vessels.

Platelets

14

_____ is the fluid portion of blood containing plasma proteins and dissolved solutes.

plasma

15

The three functions of blood.

transportation
regulation
protection

16

Blood transports formed elements and dissolved molecules and ____ throughout the body.

ions

17

The ____ that serves as the "delivery system" for the body.

blood

18

Blood vessels carry oxygen from and carbon dioxide to the lungs, nutrients absorbed from the GI tract, hormones released by ______, and heat and waste products from the _____.

endocrine glands
systemic cells

19

Even when you take a medication, the ____ delivers it to the cells in the body.

blood

20

Blood participates in the regulation of body temperature, body pH, and ____.

fluid balance

21

Blood helps regulation body temperature. This is possible because blood absorbs ____ from body cells, especially skeletal muscle, as it passes through blood vessels of body tissues. ______ is then released from blood at the body surface as blood is transported through blood vessels of the ____.

heat
heat
skin

22

Blood, because it absorbs acid and base from ____, helps maintain the pH of cells. Blood contains chemical ____ that bind and release hydrogen ions to maintain blood pH until the excess is eliminated from the body.

body cells
buffers

23

Water is added to the blood from the ____ and lost in numerous ways (urine, sweat, and respired air). There is a constant exchange of fluid between the blood plasma in the capillaries and the interstitial fluid surround the cells of the body's tissues.

gastrointestinal tract

24

Blood contains proteins and ions that exert _____ to pull fluid back into the capillaries to help maintain normal fluid balance.

osmotic pressure

25

Blood contains leukocytes, plasma proteins and various molecules that help ___ the body against potentially harmful substances.

protect

26

Components of blood, including platelets and plasma proteins, also protect the body against _____.

blood loss

27

Physical characteristics of blood (6)

color
volume
viscosity
plasma concentration
temperature
blood pH

28

The ____ of blood depends upon whether it is oxygen-rich or oxygen-poor.

color

29

Oxygen-rich blood is _____ or almost ____.

bright red or almost scarlet

30

Oxygen-poor blood is not blue, rather, a ____.

dark red.

31

The bluish appearance of our veins can be attributed to both the fact that we can see the blood traveling through the _____ veins in the skin and how ___ is reflected back to the eye from different colors. Lower-energy light wavelengths, like red, are absorbed by the skin and not reflected back tot eh eye, but higher energy wavelengths like blue are reflected back.

superficial
light

32

The average volume of blood in an adult is ___ liters (L).

5

33

Males tend to have, on average blood volume, ___ to ___ liters (L). The greater amount of blood in males is due to their larger average size.

5 to 6

34

Females tend to have, on average blood volume, ___ to ___ liters (L).

4 to 5

35

Sustaining a normal blood volume is essential in maintaining ____.

blood pressure

36

Blood is about __ to ___ times more viscous than water, meaning is is thicker.

4 to 5

37

Viscosity of blood depends upon the amount of _____ in the blood relative to the amount of fluid.

dissolved substances

38

Viscosity is increased if the amount of substances - primarily _____ - increases, or the amount of fluid decreases or both.

erythrocytes

39

_____ is the relative concentration of solutes in plasma.

plasma concentration

40

The plasma concentration is normally a ___ % concentration, and it determines whether fluids move into or out of the plasma by ____ as blood is transported through capillaries.

0.09%
osmosis

41

The plasma concentration is used to determine _____ concentrations, which are usually isotonic to plasma.

intravenous plasma concentrations (IV)

42

If an individual is dehydrated, the plasma becomes ____, and fluid moves into the plasma from the surrounding tissues.

hypertonic

43

The temperature of blood is about ___C higher than measured body temperature.

1 degree C

44

Body temperature is 37C (98.6F), your blood temp is about ____C ( F), therefore blood warms areas through which it travels.

38C
100.4F

45

Blood plasma is slightly ____, with a pH between ____ and ____.

alkaline
7.35 and 7.45

46

Plasma proteins, like all proteins of the body have a three dimensional shape that is dependent upon ___ concentration.

H+

47

if the pH is altered from the normal range, plasma proteins become ____ and are unable to carry out their functions.

denatured

48

_____ is both plasma and formed elements, can be separated into its liquid and cellular components by using a _____.

whole blood
centrifuge

49

A device that spins the sample of blood in a tube so that heavier components collect at the bottom is called a _____.

centrifuge

50

When using a centrifuge blood separates into three components. Name them from the superior part of the test tube to the inferior portion.

Plasma
buffy coat
Erythrocytes

51

____ form the lower layer of the centrifuged blood. They typically make up about ____ of a blood sample.

Erythrocytes
44%

52

A thin ___ makes up the middle layer of centrifuged whole blood. It is a slightly gray-white layer composed of both ___ and _____. This makes up less than ___ of a blood sample.

buffy coat
leukocytes and platelets
1%

53

Plasma is a straw-colored liquid that rises to the top in the test tube and makes up about ___ of blood.

55%

54

The percentage of the volume of all formed elements in the blood is called the ______.

hematocrit

55

Hematocrit values vary somewhat and are dependent upon the ____ and ____ of the individual.

age and sex

56

A very young child's hematocrit may vary from ___ to ___, and that range will narrow to ___ to ___ as the child becomes older.

30% to 60%
35% to 50%

57

Adult males tend to have a hematocrits ranging between ___% and ___%, whereas adult females hematocrits range from ___% to ___%.

42% to 56%
38% to 46%

58

Males typically have a higher hematocrit because _______ stimulates the kidney to produce the hormone erythropoietin (EPO) which promotes erythrocyte production.

testosterone

59

An elevated hematocrit may indicate that the patient is either ____ or participating in _____, whereas a lowered hematocrit often suggest the patient is suffering from anemia.

dehydrated
blood doping

60

All of the components of the formed elements can be viewed by preparing a ____.

blood smear

61

Not only does the blood contain buffers to help maintain the body's pH, but the ____ system and ___ system also help to maintain pH.

urinary system
respiratory system

62

___ are the most numerous of the formed elements.

Erythrocytes

63

These are anucleate cells and appear as pink or pale purple, bioconcave discs.

erythrocytes

64

Leukocytes are larger than _____.

erythrocytes

65

The nucleus is very noticeable in ____.

leukocytes

66

Platelets appear as small _____ of cells.

fragments

67

Plasma is composed primarily of water, about ___% of its volume), plasma proteins, and other solutes including electrolytes, nutrients, respiratory gases, and wastes.

92%

68

Plasma is an ____ because it is fluid found outside of cells.

extracellular fluid (ECF)

69

Plasma is similar to interstitial fluid, in that both have similar concentrations of electrolytes, nutrients and waste products. however of the most significant differences is that _____ is higher in plasma than in the interstitial fluid.

protein concentration

70

Blood is considered a ___ because it contains proteins in the plasma.

colloid

71

Plasma proteins include albumin, globulins, ____ and other clotting proteins, and regulatory proteins such as enzymes and some _____.

fibrinogen
hormones

72

____, alpha and beta globulins, and both fibrinogen and other proteins involved in clotting are produced in the ___.

albumin
liver

73

Plasma proteins such as ____-globulins and regulatory proteins, are produced by _____ and other organs, respectively.

gamma
leukocytes

74

Collectively, these plasma proteins exert osmotic pressure and present the loss of fluid from the blood as it moves through the _____.

capillaries

75

Osmotic pressure exerted by plasma proteins is called _____.

colloid osmotic pressure

76

The ____ is responsible for drawing fluids into the blood and preventing excess fluid loss from blood capillaries into the ICF, thus helping to maintain blood volume and consequently _____.

osmotic pressure
blood pressure

77

If plasma protein levels _____, such as might occur due to liver disease (resulting in decreased production of ______) or kidney damage (resulting in increased elimination of plasma proteins, colloid osmotic pressure also ____. This decrease results in fluid loss from the blood and fluid retention in the interstitial space.

decrease
plasma proteins
decreases

78

____ are the smallest and most abundant of the plasma proteins, making up approximately ____ of plasma proteins.

Albumins
58%

79

Because albumin is the most abundant type of plasma protein, it exerts the greatest _____ to maintain blood volume and blood pressure.

colloid osmotic pressure

80

Albumins act as transport proteins that carry ions, hormones, and some ____ in the blood.

lipids

81

_____ are the second largest group of plasma proteins, forming about ___% of all plasma proteins.

Globulins
37%

82

The smaller ____ and the larger ____ primarily bind and transport certain water-insoluble molecules and hormones, some metal, and ions.

alpha-globulins
beta-globulins

83

____ are also called immunoglobulins, or ____, which play a part in the body's defenses.

Gamma-globulins
antibodies

84

_____ makes up about 4% of all plasma proteins.

Fibrinogen

85

Fibrinogen as well as other clotting proteins are responsible for ____ formation.

blood clot

86

Following trauma to the walls of blood vessels, fibrinogen is converted into long, insoluble strands of fibrin, which help form a _____.

blood clot

87

When the clotting proteins are removed from plasma, the remaining fluid is termed _____.

serum

88

____ proteins form a very minor class of plasma proteins (less than 1% of total plasma proteins).

regulatory

89

Regulatory proteins include both ____ to accelerate chemical reactions in the blood and ______ being transported throughout the body to target cells.

enzymes
hormones

90

Blood is also considered a ____ because it contains dissolved ions as well as organic and inorganic molecules

solution

91

The organic and inorganic molecules in the blood include ___, nutrients, gases, and waste products.

electroylytes

92

Common molecules found in blood plasma.

glucose
amino acids
lactate
lipids

93

Electrolytes in arterial plasma

sodium
potassium
calcium
hydrogen
chloride
bicarbonate
phosphate

94

normal ranges for sodium in arterial plasma

35-145 milliequivalents per liter

95

normal ranges of potassium in arterial plasma

3.5-5.0 mEq/L

96

normal ranges of calcium in arterial plasma

8.4 - 10.2 mg/dL

97

normal ranges of hydrogen in arterial plasma

pH 7.35-7.45

98

normal ranges of chloride in arterial plasma

96-106 mEq/L

99

normal ranges of bicarbonate in arterial plasma

23.1 - 26.7 mEq/L

100

normal ranges of phosphate in arterial plasma

2.5-4.1 mEq/L

101

function of sodium in arterial plasma

neuron and muscle function; fluid balance; contransporter

102

function of potassium in arterial plasma

neuron and muscle function

103

function of calcium in arterial plasma

hardens bone, release of neurotransmitter, muscle contraction, blood clotting, second messenger

104

function of hydrogen in arterial plasma

pH Balance

105

normal range of glucose in blood plasma

fasting 70 -100 mg/dL; 2 hours after a meal :

106

normal range of lactate

4.5 - 14.4 mg/dL

107

normal range of cholesterol

100 - 200 mg/dL

108

normal range of HDL

40-80 mg/dL

109

normal range of VLDL/LDL

10-100 mg/dL

110

normal range of Triglycerides

30-149 mg/dL

111

normal range of phopholipids

6-12 mg/dL

112

function of chloride in arterial plasma

anion bound to sodium; component of gastric acid (HCl); chloride shift

113

function of bicarbonate in blood plasma

pH balance

114

function of phosphate in blood plasma

binds with calcium and deposited in bone

115

fuel molecule for cellular respiration (primary energy source for nervous tissue); tightly regulated by a number of hormones, including insulin and glucagon

glucose found in blood plasma

116

monomers for synthesizing protein; also regulated by some of the same hormones as glucose

amino acids in blood plasma

117

by product of glycolysis

lactate

118

molecules that generally do not dissolve in water

lipids

119

plasma membrane component; synthesis of steroid hormones; bile salts

cholesterol

120

transport lipids to the liver

HDL

121

transport lipids from the liver

VLDL/LDL

122

fuel molecules

triglycerides

123

molecules that form plasma membrane bilayer

phospholipids

124

Formed elements have a relatively short life span; new ones are continually produced by the process of _____, also called _______.

hemopoiesis, hematopoiesis

125

The red bone marrow (____ tissue) is responsible for hemopoiesis.

myeloid

126

Hemopoiesis occurs in most bones in young children, but as an individual reaches adulthood, hemopoiesis is _____to selected bones primarily in the axial skeleton.

restricted

127

The process of hemopoiesis starts with hemopoietic stem cells called _____.

hemocytoblasts

128

Hemocytoblasts are considered ___ cells, meaning that they can differentiate and develop into many different kinds of cells.

pluripotent

129

Hemocytoblasts produce two different lines for blood cell development: 1) the ___ line forms erythrocytes, all leukocytes except lympohcytes, and megakaryoctes. 2) the ____ line forms only lymphocytes.

myeloid
lymphoid

130

The maturation and division of hemopoietic stem cells is influenced by ________, or colony-forming units (CFUs).

colony-stimulating factors (CSFs)

131

CSFs or CFUs are molecules that are all growth factors, except for _____, which is a hormone.

erythropoietin

132

Erythocytes make up more than ____% of formed elements with a concentration between 4.2 and 6.2 million per cubic millimeter.

99%

133

The process of erythrocyte production is called ______.

erythropoiesis

134

Normally, erythrocytes are produced at the rate of about _____ per second.

3 million

135

The hormone erythropoietin (EPO) controls the rate of production by _____ the rate of erythorocytes formation.

increasing

136

Dietary requirements for normal erythropoiesis include iron, ____, and amino acids.

vitamin b

137

The process of erythropoiesis begins with a ______, which under the influence of multi-CSF forms a progenitor cell.

myeloid stem cell

138

The progenitor cell forms a _______, which is a large, nucleated cell.

proerythroblast

139

The proerythroblast becomes an ____, which is a slightly smaller cell that is producing hemoglobin in its cytosol.

erythroblast

140

The next stage of erythropoiesis is called a ____, is a still smaller cell with more hemoglobin the cytosol; its nucleus has been ejected.

normoblast

141

A cell called a ______ eventually is formed which has lost all organelles except some ribosomes, so it can continue to produce hemoglobin (through protein synthesis).

reticulocyte

142

The transformation from myeloid stem cell to reticulocyte takes about ___ days.

5 days

143

Some reticulocytes finish maturation while circulating in blood vessels and in normal circumstances, make up 0.5 - 2% of the ______.

circulating blood.

144

One to two days after entering the circulation, the reticulocyte degenerate, and the reticulocyte becomes a ______.

mature erythrocyte

145

Without a nucleus and cellular organelles, the mature erythrocyte is essentially a plasma membrane "bag" containing ____.

hemoglobin

146

Leukocytes make up less than _____ of formed elements with a concentration between 4500 and 11,000 per cubic meter.

0.01%

147

The production of leukocytes is called ______.

leukopoiesis

148

Leukopoiesis involves three different types of maturation processes: granulocyte maturation, monocyte maturation, and _____ maturation

lymphocyte

149

All three types of granulocytes (_____, _____, _____) are derived from a myeloid stem cell.

neutrophils
basophils
eosinophils

150

A myeloid stem cell is stimulated by multi-CSF and GM-CSF to form a ____ cell.

progenitor

151

The granulocyte line develops when the progenitor cell forms a _____ under the influence of G-CSF.

myeloblast

152

The myeloblast ultimately differentiates into one of the three types of ____.

granulocytes

153

Like granulocytes, monocytes are also derived from a _____.

myeloid stem cell

154

The myeloid stem cell differentiates into a ____ cell and under the influence of M-CSF this cell forms a _____. This is the monocyte line.

progenitor cell
monoblasts

155

Eventually, the monoblast forms a promonocyte that differentiates and matures into a _____.

monocyte

156

Lymphocytes are derived from a lymphoid stem cell through the _______.

lymphoid line

157

The lymphoid stem cell differentiates into ______ and _______.

B-lymphoblasts
T-lymphoblasts

158

B-lymphoblasts mature into B-lymphocytes, whereas T-lymphoblasts mature into _______.

T-lymphocytes

159

Some lymphoid stem cells differentiate directly into a natural killer (_____) cells.

NK

160

Platelets are also called ___.

thrombocytes

161

Thrombocytes make up less than ___% of formed elements with a concentration between 150,000 and 400,000 per cubic millimeter.

1%

162

The production of platelets is called _____.

thrombopoiesis

163

During thrombopoiesis, the myeloid stem cell, a committed cell called a ______ is produced.

megakaryoblast

164

Megakaryoblasts matures under the influence of thrombopoietin to form a _______.

megakaryocyte

165

Megakaryocytes are easily distinguished both by their large size and their ____, _____ nucleus. Each megakaryocyte then produces _____ of thrombocytes.

dense, multilobed
thousands

166

The process of how megakaryoctes produce thrombocytes was in question until 2007. Researchers reported that megakaryoctes produce _____ from themselves called proplatelets. While still attached to the megakaryoctye, these proplatelets extreough the blood vessel wall in the ____. The force from the blood flow "___" these proplatelets into the fragments we know as platelets (thrombocytes)

long extension
red bone marrow
slices

167

____ are very small, flexible cells, with a diameter of approximately 7.5 um.

erythrocytes

168

Although, erythrocytes are commonly referred to as red blood cells or RBCs, the term "red blood cell" is a misnomer because a mature erythrocyte lacks a ____ and ____.

nucleus and cellular organelles

169

A more appropriate name for red blood cells is a _____.

formed element

170

An erythrocyte has a unique _____ structure.

bioconcave disc

171

Erythrocytes are composed of a plasma membrane within which are house about ___ million hemoglobin molecules.

280 million

172

_____ transport oxygen and carbon dioxide between the tissues and the lungs.

erythrocytes

173

The fact that erythrocytes lack a nucleus and organelles enables them to carry ____ more efficiently.

respiratory gases

174

The bioconcave shape and flexibility of erythrocytes allow them to stack and line up in single file, termed a ____, as they pass through capillaries.

rouleau

175

A latticework of spectrin protein supports the plasma membrane of the erythrocyte on its internal surface and provides _____ to the erythrocyte as it moves through the capillaries.

flexibility

176

_____ is a red-pigmented protein that transports oxygen and carbon dioxide.

hemoglobin

177

When blood is maximally loaded with oxygen, it is termed _____ and appears ____.

oxygenated
bright red

178

When some oxygen is lost and carbon dioxide is gained during systemic cellular gas exchange, blood is called _____ and appears _____.

deoxygenated and appears dark red

179

Each hemoglobin molecule consists of four protein molecules called ____.

globins

180

Two of these globins are called _____ and the other two, which are slightly different, are called _____.

alpha chains
beta chains

181

All globin chains contain a ___ group, which is composed of a porphyrin (organic compound) ring, with an _____ in its center.

heme group
iron ion

182

Oxygen binds to the _____ in heme groups for transport in the blood.

Iron

183

Because each molecule of hemoglobin has four heme groups, it has ___ iron and is capable of binding ____ molecules of oxygen.

4
4

184

The oxygen binding is fairly weak; this allows rapid attachment of oxygen with hemoglobin when erythrocytes pas through the _____ of the lungs, and _____ when erythrocytes pass through the systemic capillaries of body tissues.

blood capillaries
rapid detachment

185

Carbon dioxide and the globin molecule (not ___) have a similar weak attachment relationship for the transport of _____ molecules.

not Fe+
carbon dioxide

186

Carbon dioxide binds to the globin protein molecule as blood moves through ___ capillaries and is released as blood moves through the capillaries of the lungs.

systemic

187

Erythropoiesis is controlled by the hormone _____.

erythropoietin (EPO)

188

The kidneys are the primary produces of EPO, although the liver also secretes a small amount of _____ as well.

erythropoietin (EPO)

189

The EPO is released due to the initial stimulus is a decrease in ______ levels. This decrease may be caused by the continuous removal of aged erythrocytes, blood loss, or ________.

blood oxygen
exposure to high altitudes

190

_____ within the kidney detect low blood oxygen levels as the blood travels through blood vessels within the kidney. As a result, certain cells in the kidney release the hormone EPO into the ____.

chemoreceptors
blood

191

EPO is transported through the blood and reaches the ______. There, EPO stimulates _____ in the red bone marrow to increase the rate of erythrocyte production. Additional erythrocytes are released into circulation ( a process that takes a ___), so more oxygen can be transported from the lungs and delivered to the cells. Blood oxygen levels ____ as a result. Increased oxygen levels inhibit release of EPO from kidney cells through negative feedback.

red bone marrow
myeloid cells
a few days
increase

192

The ____ gland secretes small amounts of testosterone in ____, and the testes secrete large amounts of testosterone in males.

adrenal gland
both sexes

193

Testosterone stimulates the ___ to produce more EPO. Because males have higher levels of testosterone, they also usually have a higher erythrocyte count and a higher ____.

kidneys
hematocrit

194

Environmental factors such as ____, can affect EPO release and ultimately affect the hematocrit.

altitude

195

The absence of both a nucleus and cellular organelles comes at a cost to the erythrocyte and affects its _____.

longevity

196

A mature erythrocyte cannot synthesize proteins either to ____ itself or to _____ damaged membrane regions.

repair
replace

197

______ and the wear-and-tear of circulation through blood vessels cause erythrocytes to become more fragile and less flexible.

aging

198

The erythrocyte has a finite maximum life span of about ____ days. Every day, about __% of the oldest ciruculating erythrocytes are removed from circulation. These old erythrocytes are ______ in both the spleen and liver by cells called _____.

120 days
1%
phagocytized
macrophages

199

Three molecular components must be accounted for in the destruction of hemoglobin: the globin protein, the iron ion, and the _____.

heme group

200

When hemoglobin is deconstructed two of the components are processed for recycling; the other component is metabolically _____ and then excreted from the body.

altered

201

______ are broken down into free amino acids, most of which are used by the body for protein synthesis to make new erythrocytes or other body proteins.

globin proteins

202

The _____ component in hemoglobin is removed and transported by a globulin protein called ______ to the liver or spleen where the Iron then is bound to storage proteins called _____ and _____.

iron
transferrin
ferritin
hemosiderin

203

_______ is a large water-soluble protein that serves as the primary storage mechanism for iron.

Ferritin

204

Iron is stored mainly in the ____ and ____, and it is transported by transferrin to the red bone marrow as needed for erythrocyte production.

liver and spleen

205

Small amounts of iron, approximately 0.9 mg, are lost daily in sweat, urine, and ____. In females, additional iron is ___ in those who have a monthly menstrual flow.

feces
lost

206

The heme group released from hemoglobin is converted within macrophages first into a green pigment called _____.

biliverdin

207

____ is any condition in which either the percentage of erythrocytes is lower than normal or the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood is reduced (such as may occur if the hemoglobin is abnormal).

anemia

208

Biliverdin is eventually converted into a yellowish pigment called ____ which is transported by albumin to the liver.

bilirubin

209

Bilibrubin is a component of a digestive secretion called ____, which is produced by the liver and released into the _____.

bile
small intestines

210

Symptoms of anemia include lethargy, shortness of breath, pallor of the skin, and ______, fatigue, and heart palpitations.

mucous membranes

211

Those suffering from anemia have a decreased oxygen delivery to body tissues and consequently, the ___ must work harder to supply oxygen to the body.

heart

212

____ anemia is characterized by significantly decreased formation of both erthrocytes and hemoglobin. This condition results from defective red bone marrow, perhaps as a result of poisons, toxins, or radiation exposure.

aplastic

213

______ anemia occurs when destruction of erthrocytes is more rapid than normal. It is usually due to a genetic defect, which results in the production of abnormal membrane proteins that make the erythrocyte plasma membrane very fragile.

congenital hemolytic anemia

214

____ anemia is characterized by the presence of large number of immature, nucleated cells (calle erythroblasts and normoblasts) in the circulating blood. An accelerated pace of cell maturation causes immature cells to be present in the blood. These cells cannot function normally and thus anemia results.

Erythroblastic

215

____ anemia results from heavy blood loss. The hemorrhage may be caused, for example, by chronic ulcers of by heavy or prolonged menstrual flow.

hemorrhagic

216

____ anemia is a chronic progressive anemia of adults caused by failure of the body to absorb vitamin B12. This vitamin is found in fish and meat, so most individuals receive enough B12 in their diet, unless they are vegans or strict vegetarians.

pernicious

217

A defect in the production of _____, a glycoprotein secreted by stomach lining cells to protect B12 in the stomach and enhance B12 absorption in the small intestine, leads to pernicious anemia. Individuals who have pernicious anemia due to defective intrinsic factor production must receive B12 intramuscular or subcutaneous injections, since they are unable to absorb oral B12.

intrinsic factor

218

___ disease is an autosomal recessive anemia that occurs when a person inherits two copies of the sickle-cell gene. Erythrocytes become sickle-shaped at lower blood oxygen concentrations, making the unable to flow efficiently through the blood vessels to body tissues and more prone to destruction (called hemolysis).

Sickel - cell disease

219

Most anemias are treated by letting the patient's own ____ replace the erythrocytes.. This process may be facilitated through the use of pharmaceutical EPO. However, anemia is often a symptom of another disease or problem.

bone marrow

220

A _____ is the transfer of blood or blood components from a donor to a recipient.

tranfusion

221

The plasma membrane of an erythrocyte has numerous molecules called ____ or ______ which project from the surface.

surface antigens or agglutinogens

222

Surface antigens have significant implications for blood transfusion, and some cases, ____.

pregnancy

223

There are two groups of surface antigens that determine a person's blood type: ___ blood group and the ___ protein.

ABO blood group and the Rh protein

224

The best known antigens are those that form the ___ blood group.

ABO

225

The ABO blood group consists of two surface antigens, which are glycoproteins called ___ and ____.

A and B

226

The presence of absence of the A antigen, the B antigen, or both is the criterion that determines your ______.

ABO blood type

227

Type A blood has erythrocytes with surface antigen ____ only.

A

228

Type B blood has erythrocytes with surface antigen ___ only.

B

229

Type AB blood has erythrocytes with surface antigen ____.

A and B

230

Type O blood has erythrocytes with _____ surface antigen A or B.

neither

231

The ABO surface antigens on erythrocytes are accompanied by specific ____ or ____ within the blood plasma.

antibodies or agglutinins

232

In general, an antibody is a ___ shaped protein that binds to a specific antigen that is perceived as foreign to the body.

Y shaped

233

The ABO blood group has both ____ and ____ antibodies that react with the surface antigen A and the surface antigen B, respectively.

anti-A and anti-B

234

Type A blood has ___ antibodies within its plasma.

anti-B

235

Type B blood has ____ antibodies within its plasma.

anti-A

236

Type AB blood has ___ antibodies within its plasma.

neither anti-B and anti-A

237

Type O blood has ___ antibodies within its plasma.

both anti-B and anti-A

238

Another common surface antigen on erythrocyte plasma membranes determines the ___ blood type.

Rh

239

The Rh blood type is determined by the presence or absence of the Rh surface antigen, often called either Rh factor or _______.

surface antigen D

240

When the Rh factor is present, the individual is said to be ____. When an individual is termed ____ when the surface antigen is lacking.

Rh positive Rh+
Rh negative Rh-

241

Antibodies to the Rh factor (termed ____) appear in the blood only when an Rh negative individual is exposed to Rh positive blood. This most often occurs as a result of an inappropriate blood transfusion.

anti-D antibodies

242

Individuals who are Rh positive never exhibit anti-D antibodies, because they possess the Rh antigen on their ____.

erythrocyes

243

Only individuals who are ____ can exhibit anti-D antibodies, and that can occur only after ____ to Rh antigens.

anti-D antibodies
exposure

244

The ____ and ___ blood types are independent of each other, and neither of them interacts with or influences the presence or activities of the other group.

Rh and ABO

245

Blood types become clinically important when a patient needs a blood ___.

transfusion

246

Compatibility between donor and recipient must be ascertained prior to blood transfusions. If a person is transfused with blood of an incompatible types, ___ in the plasma bind to surface antigens of the transfused erythrocytes and clumps of erythrocytes bind together in a process termed ______.

antibodies
agglutination

247

Agglutination causes clumped erythrocytes which can block blood vessels and prevent ____.

normal circulation of blood

248

Eventually, some or all of the clumped erythrocytes may rupture, a process called ____. The release of erythrocyte contents and fragments into the blood often causes further hemolytic reactions and ultimately may damage _____. Therefore, compatibility between donor and recipient mus be determined prior to blood donations and transfusions using an agglutination test.

hemolysis
organs

249

Universal donor

O-

250

Universal recipient

AB+

251

The potential presence of anti-D antibodies is especially important in pregnant women who are _____ and have an ___ fetus.

Rh-
Rh+

252

An Rh incompatibility may result during pregnancy if the mother has been previously exposed to Rh positive blood. As a result of the prior exposure, the mother has anti-D antibodies that may cross the placenta and ____ the fetal erythrocytes, resulting in severe illness or death.

destroy

253

The illness that occurs in the newborn due to Rh incompatibility is called ____ or erythroblastosis fetalis.

hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN)

254

Leukocytes help defend the body against ___.

pathogens

255

Leukocytes differ from erythrocytes in that they are about __ to ___ times larger in diameter, contain a nucleus and cellular organelles and do not contain ___.

1.5 to 3
hemoglobin

256

Leukocytes are ____ and remarkably flexible.

motile (capable of movement within interstitial fluid

257

Most leukocytes are found within ___, as opposed to in the blood.

body tissues

258

Leukocytes enter the tissues from blood vessels by a process called ____, whereby they squeeze between the endothelial cells of the blood vessel walls.

diapedesis

259

____ is a process in which leukocytes are attracted to a site of infection by the presence of molecules released by damaged cells, dead cells, or invading pathogens.

chemotaxis

260

The five types of leukocytes are divided into two distinguishable classes ___ and ___ based upon the visible presence or absence of secretory vesicles in the cytosol termed specific ____.

granulocytes and agranulocytes
granules

261

Leukocytes with a nucleus that is multilobed ( as many as 5)

neutrophils

262

The most abundant leukocyte is ___.

neutrophils

263

Neutrophils ____ pathogens, especially bacteria.

phagocytize

264

1% to 4% of total leukocytes is made up of ____.

Eosinophils

265

Eosinophils have a ___ nucleus.

bilobed

266

The cytosol of eosinophils have a ___ or ____ specific granules when stained.

reddish or pink-orange

267

These leukocytes phagocytize antigen-antibody complexes and allergens.

eosinophils

268

These leukocytes release chemical mediators to destroy parasitic worms.

eosinophils

269

These leukocytes release enzymes that target pathogens.

neutrophils

270

Make up 50% - 70% of total leukocytes

neutrophils

271

Basophils have a ___ nucleus and their cytosol contains ____ specific granules when stained.

bilobed
deep blue-violet

272

These leukocytes release histamine (vasodilator and increases capillary permeability) and heparin (anticoagulant) during inflammatory reactions.

basophils

273

These leukocytes make up 0.5% - 1% of total leukocytes.

basophils

274

The three types of granulocytes.

neutrophils
eosinophils
basophils

275

The two types of agranulocytes

lymphocytes
monocytes

276

These leukocytes coordinate immune cell activity.

lymphocytes

277

These leukocytes produce antibodies.

lymphocytes

278

A lymphocytes nucleus is ___ or ___.

round or slightly indented

279

A think rim of cytosol surrounds nucleus and the nucleus is usually stained dark in this leukocyte. Nucleus almost takes up the entire cell.

lymphocytes

280

Monocytes have a ____ or ___ nucleus which generally stains pale.

kidney shaped or c shaped

281

Monocytes have an ___ amount of cytosol around the nucleus.

abudnant

282

These leukocytes attack pathogens and abnormal and infected cells.

lymphocytes

283

These leukocytes exit blood vessels and become macrophages.

monocytes

284

These leukocytes make up 20% to 40% of total leukocytes.

lymphocytes

285

These leukocytes make up 2-8% of total leukocytes.

monocytes

286

These leukocytes phagocytize pathogens, cellular fragments, dead cells, and debris.

monocytes

287

____ have specific granules in their cytosol that are clearly visible when viewed with a microscope.

granulocytes

288

Granulocytes get their names for the granules' affinities for certain ____.

stains

289

Neutrophils usually remain in circulation for about ___ to ___ hours before they exit the blood vessels and enter the tissue spaces, where they phagocytize infectious pathogens, especially ____.

10 to 12 hours
bacteria

290

The number of neutrophils in a person's blood rises dramatically in the presence of a chronic ____.

bacterial infection

291

A neutrophil is about __ times larger in diameter than an erythrocyte.

1.5

292

An eosinophil is about ___ times larger in diameter than an erythrocyte.

1.5

293

Basophils are about ___ times larger than erythrocytes.

1.5

294

The least numerous of the granulocytes.

basophils

295

The primary components of basophil granules is ___ and ___.

histamine and heparin

296

The release of heparin from basophils inhibits ____.

blood clotting

297

Leukocytes in order of their relative abundance

Never Let Monkeys Eat Bananas
Neutrophils
Lymphocytes
Monocytes
Eosinophils
Basophils

298

____ are leukocytes that have such small specific granules in their cytosol that they are not clearly visible under the light microscope.

agranulocytes

299

Most lymphocytes reside in __ organs and structures.

lymphatic organs

300

A lymphocytes is usually about the same size as a ___.

erythrocytes

301

When activated, lymphoctes grow ___ and have proportionally more cytosol.

larger

302

Smaller, nonactivated lymphoctes have a diameter less than that of an erthrocytes, whereas activated lymphocytes may be ___ times the diameter of an erythrocytes.

2

303

There are three categories of lymphocytes; ___ manage and direct an immune response; some directly attack foreign cells and virus-infected cells.

T-lymphocytes (t-cells)

304

____ are stimulated to become plasma cells and produce antibodies.

B-lympocytes (b-cells)

305

___ attack abnormal and infected tissue cells.

NK cells or natural killer cells

306

A reduced number of leukocytes causes a serious disorder called ____.

leukopenia

307

The decreased number of leukocytes may increase the risk of a person ____ an infection or decrease their ability to fight infection effectively.

developing

308

____ results from a slightly elevated leukocyte count and may be caused by a variety of factors, such as a recent infection or stress.

leukocytosis

309

The term, ____, or white blood cell differential count, measures the amount of each type of leukocyte in your blood and determines whether any of the circulating leukocytes are immature.

differential count

310

Infection, tissue necrosis, bone marrow failure, cancers, or some other stresses to the body can affect the total ranges or percentages of a specific type of ____, so differential counts are useful for diagnosing ailments.

leukocytes

311

Acute bacterial infections, acute stress, and tissue necrosis typically are associated with an increase in ____, called ____.

neutrophils
neutrophilia

312

Increased presence of immature neutrophils is referred to as ____.

left-shifted differential

313

Decreased neutrophil count, called ____, may occur with certain anemias, drug or raditon therapy, and from other causes.

neutropenia

314

Leukemia is a malignancy (cancer) in the ____ forming cells.

leukocytes

315

There are several categories of leukemia, but all are marked by abnormal development and proliferation of ____, both in the bone marrow and the circulating blood.

leukocytes

316

____ leukemia progresses rapidly, and death typically occurs within a few months after the onset of symptoms. They tend to occur in children and young adults.

acute leukemia

317

___ leukemia progresses more slowly; survival usually exceeds 1 years form the onset of symptoms. This form of leukemia usually occur in middle-aged and older individuals.

chronic

318

Viral infections such as mumps, rubella, or mononucleosis, typically produce an increased number of ___.

lymphocytes

319

Lymphoctes values can increase to ___ in extreme cases.

20,000

320

Conditions that can cause lymphocytosis include chronic bacterial infections, some leukemias, multiple ____ (cancer of the plasma cells), which are derived from B-lymphocytes.

myeloma

321

Decreased lymphocyte counts can occur with ____, other leukemias, and sepsis, which is the presence of a pathogenic organism or substance in the blood.

HIV infection

322

Eosinophil numbers can increase in response to allergic reactions, parasitic infections, or some ___ diseases.

autoimmune

323

Monocyte number may increase with chronic inflammatory disorders or _____, and may decrease due to prolonged prednisone drug therapy.

tuberculosis

324

Basophil counts can increase due to myeloproliferative disorders which result from an overproduction of some formed elements in the bone marrow and can ____ due to acute allergic and stress reactions.

decrease

325

______ are irregular-shaped, membrane-enclosed cellular fragments that are about 2 um in diameter (less than 1/4 the size of erythrocytes).

platelets or thrombocytes

326

Thrombocytes are ___ fragments and unlike erthrocytes, they never had a nucleus.

cell

327

The concentration of platelets in an adult ranges from ____ to about 400,000 per cubic millimeter of blood, although the count may rise further during times of stress.

150,000

328

Platelets can circulate in the blood for ___ to ___ days, unless they are needed earlier for hemostasis. Thereafter, they are broken down, and their contents are recycled.

8 to 10 days

329

____% of thrombocytes are stored in the spleen.

30%

330

If there is damage to a blood vessel, hemostasis is initiated. Hemostasis is a stoppage of ___.

bleeding

331

There are __ sequential phases of hemostasis; vascular spasm, platelet plug formation, and ______ phase.

three
coagulation

332

When a blood vessel is injured, the first phase in hemostasis to occur is a _____, whereby the blood vessel constricts suddenly and in so doing, limits the amount of blood that can leak form this damaged vessel.

vascular spasm

333

The vascular spasm continues during the next phase, as both platelets and the endothelial cells of the blood vessel wall release an array of ____ to further stimulate the vascular spasm.

chemicals

334

The ____ usually lasts from a few to many minutes. The more extensive the vessel and tissue damage, the greater the degree of _____.

vascular spasm phase
vasoconstriction

335

The second phase in hemostasis is the formation of a _____.

platelet plug

336

Normally, the endothelial wall (inner lining of a blood vessel) is smooth and is coated with an eicosanoid called, _____ which activates a pathway in both platelets and endothelial cells that involves production of cAMP to ultimately inhibit platelet activation.

prostacyclin

337

The end result is that prostacyclin serves as a platelet ____.

repellent

338

Once a blood vessel is damaged, however, the collagen fibers within the connective tissue beneath the endothelial cells in the vessel wall become ____.

exposed

339

Platelets adhere to the collagen fibers with the assistance of plasma protein called ______, which serves as a bridge between platelets and collagen fibers.

von Willlebrand factor

340

As the platelets start to stick to the vessel wall, their morphology changes dramatically; they develop _________ that further adhere to the blood vessel wall.

long processes

341

As more and more platelets aggregate to the site, a ____ develops to close off the injury.

platelet plug

342

The platelet plug phage is less than a ____ minutes for a small to medium sized injury, but this is a temporary measure to block the flow of blood through the vessel where it is ____.

few minutes
damaged

343

Platelets undergo this morphologic change and become activated: Their cytosol ____, releasing chemicals to assist with hemostasis.

degranulates

344

Once the platelets release chemicals the following process occurs .

prolonged vascular spasms
attraction of other platelets
stimulation of coagulation
repair of the blood vessel

345

Prologned vascular spasms with the release of _______ and thomboxane A2 (an eicosanoid) is a rxn to the release of chemicals by the platelets.

serotonin

346

Attraction of other platelets with the release of adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and thomboxane A2, which facilitates the _____ and release of these chemicals in other platelets.

degranulation

347

Stimulation of coagulation with the release of procoagulants that _____ blood clotting (the third phase) in rxn to platelets releasing chemicals.

enhance

348

Repair of the blood vessel as platelets secrete substances to stimulate epithelial tissue, smooth muscle, and ______ to replicate result from the platelets undergoing a morphologic change.

fibroblasts (cells to of connective tissue)

349

Platelets are not only involved in the second phase of platelet plug formation, but they also increase events of the ___ and ___ phases.

1st and 3rd phases
vascular spasms and stimulation of coagulation

350

Through the release of specific substances, platelets increase all three processes of _____.

homostasis

351

Decreased homeostasis becomes a concern in individuals with a low platelet count, known as _____.

thombrocytopenia

352

The formation of the platelet plug is an example of positive feedback and typically is formed within ___ minuted.

1

353

The healthy endothelial cells near the site of injury are still releasing their prostacyclin, so the plug ______.

does not grow to large

354

The most important and complex component of hemostasis is ____ or blood clotting.

coagulation

355

A blood clot has an insoluble protein network composed of ____, which is derived from soluble fibrinogen. This meshwork of protein traps other elements of the blood, including erythrocytes, leukocytes, platelets, and plasma proteins, to form ___.

fibrin
the clot

356

Blood coagulation is a process that requires numerous substances, including calcium, clotting factors, platelets, and ______.

vitamin K

357

The clotting factor number are in order of their ____, and not their position in the clotting pathway.

discovery

358

Most clotting factors are inactive enzymes, and most of these are produced by the _____.

liver

359

The initiation of blood clotting can occur by two separate mechanisms: The intrinsic pathway (also known as the contact activation pathway) or the _____ pathway.

extrinsic (or tissue factor pathways)

360

The ____ pathway is triggered b damage to the inside of the vessel wall and is initiated by _____.

intrinsic pathway
platelets

361

The intrinsic pathway typically takes approximately ___ to ___ minutes.

3 to 6

362

Steps of the intrinsic pathway

1. platelets adhering to a damaged vessel wall release factor XII (Hageman factor)
2. Factor XII converts the inactive factor XI to the active factor XI (Antihemophilic factor C)
3. Factor XI converts inactive factor IX to active factor IX (Antihemophilic factor B (christmas factor)
4. Factor IX binds with Ca2+ and platelet factor 3 to form a complex that converts inactive factor VIII to active factor VIII (Antimhemophilic factor A)
5. Factor VIII converts inactive factor X to active factor X (thrombokinase)

Factor X, activated by either the intrinsic or extrinsic pathway, is the first step of the common pathway.

363

Steps of the common pathway

1. Active factor X (Thombokinase) combines with factors II (Prothrombin) and factor V (Proaccerlerin), Ca2+, and platelet factor 3 (PF3) to form prothrombin activator
2. Prothrombin activator activates prothrombin to thrombin
3. Thrombin converts soluble fibrinogen into insoluble fibrin
4. In the presence of Ca2+, factor XIII (Fibring-stablizing factor) cross-links and stabilizes teh fibrin monomers into a fibrin polymer that serves as the framework of the clot.

364

The _____ pathway is initiated by damage to the tissue that is outside of the vessel, and this pathway usually takes approximately ___ seconds. This pathways occurs more quickly because there are fewer steps required.

extrinsic
15 seconds

365

Steps of the extrinsic pathway

1. Tissue factor (thomboplastin; Factor III) released from damaged tissues combines with factor VII and Ca2+ to form a complex
2. This complex converts inactive factor X to active factor X

366

Clotting Factor I

Fibrinogen
Activated to fibrin
Both pathways

367

If Clotting Factor I is deficient

Afibrinogemia - during pregnancy can cause premature separation of placenta.

368

Clotting Factor II

Prothrombin
Protease; activated to thrombin
Both pathways

369

If Clotting Factor II is deficient

Hypoprothrombinemia - decreased syntehsis in liver generally due to insufficient vitamin K

370

Clotting Factor III

Tissue factor ( thromboplastin)
cofactor; activates factor VII
extrinsic

371

Clotting Factor IV

Calcium
Ion essential to both pathways
both pathways

372

Clotting Factor V

Proaccelerin
Cofactor; activates factor VII; combines with factor X to form prothrombin activator
Both pathways

373

Clotting Factor VI

Accelerin
Redundant to activated factor V
Both pathways

374

If Clotting Factor V is deficient

Parahemophilia

375

Clotting Factor VII

Proconvertin
Protease; activates factor X
Extrinsic

376

If Clotting Factor VII is deficient

Hypoconvertinemia

377

Clotting Factor VIII

Antihemophilic factor A
Cofactor; activates factor X
Intrinsic pathways

378

If Clotting Factor VIII is deficient

Hemophilia A - classical hemophilia

379

Clotting Factor IX

Antihemophilic factor B (Christmas factor)
Protease; activates factor VIII
Intrinsic Pathway

380

If Clotting Factor IX deficient

Hemophilia B - Christmas disease

381

Clotting Factor X

Thrombokinase
Protease; combines with factor V to form prothrombin activator
Both

382

If Clotting Factor X deficient

Stuart-Power factor deficiency

383

Clotting Factor XI

Antihemophilic factor C
Protease; activates factor IX
Intrinsic pathway

384

If Clotting Factor XI deficient

Hemophilia C

385

Clotting Factor XII

Hageman factor
protease; activates factor XI and plasmin; converts prekallikrein to kallikrein
Intrinsic pathway

386


Clotting Factor XIII

Fibrin-stabilizing facotr
cross-links fibrin
both pathways

387

_____ disorders can be caused by several different conditions including hemophilia, a vitamin k deficiency, thrombocytopenia, or intake of various drugs.

bleeding

388

a group of bleeding disorders caused by specific genetic mutations.

hemophilia

389

Females are typically the carriers of the gene for hemophilia but may not experience symptoms because they have two X chromosomes, and one of the two X chromosomes may be ___.

normal

390

1 in 5000 males in the united states has ____.

hemophilia A

391

1 in 250000 males in the united states has ___

hemophilia B

392

_____ deficiency is more common in newborns than adults and in individuals with ____ or bilary diseases or chronic problems with fat abosrption.

Vitamin K
liver

393

A deficiency in platelet count

thrombocytopenia

394

increased tendency to clot blood

hyperocagulation

395

a clot within a blood vessel that travels within the blood

embolus

396

a clot within the blood vessel

thrombus

397

occurs in the pulmonary circulation of the lungs and can lead to breathing problems and perhaps death if not treated.

pulmonary embolism

398

Treatment for a thrombus or ___ typically is with ____ medication.

blood thinning

399

A mutation of the gene for the synthesis of factor V is the most common genetic cause of hypercoagulation. Present in 3% of the population.

Leiden mutation

400

Like platelet plug formation, the ________ is regulated by positive feedback.

clotting cascade

401

When over 10% of the blood volume has been lost, a ____ response is initiated.

survival

402

As blood volume decrease, blood pressure _____.

decreases

403

If greater than 10% of the blood volume is lost from the blood vessels, the ____ division of the autonomic nervous system is activated bringing about increases vasoconstriction of blood vessels, increased ______, and increased ____ of heart contraction in an attempt to maintain blood pressure.

sympathetic
heart rate
force

404

If greater than 10% of the blood volume is lost blood flow is ______ to the heart and the brain to keep these vital structures functioning.

resdistrbuted.

405

These survival responses are effective in maintaining blood pressure until approximately ___% of the blood is lost.

40%

406

Blood loss greater than 40% results in insufficient blood volume within the blood vessels and blood pressure ______ to levels unable to support life.

decreases

407

A blood clot is a temporary measure to stop blood loss through damaged ____.

vessel wall

408

To return to normal, the blood vessel wall must be repaired and the clot ____. Elimination of the blood clot includes both clot retraction and ____.

fibrinolysis

409

______ occurs as the clot is forming when actinomyosin, a contractile protein within platelets, contracts and squeezes the serum out of the developing clot. This makes the clot smaller as the sides of the vessel wall are ___.

clot retraction
pulled closer together

410

To destroy the fibrin framework of the clot, _____ degrades the fibrin strands through fibrinolysis.

plasmin

411

Fibrinolysis begins within ___ days of the clot formation and occurs slowly over a ___ of days.

2 days
number

412

A damaged blood vessel, impaired blood flow, atherosclerosis, or _____ of the blood vessels can all potentially initiate blood clotting

inflammation

413

Certain nutrients and vitamins must be present and available for blood clotting to occur ___.

normally

414

The first primitive hemopoietic stem cells develop in the sac wall of the ___ by the 3rd week of development.

embryo

415

The primitive ____ stem cells go on to colonize other organs, such as the liver, spleen, and thymus.

hemopoietic

416

In these organs, very primitive stem cells develop into the ____ that produce all of the formed elements.

hemocytoblasts

417

Later in fetal development (perhaps beginning at 10 weeks), the hemocytoblasts begin to colonize ____, although the liver doesn't completely cease its blood cell production until close to birth.

red bone marrow

418

Hemopoiesis occurs in most bones in _____, but as an individual reaches adulthood, hemopoiesis is restricted to selected bones in the ____ skeleton.

young children
axial

419

Older individuals have relatively less red bone marrow and may be more prone to developing ____, which is a decrease in the number of circulating erythrocytes.

anemia

420

Older red bone marrow may be less able to meet any demands for an increased number of ___.

leukocytes

421

The leukocytes in the elderly may be less efficient and active than those in younger individuals, and the elderly may have decreased number of ____.

leukocytes

422

Certain types of leukemias also are more prevalent among the elderly, probably due to the _____ being less efficient.

immune systems