Chapter 29 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 29 Deck (251)
1

The _____ begins with fertilization and ends approximately 38 weeks later with birth

prenatal period

2

The prenatal period includes the ____, _____, and the _____.

pre-embryonic (germinal) period
embryonic period
fetal period

3

The ____ period is the first 2 weeks, fertilization to implantation in uterine wall.

pre-embryonic period

4

Fertilization ----> ____ -----> blastocyst

zygote

5

The ____ takes place during weeks 3-8, organ development

embryonic period

6

The _____ is the last 30 weeks, organ complexity increases

fetal period

7

____ is the process by which two gametes fuse to form a new diploid cell containing genes from both parents

fertilization (phase 1)

8

Fetilization takes place in the _____ or the uterine tube.

ampulla

9

Sperm undergo _____ upon entry into the female reproductive system.

capacitation

10

_____ is when glycoproteins and proteins removed from plasma membrane that covers acromosomal region

capacitation

11

During phase 1 of fertilization sperm penetrates the ____.

cornona radiata

12

During phase 1 of fertilization the oocyte releases _________ attracting sperm to its location

chemotaxic chemicals

13

Once sperm reach the oocyte they push through the corona radiata using _____.

their flagellum

14

During phase 2 of fertilization there is a release of digestive enzymes from acrosome needed to penetrate the zona pellucida called ______.

acrosome reaction

15

Once a sperm gets through the zona pellucida, it then _____ to prevent other sperm from entering

hardens

16

_____ is when an egg is fertilized with two or more sperm.

polyspermy

17

Polyspermy can be _____ because too many chromosomes.

fatal

18

Sperm undergoes acrosome reaction and penetrates ______ during phase 2 of fertilization.

zona pellucida

19

During phase 3 of fertilization sperm and oocyte ______ fuse, the sperm nucleus enters the cytosol of the secondary oocyte. The midpiece and _____ degenerate.

plasma membranes
flagellum

20

During the 3rd phase of fertilization the secondary oocyte completes the _____ division and forms an ovum

second meiotic

21

During the 3rd phase of the fertilization the sperm and ovum pronuclei then fuse forming a single diploid cell called a _____.

zygote

22

The zygote is a single _____.

diploid cell

23

A series of mitotic divisions resulting in an increase in cell number, but not an increase in the overall size of the structure is called ______.

cleavage

24

At the 16-cell stage (4 divisions) the zygote is called a _____ and enters the ______ of the uterus.

morula
lumen

25

Zona pelludica starts to degenerate allowing fluid to enter the morula forming a fluid filled cavity is the formation of the _____.

blastocyst

26

____ starts to degenerate allowing fluid to enter the morula forming a fluid filled cavity during blastocyst formation.

zona pelludica

27

a blastocyst and has two distinct components: ______ and _______.

trophoblast
embryoblast

28

The ____ is the outer ring of cells surrounding fluid filled cavity.

trophoblast

29

The ______ is the inner cell mass located within one side of the blastocyst

embryoblast

30

The process by which the blastocyst burrows into and embeds within the endometrium is called ____.

implantation

31

During implantation around day 7, trophoblast cells invade the _____ and then divide into two layers.

functional layer

32

The trophoblast cells divide into two layers, _________ and __________ after they invade the functional layer during implantation.

cytotrophoblast
syncytiotrophoblast

33

_____ is the inner cellular layer formed when the trophoblast cells divide during implantation.

cytotrophoblast

34

_____ is the outer, thick layer formed when the trophoblast cells invade the functional layer and divide. This is where the cells _____ into the functional layer.

syncytiotrophoblast
burrow

35

By day 9 of implantation the ____ has completely burrowed into the uterine wall.

blastocyst

36

_____ is produced by the syncytiotrophoblast

HCG
Human Chorionic Gonadotropin hormone

37

HCG is produced by the ______.

syncytiotrophoblast

38

HCG signals corpus luteum to continue secreting ________ to thicken and maintain uterine lining.

estrogen/progesterone

39

____ levels high enough detected in woman’s urine after second week of development.

HCG

40

HCG levels remain high for the first ____ months and then decline.

three

41

The _____ degenerates once HCG levels drop. At this point estrogen/progesterone is secreted by the ____.

corpus luteum
placenta

42

By day 8, embryoblast differentiates into two layers: _______ and _______.

hypoblast
epiblast

43

The ____ forms into the yolk sac.

hypoblast

44

The ____ forms into amnion.

epiblast

45

Hypoblast + epiblast ='s ________

bilaminar germinal disc

46

Bilaminar germinal disc and trophoblast produce ________.

extraembryonic membranes

47

The _____ protects the embryo.

extraembryonic membranes

48

The _____ assist in vital functions such as nutrition and gas exchange as well as removal and storage of _____.

extraembryonic membranes
waste materials.

49

The ____ is the first membrane to develop.

yolk sac

50

The _____ is an important site for early blood cell and blood vessel formation.

yolk sac

51

The _____ eventually encloses the entire embryo in a fluid-filled sac called the amniotic cavity.

amnion

52

The ____ is formed from both cytotrophoblast cells and syncytiotrophoblast

chorion

53

The ____ blend with functional layer of endometrium and eventually forms the placenta

chorion

54

The chorion blend with functional layer of endometrium and eventually forms the ____.

placenta

55

The function of the _____ is to exchange of nutrients, waste products, and respiratory gases between the maternal and fetal blood.

placenta

56

Transmission of maternal antibodies to the developing embryo or fetus occurs in the ____.

placenta

57

The _____ produces of estrogen and progesterone to maintain and build the uterine lining.

placenta

58

The placenta begins to form during the ____ of development.

2nd week

59

The chorion forms ____ portion and ____ layer of uterus forms maternal portion.

fetal
functional

60

Early organism connected to the placenta via the ______, which eventually forms the umbilical cord

connecting stalk

61

____ form from the chorion.

chorionic villi

62

The chorion villi contain branches of _____.

umbillical vessels

63

The chorionic villi are surrounded by ______ which contains maternal blood.

endometerium

64

Fetal blood and maternal blood ___, but bloodstreams so are so close they allow for the exchanges of gases and nutrients.

do not mix unless something goes wrong

65

Alcohol, drugs, ___, bacteria, and ____ from smoking can pass through placental barrier as well.

viruses
toxins

66

The ___ period takes place from weeks 3 thru 8.

embryonic

67

____ is the establishment of primary germ layers.

gastrulation

68

_____ is the formation of specific tissues and organs from the primary germ layers.

organogenesis

69

The _____ period involves gastrulation and organogenesis

embryonic

70

By week ___ the embryo has a beating heart.

week 4

71

By week ____ the main organ systems have been established.

8

72

____ is the process by which the cells of the epiblast migrate and form the three primary germ layers.

gastrulation

73

The three primary germ layers

ectoderm
mesoderm
endoderm

74

The formation of germ layers forms an ____.

embryo

75

During gastrulation, the cells from epiblast migrate through ______ to the area between the epiblast and hypoblast forming the ______

primitive streak
endoderm

76

During gastrulation more epiblast cells migrate and form the ____.

mesoderm

77

Remaining cells of the epiblast form the _______.

ectoderm

78

An ____ is a flattened, disc-shaped structure.

embryonic disc

79

In the late 3rd to 4th weeks, ____ transforms shape.

embryonic disc

80

Certain regions of the embryo grow ____ than others causing folding.

faster

81

The two types of folding caused by faster growth in regions of the embryo are ______ and ______.

cephalocaudal
transverse

82

Folding that occurs in the cephalic and caudal regions of the embryo is ____ folding.

cephalocaudal

83

Amnion grows very quickly but ___ does not grow at all during cephalocaudal folding.

yolk sac

84

____ folding forms the future head and buttocks region.

cephalocaudal

85

Left and right sides of the embryo curve and migrate toward the midline during ______

transverse folding

86

During transverse folding sides fuse in midline to create a ______ embryo creating the trunk/torso region.

cylindrical

87

During transverse folding the ____ is pinched off from most of the endoderm except one small region called the ____.

yolk sac
vitelline duct

88

_____ now solely along entire exterior embryo and endoderm confined to the internal region during transverse folding.

Ectoderm

89

____ forms nervous tissue and sensory organs.

ectoderm

90

_____ forms the epidermis and it's derivatives. What are examples?

Ectoderm
hair, nails, sweat glands, mammary glands

91

____ forms the enamel of the teeth.

ectoderm

92

______ forms muscle and connective tissues.

mesoderm

93

______ forms the dermis.

mesoderm

94

_____ forms the pituitary gland.

ectoderm

95

_____ forms the lens of the eye.

ectoderm

96

_____ forms the adrenal medulla.

ectoderm

97

_____ forms kidneys.

mesoderm

98

_____ forms ureters.

mesoderm

99

______ forms reproductive system.

mesoderm

100

_____ forms spleen.

mesoderm

101

____ forms serous membranes.

mesoderm

102

____ forms adrenal cortex.

mesoderm

103

_____ forms the heart.

mesoderm

104

____ forms the reproductive system.

mesoderm

105

The ____ forms tympanic cavity and auditory tube.

endoderm

106

_____ forms the lining of the GI tract.

endoderm

107

_____ forms the respiratory tract

endoderm

108

____ forms the urinary tract.

endoderm

109

____ forms the reproductive tract.

endoderm

110

_____ forms the liver.

endoderm

111

_____ forms the gallbladder.

endoderm

112

_____ forms the pancreas.

endoderm

113

_____ forms the palatine tonsils.

endoderm

114

____ forms the thyroid and parathyroid glands.

endoderm

115

____ forms the thymus.

endoderm

116

_____ is the rudimentary forming of most organ systems have developed by week 8.

organogenesis

117

____ are substances that cause birth defects.

teratogens

118

Organogenesis is sensitive to ____.

teratogens

119

The fetal period extends from week ____ to birth.

fetal

120

During the fetal period maturation of ____ and organs occurs. (rapid growth of the body)

tissues

121

During the fetal period the embryo will grow from 1 inch to an average length of _____ by birth.

21 inches

122

The average weight of a full term fetus is ____ lbs.

5.5 - 9.9 lbs

123

There are ____ trimesters during pregnancy.

three.

124

During the first three months called the ____ trimester a zygote turns into an _____ then into a fetus.

first
embryo

125

The second trimester lasts from months ____.

4-6

126

During the second trimester there is growth of the fetus and ____.

maternal tissues

127

The third trimester lasts from ____ months.

7-9

128

During the 3rd trimester there is rapid growth of fetus as mothers body prepares for the eventual _____.

labor and delivery

129

HCG hormone changes

Secreted by blastocyst after implantation

Maintains the corpus luteum (continues to secrete progesterone / estrogen)
*Maintains and builds uterine lining

Levels remain high during first trimester then drop off
*Corpus luteum degenerates as well

130

Estrogen/Progesterone Hormone Changes

After first trimester, secreted by placenta

High levels suppress FSH and LH secretion, so the ovarian cycle is arrested

Facilitate uterine enlargement, mammary gland enlargement and fetal growth

Effect integumentary system: faster-growing and stronger nails, hair tends to be fuller and thicker

131

The change in _____ levels is responsible for the for relaxation of ligamentous joints such as sacroiliac joints and ____

estrogen
pubic symphysis

132

The change in _____ is responsible for Responsible for functional layer growth and prevention of menstruation.

progesterone

133

The change in progesterone is responsible for ______ and prevention of menstruation.

functional layer growth

134

The change in progesterone is responsible for functional layer growth and _______.

prevention of menstruation

135

The change in estrogen levels is responsible for the for relaxation of ________ such as sacroiliac joints and pubic sympysis

ligamentous joints

136

During pregnancy ___ is secreted by the corpus luteum and the placenta.

relaxin

137

During pregnancy relaxin promotes ____ growth in the uterus.

blood vessel growth

138

Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is normally secreted by the _____, which stimulates ACTH release from AP.

hypothlamus

139

The ______ secretes large amounts of CRH during pregnancy.

placenta

140

_____ is believed to play a role in length of pregnancy and timing of childbirth.

CRH

141

CRH causes an increase in _____ levels which promotes fluid retention and can lead to edema.

aldosterone

142

Human chorionic thyrotropin (HCT) is similar to ____.

TSH

143

_____ is secreted by the placenta.

Human chorionic thyrotropin (HCT)

144

HCT stimulates the release of ______ increasing mothers metabolic rate.

thyroid hormones

145

HCT stimulates the release of thyroid hormones increasing the ______.

mothers metabolic rate

146

human placental lactogen (HPL) is secreted by the ______.

placenta

147

The HPL causes the mother to metabolize more _____, saving glucose for the fetus.

fatty acids

148

Human placental lactogen (HPL) inhibits ____. leaving more glucose in blood fro the fetus.

insulin

149

____ levels increase from the 5th week till max levels at week 36.

Human placental lactogen (HPL)

150

_____ is produced by the hypothalamus and secreted by the posterior pituitary gland.

oxytocin

151

_____ is involved in uterine contractions.

oxytocin

152

Oxytocin is involved in _____ from mammary glands.

milk expulsion

153

____ levels increase during the 2nd and 3rd trimester in response to rising estrogen levels and peak during ____.

oxytocin
labor

154

Prolactin is secreted by the ________.

anterior pituitary gland

155

_____ is responsible for milk production.

prolactin

156

Prolactin levels increase ____ during pregnancy to ensure lactation occurs after birth.

10 fold

157

Prior to pregnancy the uterus measures ____.

8 cm by 5 cm

158

After implantation, the uterus enlarges due to hypertrophy and hyperplasia of its ______.

muscular layer

159

After implantation, the uterus englarges due to ______ and ____ of its muscular layer.

hypertrophy and hyperplasia

160

Four weeks after fertilization, uterine enlargement can be detected during a _____.

vaginal exam

161

By week ____ the uterus is the size of a large grapefruit.

12

162

By week ___ the uterus is expanded to abdominal cavity and fundus is midpoint level between pubic symphysis and umbilicus

16

163

By week ____ the fundus reaches the level of the umbilicus

22

164

By week 22 the fundus is superior to the ____.

umbillicus

165

By the ____, the fundus is at the level of the xiphoid process of the sternum.

9th month

166

The enlarged uterus pushes against eh diaphragm and compresses many of the _____.

abdominopelvic organs

167

______ causes mother to metabolize more fatty acids instead of glucose

HPL

168

Estrogen/progesterone/HPL cause increased ______ and can lead to gestational diabetes.

insulin resistance

169

Morning sickness is caused by two theories: high levels of hormones primarily _____. Also an evolutionary adaption to ____ the developing fetus from harmful toxins in certain foods (____).

HCG
protect
protein

170

Heartburn, indigestion and _____ can also occur during pregnancy.

hemorrhoids

171

Folic acid, calcium, _____, andiron are especially important during pregnancy.

protein

172

____ lbs normal weight gain due to fetus, placenta, breast and uterine enlargement as well as fluid retention.

20 lbs

173

A cardiovasuclar change is the plasma volume increases by about ___

50%

174

More blood is needed to transport _______ to both the mother and fetus.

nutrients/respiratory gases

175

A cardiovascular change due to the increased plasma volume causes an increase in cardiac output by _____.

(30-50%)

176

An increase of cardiac output begins at week ____ and peaks around weeks ____.

6
24-28

177

Increased cardiac output is caused by increased _______.

heart rate and stroke volume

178

Increased blood volume initially increases blood pressure during the _____ trimester, but it drops by the ______ trimester.

first
second

179

______ from lower body is impaired by third trimester due to uterus and fetus compressing abdominal blood vessels

Venous return

180

Impairment of the venous return from the lower body in the third trimester can cause ___ in the lower limbs, varicose veins and hemorrhoids.

edema

181

During the later part of pregnancy, expanding uterus prevents _____ from fully descending, keeping the lungs from ______

diaphragm
fully expanding

182

_____ is an uncomfortable awareness of breathing

Dyspnea

183

Increased estrogen increases the fluid within the______, as well as an increased blood flow causing congestion and _____ (nose bleeds)

nasal mucosa
epistaxis

184

Increased estrogen causing increased blood flow causing ____ and ______.

congestion
epistaxis

185

Progesterone increases sensitivity of chemoreceptors to ________.

blood CO2 levels

186

Increased levels of progesterone lead to an increase in tidal volume and pulmonary ventilation by _____

30-40%

187

Increased levels of progesterone lead to an increase in breathing rate, increasing the mothers ______

oxygen consumption

188

Progesterone increases ____.

breathing rate

189

Progesterone causes a ____ in CO2 blood levels which facilitates the diffusion of gases across the placenta.

decrease

190

The urinary system is responsible for eliminating her metabolic waste products as well as the waste products from the ____.

fetus

191

Since there is 50% more plasma volume, there is an increase in filtering by the _____ as well

kidneys

192

GFR has to increase by ______ to keep up.

30-50%

193

First and third trimesters uterus expansion can lead to __________ causing increased diuresis (urination)

pressure on the bladder

194

During pregnancy there are higher rates of UTI due to _____ and ____ being compresses by the uterus.

ureters and kidneys

195

During pregnancy there are higher rates of UTIs because ______ causes smooth muscle relaxation which can cause uretal and renal pelvic cilation. (ureters store more urine causing ______).

progesterone
urine stasis

196

Labor is also known as ________.

parturition

197

____ is the physical expulsion of the fetus and placenta from the uterus.

labor

198

_____ is labor that occurs prior to 38 weeks.

premature labor

199

_____ are contractions (braxton-hicks) are not strong enough to results in the three stages of True labor.

false labor

200

Initiation of labor

Increasing levels of estrogen:
Counteract the relaxing nature of progesterone on the myometrium

Cause more oxytocin receptors to appear on the myometrium  causing an increase in oxytocin release from the PP

Uterine myometrium becomes more sensitive and contractions begin

201

Weak contractions can start as early as the ____, they get stronger in the later stages.

2nd trimester

202

Increasing levels of estrogen counteract the relaxing nature of _____ on the myometrium during the intiation of labor.

progesterone

203

Increasing levels of estrogen cause more oxytocin receptors to appear on the myometrium causing an increase in oxytocin ______.

release from the PP

204

______ is when uterine contractions that increase in intensity and regulatory and that results in changes to the cervix

true labor

205

______ levels increase, not only from the mother but from the ______ as well and true labor begins

ocytocin
fetus

206

Oxytocin stimulates the release of _______ from the placenta

prostaglandins

207

Prostaglandins stimulates smooth _____ and soften and dilate the cervix.

contractions

208

Prostaglandins stimulates smooth contraction and ______ the cervix.

soften and dilate

209

Oxytocin, _____ and prostaglandins cause the rhythmic contractions of true labor

estrogen

210

Oxytocin, estrogen and ______ cause the rhythmic contractions of true labor

prostaglandins

211

Oxytocin, estrogen and prostaglandins cause the rhythmic contractions of true labor increase in frequency and ____ over time.

intensity

212

During true labor pain radiates from lower back to the upper abdomen and does not change in response to _____ of the mother's positin.

movement

213

During true labor pain radiates from ____ to ____.

lower back
upper abdomen

214

Contractions facilitate ______ and expulsion of fetus and placenta

cervical dilation

215

Contractions facilitate cervical dilation and ____________.

expulsion of fetus and placenta

216

The positive feedback cycle of labor

slide 36

217

Initiation of True labor is a _____ mechanism.

positive feedback

218

Positive feedback mechanism

Positive feedback mechanism 
Contractions intensify causing fetus’s head to push against the cervix
This stimulates the stretching and dilation of the cervix
This stimulates the release of more oxytocin
Contractions also stimulate the placenta to secrete more prostaglandins
End of positive feedback is when the fetus and placenta are expelled from the body

219

End of positive feedback is when the _____ are expelled from the body.

fetus and placenta are expelled from the body

220

True labor has three stages:

dilation, expulsion, placental

221

Dilation stage begins with the onset of regulation contractions and ends when the cervix is _____ and dilated to 10 centimeters.

effaced (thinned)

222

The longest of the three stages of true labor.

dilation stage

223

______ are women who have never given birth before, tend to be in this stage longer (8-24 hours)

Nulliparous women
Dilation stage

224

____ have given birth before, the ______ stage lasts from 4-12 hours.

parous women
dilation stage

225

During the ____ stage the amniotic sac releases the amniotic fluid (water breaking)

dilation stage

226

The ____ stage begins with the complete dilation of the cervix and ends with the expulsion of the fetus (may last minutes to hours)

expulsion

227

The expulsion stage begins with the complete dilation of the cervix and ends with the ________

expulsion of the fetus (may last minutes to hours)

228

Nulliparous again will typically have a longer ___ stage than parous women.

expulsion stage

229

_____ is the first part of the baby's head distends from the vagina.

crowning

230

_____ is when the perineal muscles are surgically incised to create a wider opening for the baby to pass through.

episiotomy

231

Once the baby's body is fully exprelled the umbilical cord is ______.

clamped and tied off

232

The _____ stage occurs after the baby is expelled.

placental stage

233

During the placental stage the uterus contracts to ________ as well as expels the placenta and remaining fetal membranes (afterbirth)

compresses uterine blood vessels

234

During the placental stage the uterus contracts to compress uterine blood vessels as well as ______

expels the placenta and remaining fetal membranes (afterbirth)

235

The ____ stage typically occurs within 20 minutes after expulsion phase.

placental

236

Prolactin, released from the AP, is inhibited from being released in non-pregnant women and in men by the release of _____

dopamine

237

During pregnancy, high levels of estrogen influences the secretion of _____

prolactin

238

Increased estrogen and prolactin cause ________ proliferation and branching of the lactiferous ducts

mammary gland acini

239

Increased estrogen and prolactin cause mammary gland acini proliferation and _______

branching of the lactiferous ducts

240

Milk isn’t released until ______, when estrogen and progesterone levels drop

after birth

241

Milk isn’t released until after birth, when ______ and _______ levels drop

estrogen
progesterone

242

At end of pregnancy and first few days after birth, substance produced isn’t breast milk, but ______

colostrum

243

______ has a lower concentration of fat than true breast milk and is rich in immunoglobulins (IgA)

colostrum

244

Colostrum has a _____ effect and facilitates the infants first bowel movement.

laxative

245

True breast milk produced a few days postpartum and has a ____ fat content than colostrum, several growth factors, essential fatty acids, _______ and an array of immunoglobulins

higher
specific enzymes to aid in digestion

246

Human colosrum has less protein then cow's milk, but more than ____.

human breast milk

247

____ is needed for milk production while _____is needed for milk secretion.

prolactin
oxytocin

248

Milk production is a ______ --->  prolactin is secreted every time the baby feeds.

positive feedback mechanism

249

_____ is the release of breast.

milk letdown

250

Milk Let down positive feedback cycle

Oxytocin released when baby feeds (mechanoreceptors in areola/nipple)

Stimulates the myoepithelial cells that surround the acini to contract forcing the milk from the breast

This ends when the baby stops feeding

251

Breast feeding cycle

slide 44