Flashcards in Chapter 29 Deck (251)
The _____ begins with fertilization and ends approximately 38 weeks later with birth
The prenatal period includes the ____, _____, and the _____.
pre-embryonic (germinal) period
The ____ period is the first 2 weeks, fertilization to implantation in uterine wall.
Fertilization ----> ____ -----> blastocyst
The ____ takes place during weeks 3-8, organ development
The _____ is the last 30 weeks, organ complexity increases
____ is the process by which two gametes fuse to form a new diploid cell containing genes from both parents
fertilization (phase 1)
Fetilization takes place in the _____ or the uterine tube.
Sperm undergo _____ upon entry into the female reproductive system.
_____ is when glycoproteins and proteins removed from plasma membrane that covers acromosomal region
During phase 1 of fertilization sperm penetrates the ____.
During phase 1 of fertilization the oocyte releases _________ attracting sperm to its location
Once sperm reach the oocyte they push through the corona radiata using _____.
During phase 2 of fertilization there is a release of digestive enzymes from acrosome needed to penetrate the zona pellucida called ______.
Once a sperm gets through the zona pellucida, it then _____ to prevent other sperm from entering
_____ is when an egg is fertilized with two or more sperm.
Polyspermy can be _____ because too many chromosomes.
Sperm undergoes acrosome reaction and penetrates ______ during phase 2 of fertilization.
During phase 3 of fertilization sperm and oocyte ______ fuse, the sperm nucleus enters the cytosol of the secondary oocyte. The midpiece and _____ degenerate.
During the 3rd phase of fertilization the secondary oocyte completes the _____ division and forms an ovum
During the 3rd phase of the fertilization the sperm and ovum pronuclei then fuse forming a single diploid cell called a _____.
The zygote is a single _____.
A series of mitotic divisions resulting in an increase in cell number, but not an increase in the overall size of the structure is called ______.
At the 16-cell stage (4 divisions) the zygote is called a _____ and enters the ______ of the uterus.
Zona pelludica starts to degenerate allowing fluid to enter the morula forming a fluid filled cavity is the formation of the _____.
____ starts to degenerate allowing fluid to enter the morula forming a fluid filled cavity during blastocyst formation.
a blastocyst and has two distinct components: ______ and _______.
The ____ is the outer ring of cells surrounding fluid filled cavity.
The ______ is the inner cell mass located within one side of the blastocyst
The process by which the blastocyst burrows into and embeds within the endometrium is called ____.
During implantation around day 7, trophoblast cells invade the _____ and then divide into two layers.
The trophoblast cells divide into two layers, _________ and __________ after they invade the functional layer during implantation.
_____ is the inner cellular layer formed when the trophoblast cells divide during implantation.
_____ is the outer, thick layer formed when the trophoblast cells invade the functional layer and divide. This is where the cells _____ into the functional layer.
By day 9 of implantation the ____ has completely burrowed into the uterine wall.
_____ is produced by the syncytiotrophoblast
Human Chorionic Gonadotropin hormone
HCG is produced by the ______.
HCG signals corpus luteum to continue secreting ________ to thicken and maintain uterine lining.
____ levels high enough detected in woman’s urine after second week of development.
HCG levels remain high for the first ____ months and then decline.
The _____ degenerates once HCG levels drop. At this point estrogen/progesterone is secreted by the ____.
By day 8, embryoblast differentiates into two layers: _______ and _______.
The ____ forms into the yolk sac.
The ____ forms into amnion.
Hypoblast + epiblast ='s ________
bilaminar germinal disc
Bilaminar germinal disc and trophoblast produce ________.
The _____ protects the embryo.
The _____ assist in vital functions such as nutrition and gas exchange as well as removal and storage of _____.
The ____ is the first membrane to develop.
The _____ is an important site for early blood cell and blood vessel formation.
The _____ eventually encloses the entire embryo in a fluid-filled sac called the amniotic cavity.
The ____ is formed from both cytotrophoblast cells and syncytiotrophoblast
The ____ blend with functional layer of endometrium and eventually forms the placenta
The chorion blend with functional layer of endometrium and eventually forms the ____.
The function of the _____ is to exchange of nutrients, waste products, and respiratory gases between the maternal and fetal blood.
Transmission of maternal antibodies to the developing embryo or fetus occurs in the ____.
The _____ produces of estrogen and progesterone to maintain and build the uterine lining.
The placenta begins to form during the ____ of development.
The chorion forms ____ portion and ____ layer of uterus forms maternal portion.
Early organism connected to the placenta via the ______, which eventually forms the umbilical cord
____ form from the chorion.
The chorion villi contain branches of _____.
The chorionic villi are surrounded by ______ which contains maternal blood.
Fetal blood and maternal blood ___, but bloodstreams so are so close they allow for the exchanges of gases and nutrients.
do not mix unless something goes wrong
Alcohol, drugs, ___, bacteria, and ____ from smoking can pass through placental barrier as well.
The ___ period takes place from weeks 3 thru 8.
____ is the establishment of primary germ layers.
_____ is the formation of specific tissues and organs from the primary germ layers.
The _____ period involves gastrulation and organogenesis
By week ___ the embryo has a beating heart.
By week ____ the main organ systems have been established.
____ is the process by which the cells of the epiblast migrate and form the three primary germ layers.
The three primary germ layers
The formation of germ layers forms an ____.
During gastrulation, the cells from epiblast migrate through ______ to the area between the epiblast and hypoblast forming the ______
During gastrulation more epiblast cells migrate and form the ____.
Remaining cells of the epiblast form the _______.
An ____ is a flattened, disc-shaped structure.
In the late 3rd to 4th weeks, ____ transforms shape.
Certain regions of the embryo grow ____ than others causing folding.
The two types of folding caused by faster growth in regions of the embryo are ______ and ______.
Folding that occurs in the cephalic and caudal regions of the embryo is ____ folding.
Amnion grows very quickly but ___ does not grow at all during cephalocaudal folding.
____ folding forms the future head and buttocks region.
Left and right sides of the embryo curve and migrate toward the midline during ______
During transverse folding sides fuse in midline to create a ______ embryo creating the trunk/torso region.
During transverse folding the ____ is pinched off from most of the endoderm except one small region called the ____.
_____ now solely along entire exterior embryo and endoderm confined to the internal region during transverse folding.
____ forms nervous tissue and sensory organs.
_____ forms the epidermis and it's derivatives. What are examples?
hair, nails, sweat glands, mammary glands
____ forms the enamel of the teeth.
______ forms muscle and connective tissues.
______ forms the dermis.
_____ forms the pituitary gland.
_____ forms the lens of the eye.
_____ forms the adrenal medulla.
_____ forms kidneys.
_____ forms ureters.
______ forms reproductive system.
_____ forms spleen.
____ forms serous membranes.
____ forms adrenal cortex.
_____ forms the heart.
____ forms the reproductive system.
The ____ forms tympanic cavity and auditory tube.
_____ forms the lining of the GI tract.
_____ forms the respiratory tract
____ forms the urinary tract.
____ forms the reproductive tract.
_____ forms the liver.
_____ forms the gallbladder.
_____ forms the pancreas.
_____ forms the palatine tonsils.
____ forms the thyroid and parathyroid glands.
____ forms the thymus.
_____ is the rudimentary forming of most organ systems have developed by week 8.
____ are substances that cause birth defects.
Organogenesis is sensitive to ____.
The fetal period extends from week ____ to birth.
During the fetal period maturation of ____ and organs occurs. (rapid growth of the body)
During the fetal period the embryo will grow from 1 inch to an average length of _____ by birth.
The average weight of a full term fetus is ____ lbs.
5.5 - 9.9 lbs
There are ____ trimesters during pregnancy.
During the first three months called the ____ trimester a zygote turns into an _____ then into a fetus.
The second trimester lasts from months ____.
During the second trimester there is growth of the fetus and ____.
The third trimester lasts from ____ months.
During the 3rd trimester there is rapid growth of fetus as mothers body prepares for the eventual _____.
labor and delivery
HCG hormone changes
Secreted by blastocyst after implantation
Maintains the corpus luteum (continues to secrete progesterone / estrogen)
*Maintains and builds uterine lining
Levels remain high during first trimester then drop off
*Corpus luteum degenerates as well
Estrogen/Progesterone Hormone Changes
After first trimester, secreted by placenta
High levels suppress FSH and LH secretion, so the ovarian cycle is arrested
Facilitate uterine enlargement, mammary gland enlargement and fetal growth
Effect integumentary system: faster-growing and stronger nails, hair tends to be fuller and thicker
The change in _____ levels is responsible for the for relaxation of ligamentous joints such as sacroiliac joints and ____
The change in _____ is responsible for Responsible for functional layer growth and prevention of menstruation.
The change in progesterone is responsible for ______ and prevention of menstruation.
functional layer growth
The change in progesterone is responsible for functional layer growth and _______.
prevention of menstruation
The change in estrogen levels is responsible for the for relaxation of ________ such as sacroiliac joints and pubic sympysis
During pregnancy ___ is secreted by the corpus luteum and the placenta.
During pregnancy relaxin promotes ____ growth in the uterus.
blood vessel growth
Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is normally secreted by the _____, which stimulates ACTH release from AP.
The ______ secretes large amounts of CRH during pregnancy.
_____ is believed to play a role in length of pregnancy and timing of childbirth.
CRH causes an increase in _____ levels which promotes fluid retention and can lead to edema.
Human chorionic thyrotropin (HCT) is similar to ____.
_____ is secreted by the placenta.
Human chorionic thyrotropin (HCT)
HCT stimulates the release of ______ increasing mothers metabolic rate.
HCT stimulates the release of thyroid hormones increasing the ______.
mothers metabolic rate
human placental lactogen (HPL) is secreted by the ______.
The HPL causes the mother to metabolize more _____, saving glucose for the fetus.
Human placental lactogen (HPL) inhibits ____. leaving more glucose in blood fro the fetus.
____ levels increase from the 5th week till max levels at week 36.
Human placental lactogen (HPL)
_____ is produced by the hypothalamus and secreted by the posterior pituitary gland.
_____ is involved in uterine contractions.
Oxytocin is involved in _____ from mammary glands.
____ levels increase during the 2nd and 3rd trimester in response to rising estrogen levels and peak during ____.
Prolactin is secreted by the ________.
anterior pituitary gland
_____ is responsible for milk production.
Prolactin levels increase ____ during pregnancy to ensure lactation occurs after birth.
Prior to pregnancy the uterus measures ____.
8 cm by 5 cm
After implantation, the uterus enlarges due to hypertrophy and hyperplasia of its ______.
After implantation, the uterus englarges due to ______ and ____ of its muscular layer.
hypertrophy and hyperplasia
Four weeks after fertilization, uterine enlargement can be detected during a _____.
By week ____ the uterus is the size of a large grapefruit.
By week ___ the uterus is expanded to abdominal cavity and fundus is midpoint level between pubic symphysis and umbilicus
By week ____ the fundus reaches the level of the umbilicus
By week 22 the fundus is superior to the ____.
By the ____, the fundus is at the level of the xiphoid process of the sternum.
The enlarged uterus pushes against eh diaphragm and compresses many of the _____.
______ causes mother to metabolize more fatty acids instead of glucose
Estrogen/progesterone/HPL cause increased ______ and can lead to gestational diabetes.
Morning sickness is caused by two theories: high levels of hormones primarily _____. Also an evolutionary adaption to ____ the developing fetus from harmful toxins in certain foods (____).
Heartburn, indigestion and _____ can also occur during pregnancy.
Folic acid, calcium, _____, andiron are especially important during pregnancy.
____ lbs normal weight gain due to fetus, placenta, breast and uterine enlargement as well as fluid retention.
A cardiovasuclar change is the plasma volume increases by about ___
More blood is needed to transport _______ to both the mother and fetus.
A cardiovascular change due to the increased plasma volume causes an increase in cardiac output by _____.
An increase of cardiac output begins at week ____ and peaks around weeks ____.
Increased cardiac output is caused by increased _______.
heart rate and stroke volume
Increased blood volume initially increases blood pressure during the _____ trimester, but it drops by the ______ trimester.
______ from lower body is impaired by third trimester due to uterus and fetus compressing abdominal blood vessels
Impairment of the venous return from the lower body in the third trimester can cause ___ in the lower limbs, varicose veins and hemorrhoids.
During the later part of pregnancy, expanding uterus prevents _____ from fully descending, keeping the lungs from ______
_____ is an uncomfortable awareness of breathing
Increased estrogen increases the fluid within the______, as well as an increased blood flow causing congestion and _____ (nose bleeds)
Increased estrogen causing increased blood flow causing ____ and ______.
Progesterone increases sensitivity of chemoreceptors to ________.
blood CO2 levels
Increased levels of progesterone lead to an increase in tidal volume and pulmonary ventilation by _____
Increased levels of progesterone lead to an increase in breathing rate, increasing the mothers ______
Progesterone increases ____.
Progesterone causes a ____ in CO2 blood levels which facilitates the diffusion of gases across the placenta.
The urinary system is responsible for eliminating her metabolic waste products as well as the waste products from the ____.
Since there is 50% more plasma volume, there is an increase in filtering by the _____ as well
GFR has to increase by ______ to keep up.
First and third trimesters uterus expansion can lead to __________ causing increased diuresis (urination)
pressure on the bladder
During pregnancy there are higher rates of UTI due to _____ and ____ being compresses by the uterus.
ureters and kidneys
During pregnancy there are higher rates of UTIs because ______ causes smooth muscle relaxation which can cause uretal and renal pelvic cilation. (ureters store more urine causing ______).
Labor is also known as ________.
____ is the physical expulsion of the fetus and placenta from the uterus.
_____ is labor that occurs prior to 38 weeks.
_____ are contractions (braxton-hicks) are not strong enough to results in the three stages of True labor.
Initiation of labor
Increasing levels of estrogen:
Counteract the relaxing nature of progesterone on the myometrium
Cause more oxytocin receptors to appear on the myometrium causing an increase in oxytocin release from the PP
Uterine myometrium becomes more sensitive and contractions begin
Weak contractions can start as early as the ____, they get stronger in the later stages.
Increasing levels of estrogen counteract the relaxing nature of _____ on the myometrium during the intiation of labor.
Increasing levels of estrogen cause more oxytocin receptors to appear on the myometrium causing an increase in oxytocin ______.
release from the PP
______ is when uterine contractions that increase in intensity and regulatory and that results in changes to the cervix
______ levels increase, not only from the mother but from the ______ as well and true labor begins
Oxytocin stimulates the release of _______ from the placenta
Prostaglandins stimulates smooth _____ and soften and dilate the cervix.
Prostaglandins stimulates smooth contraction and ______ the cervix.
soften and dilate
Oxytocin, _____ and prostaglandins cause the rhythmic contractions of true labor
Oxytocin, estrogen and ______ cause the rhythmic contractions of true labor
Oxytocin, estrogen and prostaglandins cause the rhythmic contractions of true labor increase in frequency and ____ over time.
During true labor pain radiates from lower back to the upper abdomen and does not change in response to _____ of the mother's positin.
During true labor pain radiates from ____ to ____.
Contractions facilitate ______ and expulsion of fetus and placenta
Contractions facilitate cervical dilation and ____________.
expulsion of fetus and placenta
The positive feedback cycle of labor
Initiation of True labor is a _____ mechanism.
Positive feedback mechanism
Positive feedback mechanism
Contractions intensify causing fetus’s head to push against the cervix
This stimulates the stretching and dilation of the cervix
This stimulates the release of more oxytocin
Contractions also stimulate the placenta to secrete more prostaglandins
End of positive feedback is when the fetus and placenta are expelled from the body
End of positive feedback is when the _____ are expelled from the body.
fetus and placenta are expelled from the body
True labor has three stages:
dilation, expulsion, placental
Dilation stage begins with the onset of regulation contractions and ends when the cervix is _____ and dilated to 10 centimeters.
The longest of the three stages of true labor.
______ are women who have never given birth before, tend to be in this stage longer (8-24 hours)
____ have given birth before, the ______ stage lasts from 4-12 hours.
During the ____ stage the amniotic sac releases the amniotic fluid (water breaking)
The ____ stage begins with the complete dilation of the cervix and ends with the expulsion of the fetus (may last minutes to hours)
The expulsion stage begins with the complete dilation of the cervix and ends with the ________
expulsion of the fetus (may last minutes to hours)
Nulliparous again will typically have a longer ___ stage than parous women.
_____ is the first part of the baby's head distends from the vagina.
_____ is when the perineal muscles are surgically incised to create a wider opening for the baby to pass through.
Once the baby's body is fully exprelled the umbilical cord is ______.
clamped and tied off
The _____ stage occurs after the baby is expelled.
During the placental stage the uterus contracts to ________ as well as expels the placenta and remaining fetal membranes (afterbirth)
compresses uterine blood vessels
During the placental stage the uterus contracts to compress uterine blood vessels as well as ______
expels the placenta and remaining fetal membranes (afterbirth)
The ____ stage typically occurs within 20 minutes after expulsion phase.
Prolactin, released from the AP, is inhibited from being released in non-pregnant women and in men by the release of _____
During pregnancy, high levels of estrogen influences the secretion of _____
Increased estrogen and prolactin cause ________ proliferation and branching of the lactiferous ducts
mammary gland acini
Increased estrogen and prolactin cause mammary gland acini proliferation and _______
branching of the lactiferous ducts
Milk isn’t released until ______, when estrogen and progesterone levels drop
Milk isn’t released until after birth, when ______ and _______ levels drop
At end of pregnancy and first few days after birth, substance produced isn’t breast milk, but ______
______ has a lower concentration of fat than true breast milk and is rich in immunoglobulins (IgA)
Colostrum has a _____ effect and facilitates the infants first bowel movement.
True breast milk produced a few days postpartum and has a ____ fat content than colostrum, several growth factors, essential fatty acids, _______ and an array of immunoglobulins
specific enzymes to aid in digestion
Human colosrum has less protein then cow's milk, but more than ____.
human breast milk
____ is needed for milk production while _____is needed for milk secretion.
Milk production is a ______ ---> prolactin is secreted every time the baby feeds.
positive feedback mechanism
_____ is the release of breast.
Milk Let down positive feedback cycle
Oxytocin released when baby feeds (mechanoreceptors in areola/nipple)
Stimulates the myoepithelial cells that surround the acini to contract forcing the milk from the breast
This ends when the baby stops feeding