Chapter 26 Flashcards Preview

ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY II > Chapter 26 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 26 Deck (359)
1

____ is the introduction of solid/liquid into the oral cavity.

ingestion

2

_____ is the voluntary/involuntary muscular contractions for mixing and moving materials through GI tract.

motility

3

____ is the production/release of digestive enzymes, acid, and bile into the GI tract to aid in digestion.

secretion

4

_____ is the breakdown of ingested food into smaller structures.

digestion

5

______ is when food is physically broken down and there are no chemical changes.

mechanical digestion

6

_______ involves specific enzymes to break chemical bonds, making smaller molecules for absorption

chemical digestion

7

_____ is the membrane transport of digested molecules, electrolytes, vitamins and water from GI into blood/lymph

absorption

8

______ is the expulsion of indigestible components

elimination

9

The mucosa is made of three layers: ______, ______, and _______.

epithelium, lamina propria, muscularis mucosae

10

The inner most layer of the mucosa is called the _____.

epithelium

11

Most of the GI tract (stomach, small and large intestines) are made of _______.

simple columnar epithelium

12

The cells of the oral cavity, or/laryngopharynx, esophagus, and anal canal are called ______.

nonkeratinized stratified squamous

13

The middle layer of the mucosa is called the ______.

lamina propria

14

The lamina propr. contains blood and lymphatic vessels, nerves and _______.

MALT

15

The outermost layer of the mucosa is the _____

muscularis mucosae

16

Which layer of the the mucosa facilitates the release of secretions from the mucosa into the lumen?

muscularis mucosae

17

Muscularis mucosae causes slight movement of mucosa to increase ______.

contact with materials within the lumen.

18

The submucosa is made up of _____ and ______.

areolar
dense irregular connective tissue

19

The submucosa contains large blood vessels, lymph vessels, _____ and ______.

nerves and glands

20

The submucosa contains ______, _____ in small intestines.

MALT, peyer's patches

21

The submucosal nerve plexus innervates smooth muscle and glands of mucosa as well as glands of __________.

submucosa

22

The two lanes of the muscular?

inner circular layer
outer longitudinal layer

23

The inner circular layer surrounds the _____.

GI tract

24

The outer longitudinal layer runs the _____ of the GI tract.

length

25

The my centric nerve plexus is located between what two layers?

inner circular layer and the outer longitudinal layer

26

The mycentric nerve plexus contains both motor neurons of ANS and ________.

visceral sensory neurons

27

The functions of the muscularis?

peristalsis and mixing

28

______ is the alternating contraction sequence causing the pushing of ingested materials through the GI tract.

peristalsis

29

____ is the kneading motion within different regions of GI tract that lack directional movement.

Mixing

30

Serosa/Adventitia are both composed of _____.

areolar connective tissue

31

______ covers portions of the GI tract located outside of peritoneal cavity.

adventitia

32

The retroperitoneal organs

duodenum
pancrea
ascending/descending colon
rectum

33

The _____ is covered by visceral peritoneum.

serosa

34

The serosa covers portions of GI tract within the ______ cavity.

peritoneal

35

Intraperitoneal organs

stomach
jejunum/ileum
transverse/sigmoid colons

36

The digestive system is regulated by receptors, nervous control and _____.

hormonal control

37

_____ detect stretch or pressure.

baroreceptors

38

______ detect presence of specific substances.

chemoreceptors

39

Hormonal control is regulated by gastrin, secretin and ____.

cholecystokinin or CCK

40

Gastrin is released from the ____.

stomach

41

______ and ________ comes from the small intestines.

secretin
choleycystokinin

42

_______ control through facial, glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves.

Autonomic

43

________ nervous system contains both submucosal and myenteric nerve plexi.

enteric

44

____- nerve stimulates myenteric plexus which stimulates submucosal plexus.

Vagus

45

____ nervous can direct all essential activities of the GI tract in the absence of the ANS.

enteric

46

Daily secretions of ____ range between 1 and 1.5 liters, with most produced during mealtime.

saliva

47

Saliva is composed of ____% water and a mixture of solutes.

99.5%

48

_____ is made up of water and salivary amylase, mucin, and ______.

lysozyme

49

Saliva functions to ____ ingested food.

moisten

50

Saliva intiates ______.

chemical digestion

51

Saliva helps to form a _______ of the food that has been ingested.

food bolus

52

_____ initiates chemical digestion and ______ targets starch.

Saliva
salivary amylase

53

Saliva acts as a _____ so food molecules dissolve into saliva before they can stimulate taste receptors.

watery medium

54

Saliva cleans the _____.

oral cavity

55

Saliva helps inhibit _____ because it contains antibacterial substances: both lysozyme and IgA's.

bacterial growth

56

The brains contains _______.

salivary nuclei

57

______ stimulation keeps oral cavity moist.

parasymphathetic

58

Parasympathetic stimulation keeps the oral cavity moist. The ____ nerve stimulates the submandibular and sublingual glands. The _____ nerve stimulates the parotid gland.

facial nerve
glossopharyngeal nerve

59

More saliva will be released in the upper GI in response to chemoreceptors and _____.

mechanoreceptors

60

Arrival of food into the stomach, especially ____ or ____ stimulates the release of more saliva.

spicy or acidic

61

Introduction of substances into oral cavity, especially ______ substances will release more saliva in response to super GI chemoreceptors and mechanoreceptors.

acidic

62

Saliva stimulation occurs when the higher brain centers thought, smell or _____ of food.

sight

63

______ stimulation results in more viscous saliva by decreasing water content.

sympathetic

64

_______ is the mechanical digestion in the oral cavity (chewing).

mastication

65

Mastication centers located within the _____ and _____ regulate coordinated activity of the teeth and the skeletal muscles of the lips, tongue, cheeks, and jaw.

pons and medulla

66

Mastication reduces the _____ into smaller particles to facilitate swallowing.

bulk

67

Mastication promotes salivation to help _____ and moisten food into bolus.

soften

68

Small, ____ molecules can be absorbed directly into the blood from the mouth without chewing or swallowing.

nonpolar

69

Between 6 and 30 months of age, ____ deciduous teeth will appear (including incisors, canines, and premolars)

20

70

All 20 deciduous teeth are lost and replaced with ____ permanent teeth (includes all deciduous teeth and molars).

32 permanent

71

Incisors most anterior, are shapes like chisels and have a ____ root.

single

72

_______ are designed for slicing or cutting.

incisors

73

Canines have ____ and a single root.

pointed tip

74

_______ are designed for puncturing and tearing.

canines

75

Premolars have a _____ with cusps and 1 or 2 roots.

flat crowns

76

Premolars are designed for ______ and ______.

crushing and grinding

77

Molars that are most posterior, have large crowd flat crowns with ____ or more roots.

3

78

______ are adapted for grinding and crushing.

Molars

79

The number of each type of tooth is written as a ________ for one quadrant of the mouth (upper and lower shown on separate rows)

dental formula

80

A dental formula for most adults

ICPM = 2123/2123

81

A dental formula for most children

ICP = 212/212

82

_______ or swallowing, is the process of moving ingested materials from the oral cavity to the stomach.

deglutition

83

The three phases of deglutition.

1. voluntary phase
2. pharyngeal phase (involuntary)
3. Esophageal phase (involuntary)

84

_______ in the medulla coordinates with the respiratory center (also in the medulla) so there is a pause in breathing.

swallowing center

85

______ is difficulty swallowing.

dysphagia

86

If there is damage to the swelling center, the _____ can maintain function.

enteric nervous system

87

Voluntary Phase of Deglutition

Controlled by the cobra cortex
Chewed food forms bolus and then pushed superiorly against the hard palate
Transverse palatine folds direct bolus toward oropharynx initiating

88

Pharyngeal Involuntary Phase (1 second)

Swallowing center receives signals from tactile sensory receptors which causes:
Elevation of soft palate and uvula blocking off nasopharynx
Elevation of larynx resulting in epiglottis covering laryngeal opening
Bolus moves through pharynx to esophagus

89

Esophageal Involuntary Phase

5-8 seconds long as bolus moves through esophagus by peristaltic waves

90

______ is a normally collapsed, tubular passageway.

esophagus

91

The ________ contains superior and inferior sphincters which are normally closed, only opening to allow for the passage of a bolus.

esophagus

92

The _____ of the esophagus is unique and contains both skeletal and smooth muscle.

muscularis

93

The superior 1/3rd of the esophagus contains only _____. The muscle propels swallowed material out of pharynx quickly for the next ______ to occur.

skeletal muscle fibers
breath

94

The middle 1/3rd of the esophagus contains _________.

both skeletal and smooth muscle

95

The inferior 1/3rd of the esophagus contains ______ which is continuous with the muscular that extends throughout the stomach.

smooth muscle

96

The ____ is inferior to the diaphragm, anterior to the pancreas and the holding sac is in the left upper quadrant.

stomach

97

The stomach mixes ______ with secretions released from the stomach wall.

ingested food

98

The stomach mechanically digests the contents into a semifluid mass called _____.

chyme

99

The stomach completes _______ of both protein and fat.

chemical digestion

100

Absorption in the stomach is limited to small, non polar substances such as _____ and ______.

alcohol and aspirin

101

One essential function of the stomach is the release of the ______.

intrinsic factor

102

The intrinsic factor is needed for the absorption of vitamin _____ in the ileum of the small intestines.

B12

103

There are ___ types of secretory cells of the gastric epithelium.

five

104

In the stomach, four of the five secretory cells of the gastric epithelium produce _____ of gastric juices a day.

3 liters

105

The fifth secretory cells of the gastric epithelium secretes _____.

a hormone

106

_____ cells line the stomach lumen, extend into gastric pits.

surface mucous cells

107

Surface mucous cells secrete _____ product within mucin to surface where mucin hydrates and becomes a mucus layer. This prevents ulceration of the stomach lining.

alkaline

108

The ____ cells prevents ulceration of the stomach lining.

surface mucous

109

_____ cells line the base of gastric pits into the gastric glands, inter mixed with parietal cells.

mucous neck cells

110

Mucous neck cells produce an _____ which helps maintain the acidic conditions resulting from the secretion of the HCl.

acidic mucin

111

The mucous neck cells still act a a _____.

protective layer

112

_____ cells release intrinisic factor.

parietal cells

113

_____ is a glycoprotein required for the absorption of vitamin B12 needed for production of normal erythrocytes.

intrinsic factor

114

B12 deficiencies can result in ______.

pernicious anemia

115

______ cells release hydrochloric acid.

Parietal cells

116

Hydrochloric acid is not formed in parietal cell, forms in _______ after H+ and Cl- released from cell.

lumen

117

Normal stomach pH levels range from ______.

1.5 - 2.5

118

Hydrochloric acid converts inactive pepsinogen into active _____.

pepsin

119

______ kills most microorganisms that enter the stomach.

Hydrochloric acid

120

Hydrochloric acid contributes to the breakdown of plant cell walls and ______.

animal connective tissue

121

______ cells are the most numerous within gastric glands.

chief cells (peptic)

122

Chief cells (peptic) produce and secrete packets of _____ containing the inactive form of pepsin, pepsinogen.

zymogen granules

123

Chief cells are activated by both HCl and other _______.

active pepsin molecules

124

______ chemically digests denatured proteins into small peptide fragments.

Chief cells (peptic)

125

Chief cells produce ______, which is an enzyme with limited role in fat digestion (10% - 15%)

gastric lipase

126

______ are distributed throughout gastric glands.

G-cells

127

_____ secrete gastrin into the blood.

G-cells

128

G cells secreting gastrin stimulates _______ and secretions

stomach motility

129

Three stimulatory molecules responsible for HCl regulation; _______, ________, and _________.

acetylocholine
gastrin
histamine

130

______ is a neurotransmitter from enteric neurons.

acetylcholine

131

_____ is a paracrine hormone released from ECL cells.

histamine

132

_______is a hormone released from G cells.

gastrin

133

______ and _______ stimulates parietal cells directly.

histamine and acetylcholine

134

Gastrin stimulates release of histamine from ______ to indirectly stimulate parietal cells.

ECL cells

135

Somatostatin released from enteroendocrine cells when pH of stomach is ______.

too low

136

______ inhibits acid secretion by directly affecting parietal, ECL, and G cells.

Somatostatin

137

______ is the mixing of bolus with gastric juice to form chyme.

gastric mixing

138

_______ is the movement of acidic chyme from stomach through pyloric sphincter into duodenum.

gastric emptying

139

stomach motility steps

?

140

Peristaltic wave establishes a _________ on contents in pylorus than pressure exerted by pyloric sprinter to stay closed.

greater pressure on contents

141

Stomach motility causes ____ to empty into small intestines at a time.

3 mL

142

Peristaltic wave passes sphincter changing the _____.

pressure gradient back

143

greater pressure at sphincter than against contents thus sphincter closes causing a ________.

retropulsion

144

_______ is the movement of stomach contents out of sphincter back into stomach lumen.

retropulsion

145

The stomach contains pacemaker cells which spontaneously depolarize less than _____ times per minute and establish its basic rhythm.

4 times

146

Electrical signals spread via gap junctions, smooth muscle in ______ is a single unit.

muscularis

147

Nervous and hormonal regulation can alter the _______ but not rate, as well as secretory activity of the gastric glands.

force of contraction but not rate

148

The three phases of gastric secretion

Cephalic
Gastric
Intestinal

149

______ and ______ phases occur before and during a meal.

cephalic and gastric

150

_____ phase involves events that occur after the meal.

intestinal

151

The cephalic phase involves the ______.

cephalic reflex

152

The cephalic reflex is initiated by the _____, smell, sight, or taste of food.

thought

153

The cebral cortex sends signals to the _____, which passes the signal onto the medulla during the cephalic phase.

hypothalamus

154

During the cephalic phase the medulla increases ____ stimulation through the Vagus nerve to the stomach.

parasymphatetic

155

The stomach increases ______ from the gastric glands.

both the force of contraction and the secretion

156

Steps of cephalic phase

?

157

Steps of Gastric phase

?

158

______ is initiated when food enters the stomach.

gastric reflex

159

During the gastric phase ____ detect stretch.

baroreceptors

160

During the gastric phase _____ detect protein and increase in stomach pH.

chemoreceptors

161

During the gastric phase, signals trigger the medulla same as _______.

the cephalic reflex

162

During the gastric phase, the release of gastrin occurs due to the ______.

presence of food (protein)

163

Gastrin circulates back to the stomach to stimulate contractile activity of _____.

stomach wall

164

Gastrin circulates back to the stomach to release ______.

gastric secretions (HCl0

165

Gastrin circulates back to the stomach to stimulate contraction of pyloric sphincter to ______.

slow stomach emptying

166

Steps of the Intestinal phase

?

167

The purpose of the intestinal phase is to ____ stomach emptying to allow for adequate time for digestive processes.

slow

168

______ opposes cephalic and gastric reflexes.

intestinal reflex

169

The intestinal reflex is ignited upon entry of _____ into the duodenum.

acidic chyme

170

The intestinal reflex causes decreased force of ______ and release of secretions.

contractions

171

During the intestinal reflex there are decreased signals sent to _____ which decrease signals sent through the vagus nerve.

medulla

172

____ is released in response to fat.

CCK or cholecystokinin

173

_____ is released in response to a acidic chyme.

secretin

174

Both CCK and _____ inhibit parietal, ECL, and G cells as well as decreasing force of contractions.

secretin

175

Ingested nutrients spend at least 12 hours within the ____.

small intestines

176

The small intestines finishes _______.

chemical digestion

177

The small intestines function to abbrs. vitamins, all nutrients, and ______.

large portion of water/electrolytes

178

The small intestines consists of three segments: ________, _________, and ____________.

duodenum, jejunum, and ileum

179

Mucosa and submucosa create _______ that extend into the lumen.

circular folds

180

Circular folds are most numerous in the ______ and _____.

duodenum and jejunum

181

______ increase the surface area through which nutrients are absorbed.

circular folds

182

Circular folds act like _____ to slow movement of chyme.

speed bumps

183

____ are finger like projections of the mucosa that extend from circular folds of the SI due to the shorter length of the muscular mucosae.

Villi

184

Villi are most numerous in the _____ and increase surface area beyond circular folds.

jejunum

185

Each _____ contain ans arteriole, a capillary network, a venule, and a lacteal.

villi

186

_____ absorb lipid and lipid-soluble vitamins that can't be absorbed into the blood stream.

Lacteals

187

______ also called a brush border.

microvilli

188

______ are extensions of plasma membrane of the simple columnar cells lining the small intestines.

microvilli

189

_____ further increase surface are beyond circular folds and villi.

microvilli

190

_______ are various enzymes embedded within the brush border that complete the chemical digestion of most nutrients immediately before absorption.

brush border enzymes

191

______ are located between the villi of the mucosa.

intestinal glands/crypts

192

Intestinal glands/ crypts contain 3 types of cells.

goblet cells
unicellular gland cells
enteroendocrine cells

193

____ produce mucin and increase in number from duodenum to ileum.

goblet cells

194

_______ cells synthesize enteropeptidase.

unicellular gland cells

195

______ release CCK and secretin.

enteroendocrine cells

196

Proximal duodenum also contains submucosal glands which secrete a viscous, alkaline mucus to protect the _______ for the acidic chyme.

duodenum

197

The motility of the small intestines is responsible for mixing chyme with ______ called segmentation.

accessory gland secretions

198

The motility of the small intestines is responsible for moving the chyme continually against new areas of the ______

brush border

199

The motility of the small intestines propels the contents through the small intestines toward the _____ which is called peristalsis.

large intestines

200

______ reflex is the movement of contents from ileum to cecum.

gastroileal reflex

201

In the gastroileal reflex the steps

ileum contracts
ileocecal sphincter relaxes
cecum relaxes
contents moved from ileum to cecum
ileocecal sphincter contracts

202

The gastroileal reflex is ignited by food _____.

entering the stomach.

203

The _____ is the largest internal organ and weighs 2-4 lbs.

liver

204

The liver is located in the _____.

right upper quadrant

205

_____ is the site where blood vessels, lymph vessels, bile ducts and nerves extend from the liver.

porta hepatis

206

The two blood sources for the liver are the ______ and ________.

hepatic artery and the hepatic portal vein

207

The ______ is the branch of celiac trunk, transports oxygenated blood.

hepatic artery

208

The ________ transports deoxygenated and nutrient rich blood from the GI tract, spleen, and pancreas.

hepatic portal vein

209

_____% of the blood volume to the liver comes from the hepatic portal vein.

75%

210

Blood mixes as it passes into the ______.

hepatic lobules

211

_____ are microscopic polyhedral sections of the liver, created by the liver's CT capsule branching into the organ.

hepatic lobules

212

Hepatic lobules contain what 4 things?

hepatocytes
portal triads
central vein
hepatic sinusoids

213

Liver cells

hepatocytes

214

along the edges of hepatic lobules - have a bile ductule and branches of hepatic portal vein and hepatic artery.

portal triads

215

_____ drains blood flow from lobule

central vein

216

______ are thin walled capillaries within the hepatic lobules.

hepatic sinusoids

217

Venous blood from hepatic portal system and arterial blood are mixed within _______.

hepatic sinusoids

218

____ are absorbed from the sinusoids and enter the hepatocytes before blood leaves through the central vein.

nutrients

219

_____ are located within the sinusoids are macrophages and engulf harmful substances

kupffer cells

220

Bile produced by hepatocytes empty into ______.

bile canaliculi

221

______ is a sac like organ attached to inferior surface of liver that stores, concentrates and releases bile that the liver produces.

gallbladder

222

The gallbladder contains ___ tunics.

3

223

The three tunics of the gallbladder include: _______, _______, and ________.

mucosa, muscularis, and serosa

224

The gallbladder can hold ______ of bile.

40 - 60 mL

225

_____ contains water, HC03-, bile salts (formed from cholesterol) and mucin.

bile

226

Bile is produced at a rate of ______ L/day.

0.5 - 1 liter a day

227

The function of bile is _______.

emulsification

228

_______ is the mechanical digestion of lipids allowing more efficient chemical digestion of triglycerides.

emulsification

229

The ______ has both endocrine and exocrine functions.

pancreas

230

The length of the pancreas is ____ in length and retroperitoneal.

5-6 inches in length

231

The head of the pancreas near the duodenum curvature then extends to the left where the tail of the pancreas approaches the _____.

spleen.

232

Acing cells are located in the ____.

pancreas

233

Acinar cells are arranged in acini and produce/release _____.

digestive enzymes

234

Acinar cells release ____ to digest starch.

pancreatic amylase

235

Acinar cells release _______ to digest triglycerides.

pancreatic lipase

236

Acinar cells release ______ needed for protein digestion.

inactive proteases

237

Acinar cells release ___ for digestion of nucleotides.

nucleases

238

Simple cuboidal cells lining the pancreatic ducts secrete ________ fluid.

alkaline HC03- fluid

239

Fluid and enzymes mix to create _______ of pancreatic juices.

1-1.5 L/day

240

Cephalic and ____ phases stimulate release of pancreatic juice.

gastric

241

_____ is released due to fat content of chyme.

CCK

242

CCK stimulates smooth muscle in gallbladder wall to cause release of ___.

bile

243

_____ stimulates the pancreas to release enzyme rich pancreatic juice.

CCK

244

CCk relaxes _______ of hepatopancreatic ampulla.

smooth muscle

245

______ causes release of alkaline solution from the liver and ducts of the pancreas.

secretin

246

CCk and secretin also inhibit parietal, ____ and G cells, decreasing the release of ____ in the stomach.

ECL

247

The ______ absorbs water and electrolytes (NA+ and Cl-) primarily from remaining digestive material.

large intestines

248

The large intestines absorbs vitamin ___ and ____ which are synthesized by bacteria in the large intestines.

B and K

249

The three major regions of the large intestines

cecum
colon
rectum

250

The ____ is the first portion of the large intestines which extends inferior to ileocecal valve.

cecum

251

The vermiform appendix is located in the _____ and its suggested function is to contain bacteria helpful to colon.

cecum

252

The ____ has four segments: ______, ______, ______, and ______,

colon
ascending, transverse, descending, sigmoid colon

253

The _____ (part of mesentery) attaches each section to posterior abdominal wall.

mesocolon

254

The _____ is the muscular tube that readily expands to store accumulated feces.

rectum

255

The anal canal contains internal (_____) and external (______) anal sphincters.

smooth muscle
skeletal muscle

256

The mucosa of the large intestines is lined by ______ with goblet cells.

simple columnar

257

The mucosa of the _____ is smooth and lacks villi.

large intestines

258

The mucosa of the large intestines contains intestinal glands which _____.

secrete mucin

259

_______ are the numerous normal bacterial flora which inhabit the large intestines.

indigenous microbiota

260

_____ is responsible for chemical breakdown of complex carbs, proteins, and lipids that remain once chyme passed onto large intestines.

indigenous microbiota

261

Indigenous microbiota produces _____.

vitamin B and K

262

Indigenous microbiota produce H+, hydrogen sulfid, methane, and _______.

indoles and skatoles

263

Peristalsis in the large intestines is ______, but resembles peristalsis elsewhere.

weak and sluggish

264

____ is when the relaxed haustrum fill with digested material until distended, a reflex is triggered to contract the muscular.

haustral churning

265

_____ is powerful, peristaltic-like contraction involving the teenier coli.

mass movement

266

The function of mass movement is to propel fecal material toward the ____.

rectum

267

____ starts in the middle of the transverse colon.

mass movement

268

Mass movement occurs ____ times a day, often during or immediately after a meal.

2-3 times

269

Regulation of the large intestines is controlled by which two reflexex?

gastrocolic reflex
defecation reflex

270

_______ is ignited by stomach dissension to cause a mass movement.

gastrocolic reflex

271

_______ causes the elimination of feces from the GI tract.

defecation reflex

272

The _____ is ignited by baroreceptors in the rectal walls due to stretching.

defecation reflex

273

Conscious decision sends signals from the cerebral cortex to the external anal sphincter to relax and ______ is initiated.

Valsalva maneuver

274

Parasympathetic signals increase causing sigmoid colon and rectum to contract and internal anal sphincter to ____.

relax

275

Signal synapses in spinal cord with parasympathetic ________.

motor neuron?

276

________ are substances that must constitute part of the edit for survival

essential nutrients

277

The six essential nutrients

carbs
proteins
lipids
mineral
vitamins
water

278

Carbs, lipids, proteins and ____ are all digested by enzymatic hydrolysis which is the decomposition run by inserting water.

nucleic acids

279

During carb digestion the breakdown of starch into individual ______ occurs.

glucose molecules

280

During carb digestion the breakdown of disaccharides into individual ______ occurs.

monosaccharides

281

Carbohydrate digestion begins in the oral cavity due to ______.

salivary amylase

282

In the oral cavity _____ between glucose molecules within starch occurs.

breaks in chemical bonds

283

Salivary amylase is inactivated by ______ of the stomach when bolus is swallowed (15-20 minutes after the bolus enters).

low pH of stomach

284

_______ continues digestion of starch into shorter strands of glucose (5-25 long), maltose and individual glucose molecules in the _______ during carbohydrate digestion.

pancreatic amylase
small intestines

285

Completion of digestion of carbs is accomplished by _______.

brush border enzymes in the small intestines

286

______ and ______ break bonds between glucose subunits.

dextrinase and glucoamylase

287

____ breaks bonds in maltose.

maltase

288

____ digests sucrose.

sucrase

289

____ digests lactose.

lactase

290

Monosaccharides are absorbed across _____ into blood..

epithelial lining

291

Blood transported through hepatic portal vein to liver where fructose and lactose are converted into _____.

glucose

292

Glucose can become part of _____.

blood glucose

293

Glucose can be taken up by ____ to oxidized through cellular respiration.

any cell

294

Glucose can be taken up by liver and muscle cells and synthesized into _____

glycogen and stored

295

Glucose can be converted into ____ and stored in adipose tissue.

fat (triglycerides)

296

During protein digestion there is a release of individual _____ to be absorbed into the blood and then transported to cells for synthesis of new proteins.

amino acids

297

Pepsinogen is released by chief cells and then activated by HCl released by the parietal cells to _____ in the stomach.

form pepsin

298

____ begins protein digestion while acidic environment denatures proteins.

pepsin

299

Pepsin doesn't work in ____ due to high pH levels.

small intestines

300

The inactive forms of enzymes needed for protein digestion are released from the _____.

pancreas

301

_________ are enzymes produced by small intestines needed for activation of other enzymes.

Enteropeptidase
trypsinogen ----- trypsin
chymotripsinogen ----chymostrypsin
procarboxypeptidase ----carboxypeptidase

302

Brush border enzymes

dipeptidase
aminopeptidase

303

_____ breaks down dipeptides during protein digestion.

dipeptidase

304

_____ breaks single amino acids from the amine end of the peptide.

aminopeptidase

305

Free ____ are absorbed across the epithelial lining into blood.

amino acids

306

Triglycerides are composed of glycerol molecule and ______.

three fatty acids

307

Enzymes needed for breaking bonds between ______ and _____.

fatty acids and glycerol

308

______ doesn't need to be digested before absorption.

cholesterol

309

______ is a component of saliva, but not activated until reaches stomach for optimal pH level.

lingual lipase

310

______ is secreted by chief cells 30% of triglycerides are digested to diglycerides and a fatty acid.

gastric lipase

311

Pancreatic lipase digests majority of triglycerides, but needs ____ for this.

bile

312

Bile salts (part of bile) mechanically separate larger lipid droplets into smaller lipid droplets and its called ______.

emulsification

313

Bile salts contain polar and non polar sides which aid them in surrounding smaller fat droplets forming ______.

micelles

314

Smaller fat droplets allow greater access of pancreatic lipase to more effectively chemically digest the _____.

fat molecules

315

Cholesterols are also formed into _____m

micelles

316

No brush border enzymes are needed in ____ digestion

lipid

317

The _____ absorbs bile salts back into blood to be recycled.

ileum

318

Micelles transport lipids to ______ lining of the small intestines.

simple columnar

319

Lipids enter epithelial cells leaving bile salts within the ______ of the small intestines.

lumen

320

Fatty acids reattached to monoglycerides to _____.

reform triglycerides.

321

LIpids wrapped in protein to form a _____.

chylomicron

322

Golgi apparatus packages chylomicron in vesicle for _______ during lipid absorption.

exocytosis

323

_____ enter lacteals because they are to big to enter ______.

chylomicrons
blood capillaries

324

Nucleic acid digestion is not essential nutrient but still digested by specific enzymes in _____.

GI tract

325

Two types of nucleic acid: _____ and _____.

DNA and RNA

326

Nucleic acids are composed of sugar (ribose or deoxyribose), phosphate group, and ______,

nitrogenous base

327

Nucleases synthesized/released by pancreas break ____ between nucleotides.

phosphodiester bonds

328

Brush border enzymes involved in nuclei acid digestion include _____ and _____.

phophatase and nucleosidase

329

______ breaks bone holding phosphate

phosphatase

330

_______ breaks bonds between sugar and base (releasing sugar)

nucleosidase

331

During nuclei acid digestion all components absorbed across epithelium and ______.

into the blood.

332

What is the difference between mechanical and chemical digestion?

Mechanical digestion is physically breaking the food into small pieces
Chemical digestion is breaking the chemical bonds by enzyme

333

In which layers of the GI tract wall would you find MALT?

lamina propria and the submucosa

334

Between which two layers would you find the submucosal nerve plexus?

muscularis mucosa and submucosal

335

What is peristalsis? And how does it compare to mixing?

peristalsis is the movement of food through he GI tract while mixing doesn't move the food but mechanically digests it

336

Retroperitoneal means _______ the peritoneum while intraperiotoneal means ______ the peritoneum.

behing
within

337

What are long/short reflexes?

long reflexes are signals received from the ANS within the medulla
Short reflexes are signals received from the enteric nervous system within the GI tract wall

338

During which phase of deglutition does the physical swallowing of a bolus from oral cavity to esophagus occur?

pharyngeal

339

Why is the most superior portion of the esophagus made with skeletal muscle while the most inferior portion is made with smooth muscle?

the superior portion is made with skeletal muscle to propel the food out of the pharynx faster, to allow for another inhalation/exhalation.
The inferior portion is made with smooth muscle because it is continuous with the smooth muscle of the stomach

340

How do surface mucus cells and neck mucus cells compare in function?

surface mcuus cells secrete mucin and an alkaline substance, needed to protect inner lining of stomach
Mucus neck cells secrete much and an acid substance to aid

341

What is pernicious anemia?

a decreased erythrocyte production due to a vitamin B12 deficiency

342

What type of cell produced HCl? How is this done without damaging the cell?

Parietal cells release both H+ and CL- into the gastric gland where they combine to form HCl

343

Nervous and hormonal control of the stomach causes what?

A change in the force of contraction, but not the rate as well as gastric secretion releases

344

What triggers the cephalic reflex and what does the reflex cause?

thoughts, smells, sight or taste of food will rigger it and it will cause an increase in both gastric secretions and force of contractions

345

What does gastrin do that the cephalic and gastric reflexes do not

stimulate the contraction of the pyloric sphincter

346

What three structures within the SI increase surface area?

circular folds, villi, microvilli

347

Where in the SI would you find lacteals and what is their function?

within the lamina propria of the villi, absorb fat from the GI tract

348

What is the gastoileal reflex and what trigger it?

movement of gastric contents from ileum to decorum, it is stimulated by food entering the stomach

349

What is a cupful cell? and where would you find it within the liver?

a macrophage within the hepatic sinusoid capillaries

350

Where is bile made? stored? and what is its function?

made in the liver, stored in the gallbladder, aids in the emulsification (mechanical digestion) of fats

351

What is released from the pancreas to help neutralize the acidic nature of the chyme that enters the duodenum?

HC03-

352

What does the large intestines absorb?

water, electrolytes, vitamins B and K

353

Why do we have bacteria within our LI?

to aid in the breakdown of nutrients that made it to the LI as well as produce vitamin B and K

354

KNOW AND BE ABLE TO EXPLAIN THE 3 PHASES OF DEGLUTITION

?

355

BE ABLE TO LIST THE FOUR MAJOR TYPES OF ENZYMES NEEDED FOR CHEMICAL DIGESTION AND WHAT THEY DIGEST

?

356

BE ABLE TO LIST THE FOUR MAJOR TYPES OF ENZYMES NEEDED FOR CHEMICAL DIGESTION AND WHAT THEY DIGEST

?

357

KNOW WHAT HAPPENS TO GLUCOSE AFTER IT ENTERS TEH BODY?

?

358

KNOW THE 3 YPES OF FATTY ACIDS AND THEIR STRUCTURES, BE ABLE TO BIVE AN EXAMPLE OF EACH

?

359

KNOW THE 4 PHASES OF ATP PRODUCTION AND WHERE GLUCOSE, TRIGLYCERIDES, AND AMINO ACIDS COULD ENTER THIS CYCLE

?