Flashcards in Chapter 26 Deck (359)
____ is the introduction of solid/liquid into the oral cavity.
_____ is the voluntary/involuntary muscular contractions for mixing and moving materials through GI tract.
____ is the production/release of digestive enzymes, acid, and bile into the GI tract to aid in digestion.
_____ is the breakdown of ingested food into smaller structures.
______ is when food is physically broken down and there are no chemical changes.
_______ involves specific enzymes to break chemical bonds, making smaller molecules for absorption
_____ is the membrane transport of digested molecules, electrolytes, vitamins and water from GI into blood/lymph
______ is the expulsion of indigestible components
The mucosa is made of three layers: ______, ______, and _______.
epithelium, lamina propria, muscularis mucosae
The inner most layer of the mucosa is called the _____.
Most of the GI tract (stomach, small and large intestines) are made of _______.
simple columnar epithelium
The cells of the oral cavity, or/laryngopharynx, esophagus, and anal canal are called ______.
nonkeratinized stratified squamous
The middle layer of the mucosa is called the ______.
The lamina propr. contains blood and lymphatic vessels, nerves and _______.
The outermost layer of the mucosa is the _____
Which layer of the the mucosa facilitates the release of secretions from the mucosa into the lumen?
Muscularis mucosae causes slight movement of mucosa to increase ______.
contact with materials within the lumen.
The submucosa is made up of _____ and ______.
dense irregular connective tissue
The submucosa contains large blood vessels, lymph vessels, _____ and ______.
nerves and glands
The submucosa contains ______, _____ in small intestines.
MALT, peyer's patches
The submucosal nerve plexus innervates smooth muscle and glands of mucosa as well as glands of __________.
The two lanes of the muscular?
inner circular layer
outer longitudinal layer
The inner circular layer surrounds the _____.
The outer longitudinal layer runs the _____ of the GI tract.
The my centric nerve plexus is located between what two layers?
inner circular layer and the outer longitudinal layer
The mycentric nerve plexus contains both motor neurons of ANS and ________.
visceral sensory neurons
The functions of the muscularis?
peristalsis and mixing
______ is the alternating contraction sequence causing the pushing of ingested materials through the GI tract.
____ is the kneading motion within different regions of GI tract that lack directional movement.
Serosa/Adventitia are both composed of _____.
areolar connective tissue
______ covers portions of the GI tract located outside of peritoneal cavity.
The retroperitoneal organs
The _____ is covered by visceral peritoneum.
The serosa covers portions of GI tract within the ______ cavity.
The digestive system is regulated by receptors, nervous control and _____.
_____ detect stretch or pressure.
______ detect presence of specific substances.
Hormonal control is regulated by gastrin, secretin and ____.
cholecystokinin or CCK
Gastrin is released from the ____.
______ and ________ comes from the small intestines.
_______ control through facial, glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves.
________ nervous system contains both submucosal and myenteric nerve plexi.
____- nerve stimulates myenteric plexus which stimulates submucosal plexus.
____ nervous can direct all essential activities of the GI tract in the absence of the ANS.
Daily secretions of ____ range between 1 and 1.5 liters, with most produced during mealtime.
Saliva is composed of ____% water and a mixture of solutes.
_____ is made up of water and salivary amylase, mucin, and ______.
Saliva functions to ____ ingested food.
Saliva intiates ______.
Saliva helps to form a _______ of the food that has been ingested.
_____ initiates chemical digestion and ______ targets starch.
Saliva acts as a _____ so food molecules dissolve into saliva before they can stimulate taste receptors.
Saliva cleans the _____.
Saliva helps inhibit _____ because it contains antibacterial substances: both lysozyme and IgA's.
The brains contains _______.
______ stimulation keeps oral cavity moist.
Parasympathetic stimulation keeps the oral cavity moist. The ____ nerve stimulates the submandibular and sublingual glands. The _____ nerve stimulates the parotid gland.
More saliva will be released in the upper GI in response to chemoreceptors and _____.
Arrival of food into the stomach, especially ____ or ____ stimulates the release of more saliva.
spicy or acidic
Introduction of substances into oral cavity, especially ______ substances will release more saliva in response to super GI chemoreceptors and mechanoreceptors.
Saliva stimulation occurs when the higher brain centers thought, smell or _____ of food.
______ stimulation results in more viscous saliva by decreasing water content.
_______ is the mechanical digestion in the oral cavity (chewing).
Mastication centers located within the _____ and _____ regulate coordinated activity of the teeth and the skeletal muscles of the lips, tongue, cheeks, and jaw.
pons and medulla
Mastication reduces the _____ into smaller particles to facilitate swallowing.
Mastication promotes salivation to help _____ and moisten food into bolus.
Small, ____ molecules can be absorbed directly into the blood from the mouth without chewing or swallowing.
Between 6 and 30 months of age, ____ deciduous teeth will appear (including incisors, canines, and premolars)
All 20 deciduous teeth are lost and replaced with ____ permanent teeth (includes all deciduous teeth and molars).
Incisors most anterior, are shapes like chisels and have a ____ root.
_______ are designed for slicing or cutting.
Canines have ____ and a single root.
_______ are designed for puncturing and tearing.
Premolars have a _____ with cusps and 1 or 2 roots.
Premolars are designed for ______ and ______.
crushing and grinding
Molars that are most posterior, have large crowd flat crowns with ____ or more roots.
______ are adapted for grinding and crushing.
The number of each type of tooth is written as a ________ for one quadrant of the mouth (upper and lower shown on separate rows)
A dental formula for most adults
ICPM = 2123/2123
A dental formula for most children
ICP = 212/212
_______ or swallowing, is the process of moving ingested materials from the oral cavity to the stomach.
The three phases of deglutition.
1. voluntary phase
2. pharyngeal phase (involuntary)
3. Esophageal phase (involuntary)
_______ in the medulla coordinates with the respiratory center (also in the medulla) so there is a pause in breathing.
______ is difficulty swallowing.
If there is damage to the swelling center, the _____ can maintain function.
enteric nervous system
Voluntary Phase of Deglutition
Controlled by the cobra cortex
Chewed food forms bolus and then pushed superiorly against the hard palate
Transverse palatine folds direct bolus toward oropharynx initiating
Pharyngeal Involuntary Phase (1 second)
Swallowing center receives signals from tactile sensory receptors which causes:
Elevation of soft palate and uvula blocking off nasopharynx
Elevation of larynx resulting in epiglottis covering laryngeal opening
Bolus moves through pharynx to esophagus
Esophageal Involuntary Phase
5-8 seconds long as bolus moves through esophagus by peristaltic waves
______ is a normally collapsed, tubular passageway.
The ________ contains superior and inferior sphincters which are normally closed, only opening to allow for the passage of a bolus.
The _____ of the esophagus is unique and contains both skeletal and smooth muscle.
The superior 1/3rd of the esophagus contains only _____. The muscle propels swallowed material out of pharynx quickly for the next ______ to occur.
skeletal muscle fibers
The middle 1/3rd of the esophagus contains _________.
both skeletal and smooth muscle
The inferior 1/3rd of the esophagus contains ______ which is continuous with the muscular that extends throughout the stomach.
The ____ is inferior to the diaphragm, anterior to the pancreas and the holding sac is in the left upper quadrant.
The stomach mixes ______ with secretions released from the stomach wall.
The stomach mechanically digests the contents into a semifluid mass called _____.
The stomach completes _______ of both protein and fat.
Absorption in the stomach is limited to small, non polar substances such as _____ and ______.
alcohol and aspirin
One essential function of the stomach is the release of the ______.
The intrinsic factor is needed for the absorption of vitamin _____ in the ileum of the small intestines.
There are ___ types of secretory cells of the gastric epithelium.
In the stomach, four of the five secretory cells of the gastric epithelium produce _____ of gastric juices a day.
The fifth secretory cells of the gastric epithelium secretes _____.
_____ cells line the stomach lumen, extend into gastric pits.
surface mucous cells
Surface mucous cells secrete _____ product within mucin to surface where mucin hydrates and becomes a mucus layer. This prevents ulceration of the stomach lining.
The ____ cells prevents ulceration of the stomach lining.
_____ cells line the base of gastric pits into the gastric glands, inter mixed with parietal cells.
mucous neck cells
Mucous neck cells produce an _____ which helps maintain the acidic conditions resulting from the secretion of the HCl.
The mucous neck cells still act a a _____.
_____ cells release intrinisic factor.
_____ is a glycoprotein required for the absorption of vitamin B12 needed for production of normal erythrocytes.
B12 deficiencies can result in ______.
______ cells release hydrochloric acid.
Hydrochloric acid is not formed in parietal cell, forms in _______ after H+ and Cl- released from cell.
Normal stomach pH levels range from ______.
1.5 - 2.5
Hydrochloric acid converts inactive pepsinogen into active _____.
______ kills most microorganisms that enter the stomach.
Hydrochloric acid contributes to the breakdown of plant cell walls and ______.
animal connective tissue
______ cells are the most numerous within gastric glands.
chief cells (peptic)
Chief cells (peptic) produce and secrete packets of _____ containing the inactive form of pepsin, pepsinogen.
Chief cells are activated by both HCl and other _______.
active pepsin molecules
______ chemically digests denatured proteins into small peptide fragments.
Chief cells (peptic)
Chief cells produce ______, which is an enzyme with limited role in fat digestion (10% - 15%)
______ are distributed throughout gastric glands.
_____ secrete gastrin into the blood.
G cells secreting gastrin stimulates _______ and secretions
Three stimulatory molecules responsible for HCl regulation; _______, ________, and _________.
______ is a neurotransmitter from enteric neurons.
_____ is a paracrine hormone released from ECL cells.
_______is a hormone released from G cells.
______ and _______ stimulates parietal cells directly.
histamine and acetylcholine
Gastrin stimulates release of histamine from ______ to indirectly stimulate parietal cells.
Somatostatin released from enteroendocrine cells when pH of stomach is ______.
______ inhibits acid secretion by directly affecting parietal, ECL, and G cells.
______ is the mixing of bolus with gastric juice to form chyme.
_______ is the movement of acidic chyme from stomach through pyloric sphincter into duodenum.
stomach motility steps
Peristaltic wave establishes a _________ on contents in pylorus than pressure exerted by pyloric sprinter to stay closed.
greater pressure on contents
Stomach motility causes ____ to empty into small intestines at a time.
Peristaltic wave passes sphincter changing the _____.
pressure gradient back
greater pressure at sphincter than against contents thus sphincter closes causing a ________.
_______ is the movement of stomach contents out of sphincter back into stomach lumen.
The stomach contains pacemaker cells which spontaneously depolarize less than _____ times per minute and establish its basic rhythm.
Electrical signals spread via gap junctions, smooth muscle in ______ is a single unit.
Nervous and hormonal regulation can alter the _______ but not rate, as well as secretory activity of the gastric glands.
force of contraction but not rate
The three phases of gastric secretion
______ and ______ phases occur before and during a meal.
cephalic and gastric
_____ phase involves events that occur after the meal.
The cephalic phase involves the ______.
The cephalic reflex is initiated by the _____, smell, sight, or taste of food.
The cebral cortex sends signals to the _____, which passes the signal onto the medulla during the cephalic phase.
During the cephalic phase the medulla increases ____ stimulation through the Vagus nerve to the stomach.
The stomach increases ______ from the gastric glands.
both the force of contraction and the secretion
Steps of cephalic phase
Steps of Gastric phase
______ is initiated when food enters the stomach.
During the gastric phase ____ detect stretch.
During the gastric phase _____ detect protein and increase in stomach pH.
During the gastric phase, signals trigger the medulla same as _______.
the cephalic reflex
During the gastric phase, the release of gastrin occurs due to the ______.
presence of food (protein)
Gastrin circulates back to the stomach to stimulate contractile activity of _____.
Gastrin circulates back to the stomach to release ______.
gastric secretions (HCl0
Gastrin circulates back to the stomach to stimulate contraction of pyloric sphincter to ______.
slow stomach emptying
Steps of the Intestinal phase
The purpose of the intestinal phase is to ____ stomach emptying to allow for adequate time for digestive processes.
______ opposes cephalic and gastric reflexes.
The intestinal reflex is ignited upon entry of _____ into the duodenum.
The intestinal reflex causes decreased force of ______ and release of secretions.
During the intestinal reflex there are decreased signals sent to _____ which decrease signals sent through the vagus nerve.
____ is released in response to fat.
CCK or cholecystokinin
_____ is released in response to a acidic chyme.
Both CCK and _____ inhibit parietal, ECL, and G cells as well as decreasing force of contractions.
Ingested nutrients spend at least 12 hours within the ____.
The small intestines finishes _______.
The small intestines function to abbrs. vitamins, all nutrients, and ______.
large portion of water/electrolytes
The small intestines consists of three segments: ________, _________, and ____________.
duodenum, jejunum, and ileum
Mucosa and submucosa create _______ that extend into the lumen.
Circular folds are most numerous in the ______ and _____.
duodenum and jejunum
______ increase the surface area through which nutrients are absorbed.
Circular folds act like _____ to slow movement of chyme.
____ are finger like projections of the mucosa that extend from circular folds of the SI due to the shorter length of the muscular mucosae.
Villi are most numerous in the _____ and increase surface area beyond circular folds.
Each _____ contain ans arteriole, a capillary network, a venule, and a lacteal.
_____ absorb lipid and lipid-soluble vitamins that can't be absorbed into the blood stream.
______ also called a brush border.
______ are extensions of plasma membrane of the simple columnar cells lining the small intestines.
_____ further increase surface are beyond circular folds and villi.
_______ are various enzymes embedded within the brush border that complete the chemical digestion of most nutrients immediately before absorption.
brush border enzymes
______ are located between the villi of the mucosa.
Intestinal glands/ crypts contain 3 types of cells.
unicellular gland cells
____ produce mucin and increase in number from duodenum to ileum.
_______ cells synthesize enteropeptidase.
unicellular gland cells
______ release CCK and secretin.
Proximal duodenum also contains submucosal glands which secrete a viscous, alkaline mucus to protect the _______ for the acidic chyme.
The motility of the small intestines is responsible for mixing chyme with ______ called segmentation.
accessory gland secretions
The motility of the small intestines is responsible for moving the chyme continually against new areas of the ______
The motility of the small intestines propels the contents through the small intestines toward the _____ which is called peristalsis.
______ reflex is the movement of contents from ileum to cecum.
In the gastroileal reflex the steps
ileocecal sphincter relaxes
contents moved from ileum to cecum
ileocecal sphincter contracts
The gastroileal reflex is ignited by food _____.
entering the stomach.
The _____ is the largest internal organ and weighs 2-4 lbs.
The liver is located in the _____.
right upper quadrant
_____ is the site where blood vessels, lymph vessels, bile ducts and nerves extend from the liver.
The two blood sources for the liver are the ______ and ________.
hepatic artery and the hepatic portal vein
The ______ is the branch of celiac trunk, transports oxygenated blood.
The ________ transports deoxygenated and nutrient rich blood from the GI tract, spleen, and pancreas.
hepatic portal vein
_____% of the blood volume to the liver comes from the hepatic portal vein.
Blood mixes as it passes into the ______.
_____ are microscopic polyhedral sections of the liver, created by the liver's CT capsule branching into the organ.
Hepatic lobules contain what 4 things?
along the edges of hepatic lobules - have a bile ductule and branches of hepatic portal vein and hepatic artery.
_____ drains blood flow from lobule
______ are thin walled capillaries within the hepatic lobules.
Venous blood from hepatic portal system and arterial blood are mixed within _______.
____ are absorbed from the sinusoids and enter the hepatocytes before blood leaves through the central vein.
_____ are located within the sinusoids are macrophages and engulf harmful substances
Bile produced by hepatocytes empty into ______.
______ is a sac like organ attached to inferior surface of liver that stores, concentrates and releases bile that the liver produces.
The gallbladder contains ___ tunics.
The three tunics of the gallbladder include: _______, _______, and ________.
mucosa, muscularis, and serosa
The gallbladder can hold ______ of bile.
40 - 60 mL
_____ contains water, HC03-, bile salts (formed from cholesterol) and mucin.
Bile is produced at a rate of ______ L/day.
0.5 - 1 liter a day
The function of bile is _______.
_______ is the mechanical digestion of lipids allowing more efficient chemical digestion of triglycerides.
The ______ has both endocrine and exocrine functions.
The length of the pancreas is ____ in length and retroperitoneal.
5-6 inches in length
The head of the pancreas near the duodenum curvature then extends to the left where the tail of the pancreas approaches the _____.
Acing cells are located in the ____.
Acinar cells are arranged in acini and produce/release _____.
Acinar cells release ____ to digest starch.
Acinar cells release _______ to digest triglycerides.
Acinar cells release ______ needed for protein digestion.
Acinar cells release ___ for digestion of nucleotides.
Simple cuboidal cells lining the pancreatic ducts secrete ________ fluid.
alkaline HC03- fluid
Fluid and enzymes mix to create _______ of pancreatic juices.
Cephalic and ____ phases stimulate release of pancreatic juice.
_____ is released due to fat content of chyme.
CCK stimulates smooth muscle in gallbladder wall to cause release of ___.
_____ stimulates the pancreas to release enzyme rich pancreatic juice.
CCk relaxes _______ of hepatopancreatic ampulla.
______ causes release of alkaline solution from the liver and ducts of the pancreas.
CCk and secretin also inhibit parietal, ____ and G cells, decreasing the release of ____ in the stomach.
The ______ absorbs water and electrolytes (NA+ and Cl-) primarily from remaining digestive material.
The large intestines absorbs vitamin ___ and ____ which are synthesized by bacteria in the large intestines.
B and K
The three major regions of the large intestines
The ____ is the first portion of the large intestines which extends inferior to ileocecal valve.
The vermiform appendix is located in the _____ and its suggested function is to contain bacteria helpful to colon.
The ____ has four segments: ______, ______, ______, and ______,
ascending, transverse, descending, sigmoid colon
The _____ (part of mesentery) attaches each section to posterior abdominal wall.
The _____ is the muscular tube that readily expands to store accumulated feces.
The anal canal contains internal (_____) and external (______) anal sphincters.
The mucosa of the large intestines is lined by ______ with goblet cells.
The mucosa of the _____ is smooth and lacks villi.
The mucosa of the large intestines contains intestinal glands which _____.
_______ are the numerous normal bacterial flora which inhabit the large intestines.
_____ is responsible for chemical breakdown of complex carbs, proteins, and lipids that remain once chyme passed onto large intestines.
Indigenous microbiota produces _____.
vitamin B and K
Indigenous microbiota produce H+, hydrogen sulfid, methane, and _______.
indoles and skatoles
Peristalsis in the large intestines is ______, but resembles peristalsis elsewhere.
weak and sluggish
____ is when the relaxed haustrum fill with digested material until distended, a reflex is triggered to contract the muscular.
_____ is powerful, peristaltic-like contraction involving the teenier coli.
The function of mass movement is to propel fecal material toward the ____.
____ starts in the middle of the transverse colon.
Mass movement occurs ____ times a day, often during or immediately after a meal.
Regulation of the large intestines is controlled by which two reflexex?
_______ is ignited by stomach dissension to cause a mass movement.
_______ causes the elimination of feces from the GI tract.
The _____ is ignited by baroreceptors in the rectal walls due to stretching.
Conscious decision sends signals from the cerebral cortex to the external anal sphincter to relax and ______ is initiated.
Parasympathetic signals increase causing sigmoid colon and rectum to contract and internal anal sphincter to ____.
Signal synapses in spinal cord with parasympathetic ________.
________ are substances that must constitute part of the edit for survival
The six essential nutrients
Carbs, lipids, proteins and ____ are all digested by enzymatic hydrolysis which is the decomposition run by inserting water.
During carb digestion the breakdown of starch into individual ______ occurs.
During carb digestion the breakdown of disaccharides into individual ______ occurs.
Carbohydrate digestion begins in the oral cavity due to ______.
In the oral cavity _____ between glucose molecules within starch occurs.
breaks in chemical bonds
Salivary amylase is inactivated by ______ of the stomach when bolus is swallowed (15-20 minutes after the bolus enters).
low pH of stomach
_______ continues digestion of starch into shorter strands of glucose (5-25 long), maltose and individual glucose molecules in the _______ during carbohydrate digestion.
Completion of digestion of carbs is accomplished by _______.
brush border enzymes in the small intestines
______ and ______ break bonds between glucose subunits.
dextrinase and glucoamylase
____ breaks bonds in maltose.
____ digests sucrose.
____ digests lactose.
Monosaccharides are absorbed across _____ into blood..
Blood transported through hepatic portal vein to liver where fructose and lactose are converted into _____.
Glucose can become part of _____.
Glucose can be taken up by ____ to oxidized through cellular respiration.
Glucose can be taken up by liver and muscle cells and synthesized into _____
glycogen and stored
Glucose can be converted into ____ and stored in adipose tissue.
During protein digestion there is a release of individual _____ to be absorbed into the blood and then transported to cells for synthesis of new proteins.
Pepsinogen is released by chief cells and then activated by HCl released by the parietal cells to _____ in the stomach.
____ begins protein digestion while acidic environment denatures proteins.
Pepsin doesn't work in ____ due to high pH levels.
The inactive forms of enzymes needed for protein digestion are released from the _____.
_________ are enzymes produced by small intestines needed for activation of other enzymes.
trypsinogen ----- trypsin
Brush border enzymes
_____ breaks down dipeptides during protein digestion.
_____ breaks single amino acids from the amine end of the peptide.
Free ____ are absorbed across the epithelial lining into blood.
Triglycerides are composed of glycerol molecule and ______.
three fatty acids
Enzymes needed for breaking bonds between ______ and _____.
fatty acids and glycerol
______ doesn't need to be digested before absorption.
______ is a component of saliva, but not activated until reaches stomach for optimal pH level.
______ is secreted by chief cells 30% of triglycerides are digested to diglycerides and a fatty acid.
Pancreatic lipase digests majority of triglycerides, but needs ____ for this.
Bile salts (part of bile) mechanically separate larger lipid droplets into smaller lipid droplets and its called ______.
Bile salts contain polar and non polar sides which aid them in surrounding smaller fat droplets forming ______.
Smaller fat droplets allow greater access of pancreatic lipase to more effectively chemically digest the _____.
Cholesterols are also formed into _____m
No brush border enzymes are needed in ____ digestion
The _____ absorbs bile salts back into blood to be recycled.
Micelles transport lipids to ______ lining of the small intestines.
Lipids enter epithelial cells leaving bile salts within the ______ of the small intestines.
Fatty acids reattached to monoglycerides to _____.
LIpids wrapped in protein to form a _____.
Golgi apparatus packages chylomicron in vesicle for _______ during lipid absorption.
_____ enter lacteals because they are to big to enter ______.
Nucleic acid digestion is not essential nutrient but still digested by specific enzymes in _____.
Two types of nucleic acid: _____ and _____.
DNA and RNA
Nucleic acids are composed of sugar (ribose or deoxyribose), phosphate group, and ______,
Nucleases synthesized/released by pancreas break ____ between nucleotides.
Brush border enzymes involved in nuclei acid digestion include _____ and _____.
phophatase and nucleosidase
______ breaks bone holding phosphate
_______ breaks bonds between sugar and base (releasing sugar)
During nuclei acid digestion all components absorbed across epithelium and ______.
into the blood.
What is the difference between mechanical and chemical digestion?
Mechanical digestion is physically breaking the food into small pieces
Chemical digestion is breaking the chemical bonds by enzyme
In which layers of the GI tract wall would you find MALT?
lamina propria and the submucosa
Between which two layers would you find the submucosal nerve plexus?
muscularis mucosa and submucosal
What is peristalsis? And how does it compare to mixing?
peristalsis is the movement of food through he GI tract while mixing doesn't move the food but mechanically digests it
Retroperitoneal means _______ the peritoneum while intraperiotoneal means ______ the peritoneum.
What are long/short reflexes?
long reflexes are signals received from the ANS within the medulla
Short reflexes are signals received from the enteric nervous system within the GI tract wall
During which phase of deglutition does the physical swallowing of a bolus from oral cavity to esophagus occur?
Why is the most superior portion of the esophagus made with skeletal muscle while the most inferior portion is made with smooth muscle?
the superior portion is made with skeletal muscle to propel the food out of the pharynx faster, to allow for another inhalation/exhalation.
The inferior portion is made with smooth muscle because it is continuous with the smooth muscle of the stomach
How do surface mucus cells and neck mucus cells compare in function?
surface mcuus cells secrete mucin and an alkaline substance, needed to protect inner lining of stomach
Mucus neck cells secrete much and an acid substance to aid
What is pernicious anemia?
a decreased erythrocyte production due to a vitamin B12 deficiency
What type of cell produced HCl? How is this done without damaging the cell?
Parietal cells release both H+ and CL- into the gastric gland where they combine to form HCl
Nervous and hormonal control of the stomach causes what?
A change in the force of contraction, but not the rate as well as gastric secretion releases
What triggers the cephalic reflex and what does the reflex cause?
thoughts, smells, sight or taste of food will rigger it and it will cause an increase in both gastric secretions and force of contractions
What does gastrin do that the cephalic and gastric reflexes do not
stimulate the contraction of the pyloric sphincter
What three structures within the SI increase surface area?
circular folds, villi, microvilli
Where in the SI would you find lacteals and what is their function?
within the lamina propria of the villi, absorb fat from the GI tract
What is the gastoileal reflex and what trigger it?
movement of gastric contents from ileum to decorum, it is stimulated by food entering the stomach
What is a cupful cell? and where would you find it within the liver?
a macrophage within the hepatic sinusoid capillaries
Where is bile made? stored? and what is its function?
made in the liver, stored in the gallbladder, aids in the emulsification (mechanical digestion) of fats
What is released from the pancreas to help neutralize the acidic nature of the chyme that enters the duodenum?
What does the large intestines absorb?
water, electrolytes, vitamins B and K
Why do we have bacteria within our LI?
to aid in the breakdown of nutrients that made it to the LI as well as produce vitamin B and K
KNOW AND BE ABLE TO EXPLAIN THE 3 PHASES OF DEGLUTITION
BE ABLE TO LIST THE FOUR MAJOR TYPES OF ENZYMES NEEDED FOR CHEMICAL DIGESTION AND WHAT THEY DIGEST
BE ABLE TO LIST THE FOUR MAJOR TYPES OF ENZYMES NEEDED FOR CHEMICAL DIGESTION AND WHAT THEY DIGEST
KNOW WHAT HAPPENS TO GLUCOSE AFTER IT ENTERS TEH BODY?
KNOW THE 3 YPES OF FATTY ACIDS AND THEIR STRUCTURES, BE ABLE TO BIVE AN EXAMPLE OF EACH