Chapter 9: Exam 1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 9: Exam 1 Deck (82):
1

Trauma

A physical injury or wound produced by internal or external force

2

Why must an ATC know about the mechanics of an injury?

Knowing how the injury occurred helps narrow down what the injury might be

3

What causes mechanical injuries?

Result from force or mechanical energy that changes state of rest or uniform motion of matter

4

Load

An external force acting on the body causing internal reactions within the tissue

5

Stiffness

Ability of a tissue to resist a load (greater stiffness=greater magnitude a load can resist)

6

Stress

Internal resistance to a load

7

Strain

Change in shape tissue (ex. Length)

8

Elastic deformation

Occurs until the yield point and plastic deformation occurs until failure point (can bend/stretch without injury)

9

Yield point

Point where elastic deformation turns to plastic deformation

10

How does tissue failure occur?

Results from forces that exceed the structural capacity of a tissue

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Why does each tissue have a different failure point?

Different tissues have different structural properties and can withstand different amounts of force before tissue failure and injury occur

12

Compression

Force that results in tissue crush-2 forces applied towards one another

13

Tension

Force that pulls and stretches tissue

14

Shearing

Force that moves across the parallel organization of tissue

15

Bending

Two force pairs act at opposite ends of a structure (axial loading)

16

Torsion

Twisting in opposite directions from opposite ends (ex. High ankle sprain)

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Types of Tissue Loading (5)

-compression
-tension
-shearing
-bending
-torsion

18

Primary injury

Direct immediate consequence of excessive force

19

Secondary injury

Delayed sometime after the initial trauma or an accommodation to the primary injury

20

Acute injury (trauma)

Mechanical failure of tissue due to excessive force occurring in a single bout (ex. Muscle strain, ligament sprain)

21

Chronic injury (overuse)

Mechanical failure of soft tissue due to repeated micro trauma occurring over an extended period of time. Gradual onset and prolonged duration (ex. Cramps, tendinitis, stress fracture)

22

Muscle strain

Stretch, tear, or rip to the muscle or adjacent tissue

23

Muscle strain causes (3)

Often unclear...
Abnormal muscle contraction due to..
-failure in reciprocal coordination of agonist and antagonist
-electrolyte imbalance due to profuse sweating
-strength imbalance

24

Ranges of muscle strains

Mild separation of connective tissue to complete tendinous avulsion or muscle rupture

25

Muscle cramps

Involuntary muscle contractions due to electrolyte imbalance

26

Muscle guarding

Muscle contraction in response to pain **natural splinting

27

Clonic muscle spams

Involuntary, alternate between contraction and relaxation rapidly

28

Tonic muscle spasms

Constant contraction for long period of time

29

Tendon

Attaches muscle to bone and double the strength of the muscle it serves

30

Tendon injuries

-tendinitis
-tenosynovitis
-strain/ rupture

31

Mechanism of tendon strain/ rupture

High magnitude, single load, tensile forces

32

Mechanism of tendinitis/ tenosynovitis

Low magnitude, repetitive load, tensile forces

33

Mechanisms of compressive forces

Bony structures and external compression

34

Tendinitis

Gradual onset and diffuse tenderness, swelling and pain, without proper healing it can worsen and become tendinosis or tensynovitis
***rest

35

Contusions

Results from a sudden blow to the body

36

Results of contusions

Hematoma results from blood flow and lymph flow into surrounding tissue.

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Prevention of contusions

Padding

38

Myositis ossificans

Chronically inflamed and contused tissues may result in generation of calcium deposits

39

Prevention of tendon injuries

Gradual loading

40

Ligaments

Attach bone to bone and are strongest in the middle and weakest in the ends

41

Ligament injuries (ACL)

-High magnitude, single load, tensile force

42

Ligament injuries (shoulder instability)

Low magnitude, repetitive load, tensile forces (constant tensile forces lead to ligamentous deterioration)

43

Dislocations and subluxations

Caused by bony surfaces not articulating correctly and results in separation of bony articulating surfaces

44

Subluxation

Partial dislocation causing incomplete separation of two bones. Bones spontaneously come back together

45

Dislocation

Total disunion of bony alignment which must be manually or surgically reduces (gross deformity)

46

Bone anatomical characteristics

-dense connective tissue matrix
-outer compact tissue
-inner porous cancellous bone

47

Epiphysis

End of the bone---> spongy bone surrounded by compact bone

48

Diaphysis

Center of the bone--->dense

49

Bone fractures classification

-open
-closed

50

Closed fracture

Little movement or displacement

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Open fracture

Displacement of the fractured ends and breaking through the surrounding tissue

52

Signs and symptoms of bone fractures

-deformity
-pain
-point tenderness
-swelling
-pain on active and passive movements
-false joint
-possible crepitus

53

How to get a definite diagnosis for fracture

X-Ray

54

Seriousness of fracture

Serious if not managed properly

55

Greenstick fracture

Splinters

56

Comminuted

Compressive, crushed

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Linear

Parallel

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Transverse

Horizontal

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Oblique

Diagonal

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Spiral

Twisting; looks diagonal

61

Depressed fracture

Depressed below the normal surface (skull)

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Epiphyseal conditions (3)

-injury to growth plate
-articular epiphysis
-apophyseal injuries

63

Epiphyseal injury ages

10-16 years old b/c bone is not fully developed and still growing

64

Classification of Epiphyseal conditions

Salter-Harris (5 types)

65

Stress Fracture other names

"March" "fatigue"

66

Cause of stress fracture (7)

Exact cause unknown:
-overtraining
-amenorrhea/ hormonal imbalance
-inadequate nutrition
-returning to competition too soon
-"too much too fast"
-footwear or foot biomechanics

67

Stress fracture symptoms

-swelling
-point tenderness
-vibration percussion will cause pain at site

68

Stress fracture treatment

-treated early-bony changes might not show up for several weeks
-rest
-immobilization

69

Most common nerve injury

Neuropraxia; produced by direct trauma

70

Common ways nerves get lacerated and compressed

Fractures and dislocations

71

What can abnormal nerve responses be attributed to?

Injury or athletic participation

72

Nerve responses to stress

-anesthesia
-paresthesia
-hyperesthesia

73

Anesthesia

Loss of sensation

74

Paresthesia

Altered sensation

75

Hyperesthesia

Increase sensitivity

76

Primary mechanisms of nerve injuries

Compression and tension

77

Nerve injuries:acute or chronic

Either

78

Neuropraxia

Interruption in conduction through nerve fiber

79

Neuropraxia cause

Compression or blunt trauma

80

Neuropraxia symptoms

-impact motor more than sensory
-temporary loss of function (hours to months)

81

Are nerve injuries painful?

Sometimes

82

Burner/stingers

-Caused by traction (most common) or compression
-nerves are stretched
-if repeated, it can cause long term injury