Emergency Procedures:Exam 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Emergency Procedures:Exam 2 Deck (99):
1

Emergency

Unexpected occurrence that requires immediate attention

2

What can a mistake in initial injury management lead to?

-longer recovery time
-life threatening situations

3

How many emergency action plans should there be?

Separate for every site and sport

4

What 3 things should an emergency action plan include?

-define personnel available and their role
-list equipment available
-consider practice vs game

5

How and where should the plan be posted?

Clearly posted and sometimes above a phone

6

Components of EAP (5)

-phone (location and number)
-keys for access
-all support personnel must be familiar
-someone to accompany athlete in ambulance
-folder/ electronic version of athlete emergency contacts, history, insurance, ect

7

What should the taker of the phone call be told? (7)

-exact location and address
-telephone number
-caller's name
-what happened: mech of injury and events prior to injury
-number of people involved
-condition of victim
-care being given

8

When should consent be given?

Prior to the season

9

When should parents be notified?

ASAP

10

Implied consent

With no informed consent, consent implied on part of patient to save life

11

Where does the assessment begin?

On the playing field with the goal of determining the nature of the injury and the direction of care

12

Components of assessment

-primary survey
-secondary survey

13

components of primary survey

-LOC (level of consciousness)
-CAB

14

What should be done in the primary survey?

-assess level of consciousness
-determine potential life threatening injures/ conditions

15

Potential life threatening conditions (5)

-no circulation
-obstructed airway
-no breathing
-profuse bleeding
-shock

16

Secondary assessment

-no life threatening conditions
-specific info about injury
-head to toe assessment
-assess vital signs
-ID potential life threatening conditions

17

Vital signs

-temp
-pulse
-BP
-breathing
-Pulse ox

18

Overall goal of primary assessment

-circulation
-airway
-breathing

19

Goal of primary assessment:circulation

-pulse
-excessive bleeding

20

Goal of primary assessment: airway

What things might obstruct

21

Goal of primary assessment: breathing

-frequency
-quality
-adequate

22

4 life threatening conditions of which you should call 911

-unconscious
-trouble breathing
-no signs of life (normal breathing or movement)
-severe bleeding

23

What to do with an unconscious athlete? (4)

-note body position
-determine LOC and CAB
-stabilize spine
-activate EMS

24

What should you do with equipment of an unconscious athlete?

-leave helmets and pads
-remove face mask

25

What should you do if athlete is supine and breathing?

Monitor

26

Supine and not breathing

CAB

27

Prone and breathing

Monitor, log roll after

28

Prone and not breathing

Log roll; CAB

29

How many people are needed for log roll?

4 at least

30

Checking of a conscious victim

-obtain consent
-scene safety, LOC and CAB checked upon approach
-secondary survey begins

31

When to not transport victim (3)

-trip may aggravate injury or illness or cause additional injury
-when the victim may develop life threatening condition
-unsure of the nature of the injury

32

Equipment removal

-remove face mask
-cut away jersey, opening to chest protector to expose chest for CPR and AED
-remove both pads/helmet or neither

33

How to use an AED

-evaluate heart rhythm of victim experiencing cardiac arrest
-Can deliver electrical charge to heart if appropriate
-fully automated

34

How to asses LOC

-"are you ok", calling name, tapping shoulder
-painful stimulus

35

4 levels of consciousness

-alert
-responsive to verbal stimulus
-responsive to painful stimulus
-Unresponsive

36

How to assess circulation

-check for severe bleeding
-check pulse @ carotid artery for 5-10 secs
-AED and CPR if needed

37

Airway assessment

-is airway open and clear?

38

How to open airway

-head tilt/ chin lift
-modified jaw thrust
-airway adjuncts (maintain airway)

39

What to consider when opening airway

-c-spine
-personnel
-equipment

40

How to do CPR

-100 compressions a min for untrained
-30:2 ratio for those trained

41

How to check for breathing

-look for chest rise
-listen for breath sounds
-feel for air movement
-Rate and quality

42

When to administer rescue breathing

If breathing is absent or inadequate

43

Rescue breathing

-bag valve mask
-supplemental oxygen

44

Hemorrhage

Abnormal discharge of blood

45

Types of external bleeding

-venous
-arterial
-capillary

46

Venous

Dark red with continuous flow

47

Arterial

Bright red and flow in spurt

48

Capillary

Exudes from tissue and is reddish

49

How to control external bleeding

*****protective equipment
-direct pressure (clean gauze and firm pressure)
-elevation of body part
-pressure points/ tourniquet

50

When does shock occur?

When less blood is available to the circulatory system because the vascular system is unable to hold the volume of blood (vasodilation)

51

When is there a high probability of shock?

-fractures
-Internal injuries
-severe bleeding

52

Is shock rapid or slower?

-either

53

What is shock a problem of?

-blood volume
-hemodynamics

54

Hypovolemic shock

Trauma and blood loss

55

Respiratory shock

Lung injury /

56

Neurogenic shock

Dilation of blood vessels

57

Psychogenic shock

Syncope

58

Cardiogenic shock

Heart can't pump

59

Septic shock

Infection

60

Anaphylactic shock

Allergy

61

Metabolic shock

Severe illness

62

Skin symptom of shock

Pale cool and clammy

63

Pulse symptom of shock

Weak and rapid

64

Respiration symptom of shock

Quick and shallow

65

Blood pressure symptom of shock

Lower (systolic <90)

66

Conscious level symptom of shock

Drowsy and sluggish

67

Incontinence symptom of shock

Urinary and fecal

68

Other shock symptoms

Change in disposition and extreme thirst

69

How to manage shock

-maintain body temp
-elevate feet and legs
-psychological reaction
-no food or drink

70

When is secondary survey performed?

After primary survey and no life threatening conditions (stable)

71

Secondary survey

-musculoskeletal assessment
-decide to move or transport
-referral or secondary care

72

Musculoskeletal assessment adult v child

-adult: head to toe
-child: toe to head

73

Pulse

Radial or carotid in neck
-normal: 60-100 a min
-quality: rhythm and strength

74

Respiration

-at rest
-normal rate: 12-20/ min
-quality: difficulty/ sound

75

Blood pressure

-systolic
-diastolic
-normal: <120/<80 mmHg

76

Body temp

-oral rectal, auxiliary, ear, skin
-normal: 97.8-99 degree

77

Where to check skin color

Nail beds, lips, mouth, tongue

78

Where is a good place to look for skin color for dark skin people?

Inside mouth, lips, tongue, skin around nose and mouth

79

Red in color

Heat stroke, allergic, > BP

80

Ashen or pale

Shock, < BP, hemorrhage

81

Blue

Airway abstruction

82

Yellow

Liver disease

83

Pupils and vitals

-use a pin light
-PEARL: pupils equal and reactive to light

84

What do constricted pupils indicate

Use of depressant drug

85

What do dilated pupils indicate?

-head injury
-shock
-use of stimulant

86

What does pupils failure to accommodate indicate?

Brain injury, alcohol or drug poisoning

87

What is more important: response or size?

Response

88

What does the inability to move indicate?

Serious CNS deficits impacting motor control

89

Hemiplegia

Inability to move one side

90

What does hemiplegia indicate?

Brain trauma or stroke

91

Bilateral upper extremity sensory motor deficits indication

Cervical spine injury

92

What could pressure on the spine or injury below the neck result in?

Compromised function of lower limbs

93

Musculoskeletal assessment

-history
-observation
-palpating
-special tests

94

History in MA

Sounds, sensations, events leading up to injury, mechanism of injury

95

Observation MA

-inspection of injured and non-injured areas
-look for gross deformity, swelling, skin discoloration

96

Types of splints (5)

-rapid form vacuum splint
-air
-traction
-SAM
-spine and pelvis

97

What should be checked before and after splinting?

Circulation, sensation, motor function

98

Crutch instructions (up stairs)

-BW on crutches
-un injured leg up first
-pull crutches/ affected leg up

99

Crutches instructions down stairs

-BW on good leg
-injured leg and crutches down first
-good leg follows