Environmental Concerns: Exam 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Environmental Concerns: Exam 2 Deck (81):
1

What are the 4 areas of concern for environmental stress?

-Hyperthermia
-Hypothermia
-Altitude
-Lightening storms

2

Hyperthermia

-condition where body temp is elevated
-caused a number of deaths over the years

3

What must an ATC be able to do concerning heat?

-understand heat/ humidity factors to manage and plan accordingly with coaching staff
-be able to recognize clinical signs/ symptoms of heat illness

4

Is heat stress preventable?

Yes

5

How can heat stress be avoided?

Use extreme caution when training in heat

6

What can increase risk of heat stress?

Underlying medical condition such as sickle cell trait

7

What other than hot weather can cause heat stress?

Dehydration and equipment

8

What 5 factors affect body temp?

-metabolic heat production
-conductive heat exchange
-convective heat exchange
-evaporative heat loss
-radiant heat exchange

9

Metabolic heat production

"Running" temp of the body

10

Conductive heat exchange

Physical contact with objects

11

Convective heat exchange

Circulation of medium (air/ water)

12

Evaporative heat loss

Sweat must evaporate to dissipate heat

13

Radiant heat exchange

Sun v shade

14

Evaporative heat loss key (3)

-evaporation of water takes heat with it
-when radiant heat> body temp, evaporation is key
-air must be relatively water free for evaporation to occur (65% impairs, 75% stops)

15

When should hydration begin?

24 hours prior

16

How can you monitor hydration?

Urine color

17

Mild dehydration

2% of body weight lost in fluid. This can cause problems

18

Is small amounts or large amounts of fluid better?

Small amounts at regular intervals prior to activity rather than large amount immediately before

19

Dehydration and concussions

Dehydration symptoms can mimic concussion symptoms so athlete should be removed from heat and monitored if in doubt

20

How can you monitor fluid loss?

Weight tracking

21

How much fluid does the body require?

2.5 L when engaged in minimal activity

22

How much water does an adult lose per hour?

1.5 L

23

What will trigger a thirst response?

2% drop in body weight

24

What is essential to replace fluid and electrolytes?

Unlimited access to fluids

25

Why are sports drinks more effective than water?

-flavoring increases desire to consume
-replaces fluids and electrolytes
-small amounts of sodium help in water retention

26

What is the optimal CHO level?

14g per 8 ounces of water

27

What is the most effective method of avoiding heat stress?

Acclimatization

28

Acclimatization

Graded intensity changes are recommended with progressive exposure over a 7-10 day period

29

How long does it take to get 80% acclimated?

5-6 days

30

What is regulated during the acclimation period?

Equipment and apparel and length and amount of practices

31

Susceptible individuals

-large muscle mass
-overweight (increased metabolic weight
-Poor fitness
-history of heat illness
-young and elderly
-febrile condition
-medication

32

How do women regulate heat compared to men?

More efficient with body temp regulation

33

How does weight affect risk of heat injury?

Death from heat stroke increase 4:1 as body weight increases

34

What must be monitored for heat index?

Heat, sunshine, and humidity

35

What is a measure for heat index?

Wet bulb globe temperature index

36

WBGT

3 thermometer readings:
-dry bulb
-wet bulb
-black bulb

37

Dry bulb

Standard Mercury temp

38

Wet bulb

Thermometer with wet gauze that is swung around in the air

39

Black bulb

Black casting that measures radiant heat

40

Heat syncope

-Associated with rapid fatigue and overexposure
-peripheral vasodilation---> pooling of blood in extremities---> dizziness and fainting
-treat by placing athlete in cool environment, consuming fluid and laying down

41

Heat cramps

-painful muscle spasms due to excessive water loss and electrolyte imbalance

42

What type of individual get heat cramps?

In good shape that overexerts themselves

43

How do you treat heat syncope?

Placing athlete in cool environment, consuming fluids, and laying down

44

Exertional heat exhaustion

-inadequate fluid replacement
-unable to sustain adequate cardiac output

45

Symptoms of exertions like heat exhaustion

-profuse sweating
-pale skin
-mildly elevation temp
-dizziness
-nauseous
-Vomiting
-diarrhea
-hyperventilation
-persistent muscle cramps
-loss of coordination

46

Core temp of heat exhaustion

Less than 104

47

How to mange heat exhaustion

-immediate fluid ingestion
-cool environment
-remove clothing
-monitor vial signs

48

When can athlete return to play after heat exhaustion?

Must be fully hydrated and cleared by physician

49

What can heat exhaustion progress to?

Exertional heat stroke

50

Exertional heat stroke

-life threatening
-Unknown specific cause
-breakdown of thermoregulatory mechanism

51

Characteristics of heatstroke

-sudden onset
-sudden collapse
-LOC
-CNS disfunction
-flushed hot skin
-minimal sweating
-shallow breathing
-strong rapid pulse
-core temp > 104

52

Heat stroke management

-strip clothing
-cold water immersion
-transport to hospital immediately
(Cool first, transport second)

53

When can athlete return to practice after heat stroke?

Avoid exercise for minimum of one week and gradually return

54

Acute Exertional Rhabdomyolysis

-sudden catabolic destruction and degeneration of skeletal muscles
-associated w/ individuals that have sickle cell trait

55

When does Rhabdomyolysis occur and what are the symptoms?

Intense exercise in heat and humidity
-gradual muscle weakness
-swelling
-pain
-dark urine
-renal dysfunction
-severe--> sudden collapse, renal failure and death

56

Exertional Hyponatremia

-fluid and electrolyte disorder
-abnormally low concentration of sodium in blood

57

What causes Hyponatremia?

-ingesting too much fluid before, during, and after exercise
-Too little sodium in diet or too much ingested fluid over a period of prolonged exercise

58

Who is at risk for hypotremia?

Athletes that ingest large quantities of water and sweat over several hours (marathon)

59

Signs of Hyponatremia

-progressively worsening headache, nausea, vomiting
-swelling of hands, feet
-Lethargy, apathy, agitation
-low blood sodium
-could compromise CNS and create a life-threatening condition

60

how to treat Hyponatremia

Transport to medical facility and deliver sodium, diuretics, or IV

61

Hypothermia

Abnormally low body temp

62

What increases risk for hypothermia?

-Temp
-wind chill
-dampness or wetness

63

What happens when temp drops below 85-90 degrees?

Shivering stops

64

What temp is death imminent?

77-85

65

How to prevent hypothermia

Appropriate apparel and monitoring condition

66

Heat loss> heat production

Impairment of neuromuscular function

67

What can localized cooling create?

Tissue damage---> formation of ice crystals between cells, destroys cells, disrupts blood flow, clotting may occur

68

Frost nip (3)

-ears, nose, chin, fingers, toes
-occurs with high wind and/ or severe cold
-skin appears firm with cold painless areas that may peal and blister (24-72 hrs)

69

Frost bite

Due to poor peripheral circulation

70

Superficial frostbite

Involves only skin and subcutaneous tissue (appears pale, hard, cold, and waxy)

71

Deep frost bite

Indicates frozen tissues requiring hospitalization

72

How else can frost bite occur?

Improper use of cold packs

73

How does altitude affect performance?

-max oxygen uptake decreases---> decrease in performance

74

How does the body compensate with altitude?

Tachycardia and hyperventilation

75

Acute mountain sickness

-1/3 people will experience when jumping from 7000-8000
-headache, nausea, vomiting, sleep disturbance, dyspnea

76

Sickle cell trait relation to altitude

-when hemoglobin is deoxygenated, cells clump together causing blood cell to develop sickle shape making it easy to destroy
-causes enlarged spleen to rupture at high altitude

77

Sickle cell trait

-8-10% African Americans have this
-most cases trait is benign
-abnormal red blood cell and hemoglobin structure

78

What is the #2 cause of death by weather?

Lightening

79

What must be set to avoid lightening injury?

Emergency plan involving chain of command, monitoring of weather service, decision making regarding removal and return to field (spectators and athletes)

80

Flash to bang count

-estimates distance away from storm
-Count from lightening to thunder (divide by 5 to calculate miles away)
-30 secs indicates inherent danger
-15 secs indicates everyone should leave the field

81

how long should you stay off the field during lightening delay?

30 minutes following last thunder or lightening