Elbow, Wrist, Hand Flashcards Preview

Kinesiology > Elbow, Wrist, Hand > Flashcards

Flashcards in Elbow, Wrist, Hand Deck (53):
1

3 bones of the elbow

-humerus
-radius
-ulna

2

What side is the ulna on?

Pinky side

3

What side is the radius on?

Thumb side

4

Bony landmarks of the elbow

-medial and lateral epicondyles (humerus)
-olecranon process (ulna)
-head of the radius

5

Elbow ligaments

-ulnar collateral ligament (similar to MCL)
-radial collateral ligament (similar to LCL)
-annular ligament

6

UCL

Connects medial side of humerus to ulna

7

RCL

Connects lateral side of humerus to radius

8

Annular ligament

Wraps around the head of the radius and holds it in place during forearm pronation

9

Biceps and triceps function

Primary elbow flexor and extensors

10

Where do wrist and finger flexor originate?

Medial epicondyle of humerus

11

Where do wrist and finger extensors originate?

Lateral epicondyle of humerus

12

Where is the ulnar nerve?

Medially thru ulnar groove

13

Other elbow structures

Olecranon bursa

14

Where do elbow flexion and extension occur?

Hinge joint between humerus and ulna

15

Forearm pronation and supination function

Rotational component of radius and humerus

16

What meets to form the wrist joint

Distal radius and ulna meet the proximal carpal bones

17

How many carpal bones are there?

8

18

What are the carpal bones?

-scaphoid (navicular)
-lunate
-triquetral
-pisiform
-trapezium
-trapezoid
-capitate
-hamate

19

How many metacarpals?

5

20

How many phalanges?

14

21

Carpal tunnel

A small space on the anterior surface of the wrist that has tendons, nerves, and blood supplies running through it

22

What can cause carpal tunnel symptoms in hands?

If tendons or sheaths get inflamed, pressure on medial nerve or blood vessel

23

6 wrist motions

-flexion
-extension
-radial deviation (thumb lower)
-ulnar deviation (thumb higher)
-pronation
-supination

24

Finger anatomy

-flexor and extensor tendons running to each digit (extensor on top)
-collateral ligaments around each IP joint

25

Injuries to wrist elbow and finger

-fractures
-dislocation
-sprain
-strains
-Tendinitis
-bursitis

26

What causes strain?

Excessive force on muscle or tendon

27

Lateral epicondylitis

-tennis elbow
-inflammation of wrist/ hand extensors at lateral epicondyle

28

Medial epicondylitis

-"pitchers elbow" or "little league elbow"
-inflammation of wrist/ finger flexor muscles at medial epicondyle

29

Symptoms of strains, tennis elbow, and pitchers elbow

-Point tenderness
-pain with muscle activation and with muscle stretch

30

What causes a UCL sprain?

Overstretch of ligament fibers by traumatic valgus force

31

Where are UCL injuries common?

Pitching

32

What is the recovery for UCL sprain?

Tommy john surgery

33

Olecranon bursitis

Usually caused by direct blow to area and the bursa becomes irritates and swells

34

What is the most commonly injured carpal?

Scaphoid

35

What causes a carpal fracture?

FOOSH

36

Why are carpal fractures susceptible to avascular necrosis?

Poor blood supply

37

Where is pain in carpal fracture?

Anatomical snuffbox

38

What causes strain or tendinitis?

Chronic/ overuse or traumatic force

39

What causes ligament sprains?

FOOSH

40

Symptoms of ligament sprains?

-pain
-swelling
-loss of strength
-loss of ROM
-instability

41

Carpal tunnel syndrome

Inflammation of one or more of the structures in the carpal tunnel, usually leading to neurological irritation and symptoms due to compression of the median nerve

42

Symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome

-numbness and tingling in the hand
-loss of strength in hand musculature

43

How to treat carpal tunnel syndrome

Treat conservatively with RICE, NSAIDs, splinting
-injection and surgery if necessary

44

Mallet finger

-extensor tendon avulsion causing inability to extend tip of finger

45

Jersey finger

Avulsion of flexor tendon causing inability to flex distal tip of finger

46

Boutinneire deformity

Disruption of extensor tendons causing PIP flexion and DIP in extension

47

Finger sprains or dislocations

Damage to the collateral ligaments of IP joints
"Jammed finger"

48

Symptoms of finger sprains

-pain
-swelling
-possibly deformity
-possible pain with ROM and strength testing

49

Treatment of finger injuries

-Surgery is not usually necessary unless fracture will not heal well conservatively
-reduce dislocations and splint fractures

50

What is important in treating finger injuries?

Identify early

51

How should finger be splinted?

Position to promote healing of involved structure

52

Why is it important to catch finger injuries early?

After acute phase, some injuries will not heal correctly if not identified and splinted correctly

53

other treatment of finger injuries

-buddy taping
-splinting
-RICE
-NSAIDs