Flashcards in The Spine Deck (57):
How many vertebrae in the spine?
What are the 4 sections of the spine?
-saccrum (5) and coccyx (4) -fused
Movements of the spine (3)
-right and left lateral flexion
-right and left lateral rotation
Where is there minimal movement in the spine?
2 components of the intervertebral discs
Thick and durable outer ring
Gel like inner bubble
What happens if damage occurs to the annulus fibrosus?
The nucleus pulposus can herniate out through the tear
Prevention of injuries to the cervical spine
-using correct techniques
Why is it important to strengthen muscles in the cervical spine?
Muscles in the neck resist hyper flexion and hyperextension and rotational forces
Why is it important to have ROM in the cervical spine?
Must have full ROM to prevent injury
How can ROM in cervical spine be improved?
Using correct techniques (cervical spine)
-athletes should be taught correct technique to reduce the likelihood of cervical spine injuries
Prevention of injury in the lumbar spine
-correction of bio mechanical abnormalities
How to avoid stress of the lumbar spine
-avoid unnecessary stresses and strains of daily living
-avoid postures and positions that can cause injury
-use correct lifting techniques
Correction of biomechanics abnormalities
-ATC should establish corrective programs based on patients anomalies
-maintain trunk flexibility
-core stabilization and abdominal bracing
Cervical muscles strain history
-sudden or forced movement
-pain is localized
Observation of cervical muscle strain
Palpation of cervical muscle strain
Treatment of cervical muscle strain
Cervical fractures vertebrae
Who is most at risks for cervical fractures
What is a common cause of cervical fracture?
Symptoms of cervical fracture
-numbness and tingling
-weak or paralyzed limbs
Treatment of cervical fracture
Cervical dislocation MOI
Flexion and rotation
Symptoms of cervical dislocation
Similar to fracture
What should you be aware of with cervical dislocation?
Risk of spinal cord injury
Treatment of cervical dislocation
Similar to fracture
What is another name for a cervical sprain?
What is the difference in MOI between sprain and strain?
Sprain is usually same MOI but more violent
What does a cervical sprain involve?
-snapping of the head and neck, compromising the anterior or posterior longitudinal ligament, the inerspinous ligament, and the supraspinous ligament
Symptoms of whiplash
-similar symptoms of a strain but the last longer
-tenderness over the transverse and spinous processes
When dies pain usually begin with whiplash?
-the day after the trauma as a result of muscle spasm
Management of whiplash
-rule out fracture, dislocation, disk injury, or cord injury
-RICE for 48-72 hours, possibly bed rest
What is the most common cervical injury?
Brachial plexus injuries (burners and stinger)
MOI of burners and stingers
Sudden stretch of neck
Symptoms of burners and stingers
Burning, numbness, tingling, pain, weakness in arms
Treatment of burners and stingers
Usually resolves quickly
How to prevent burners and stingers
-stretch and strengthen
-pads and collars to limit
Facet joint disfunction
Insidious, pain over facet and muscles
What causes facet joint dysfunction
Extension, rotation, lateral bending to involved side
Observation of facet joint dysfunction
May alter posture to decrease pain
Palpation of facet joint dysfunction
Special test for facet joint dysfunction
Pain and ROM
What cause a lumbar strain?
Forward bending and twisting or chronic or repetitive
Symptoms of lumbar strain
-localized pain lateral to spinous process
-pain becomes sharper w/ certain movements or postures
-passive anteroposterior or rotational movements will increase pain
Management of lumbar strain
-strengthening abdominal muscles
-trunk stabilization exercises
-braces should be worn early to provide support
Sacroiliac dysfunction pain
Pain over one or both SI joints and may radiate
MOI of sacroiliac dysfunction
None, soft tissue stresses (?)
Observation of sacroiliac dysfunction
Palpation of sacroiliac dysfunction
Pain over pelvis
Special tests for sacroiliac dysfunction
ROM increased pain