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Kinesiology > The Spine > Flashcards

Flashcards in The Spine Deck (57):
1

How many vertebrae in the spine?

33

2

What are the 4 sections of the spine?

-cervical (7)
-thoracic (12)
-lumbar (5)
-saccrum (5) and coccyx (4) -fused

3

Cervical curve

Lordosis

4

Thoracic curve

Kyphosis

5

Lumbar curve

Lordosis

6

Movements of the spine (3)

-flexion/ extension
-right and left lateral flexion
-right and left lateral rotation

7

Where is there minimal movement in the spine?

Thoracic region

8

2 components of the intervertebral discs

-annulus fibrosus
-nucleus pulposus

9

Annulus fibrosus

Thick and durable outer ring

10

Nucleus pulposus

Gel like inner bubble

11

What happens if damage occurs to the annulus fibrosus?

The nucleus pulposus can herniate out through the tear

12

Prevention of injuries to the cervical spine

-muscle strengthening
-ROM
-using correct techniques

13

Why is it important to strengthen muscles in the cervical spine?

Muscles in the neck resist hyper flexion and hyperextension and rotational forces

14

Why is it important to have ROM in the cervical spine?

Must have full ROM to prevent injury

15

How can ROM in cervical spine be improved?

Stretching

16

Using correct techniques (cervical spine)

-athletes should be taught correct technique to reduce the likelihood of cervical spine injuries
-axial loading

17

Prevention of injury in the lumbar spine

-avoid stress
-correction of bio mechanical abnormalities

18

How to avoid stress of the lumbar spine

-avoid unnecessary stresses and strains of daily living
-avoid postures and positions that can cause injury
-use correct lifting techniques

19

Correction of biomechanics abnormalities

-ATC should establish corrective programs based on patients anomalies
-maintain trunk flexibility
-core stabilization and abdominal bracing

20

Cervical muscles strain history

-sudden or forced movement
-pain is localized

21

Observation of cervical muscle strain

-decreased ROM

22

Palpation of cervical muscle strain

-muscle guarding
-point tender

23

Treatment of cervical muscle strain

-RICE
-cervical collar
-treat pain
-ROM exercises
-muscle strengthening

24

Cervical fractures vertebrae

4-6th

25

Who is most at risks for cervical fractures

Sports

26

What is a common cause of cervical fracture?

Axial loading

27

Symptoms of cervical fracture

-point tender
-decreased movement
-pain
-numbness and tingling
-weak or paralyzed limbs

28

Treatment of cervical fracture

-spine boards
-x-ray
-possible CPR

29

Cervical dislocation MOI

Flexion and rotation

30

Symptoms of cervical dislocation

Similar to fracture

31

What should you be aware of with cervical dislocation?

Risk of spinal cord injury

32

Treatment of cervical dislocation

Similar to fracture

33

What is another name for a cervical sprain?

Whiplash

34

What is the difference in MOI between sprain and strain?

Sprain is usually same MOI but more violent

35

What does a cervical sprain involve?

-snapping of the head and neck, compromising the anterior or posterior longitudinal ligament, the inerspinous ligament, and the supraspinous ligament

36

Symptoms of whiplash

-similar symptoms of a strain but the last longer
-tenderness over the transverse and spinous processes

37

When dies pain usually begin with whiplash?

-the day after the trauma as a result of muscle spasm

38

Management of whiplash

-rule out fracture, dislocation, disk injury, or cord injury
-RICE for 48-72 hours, possibly bed rest
-NSAIDs
-mechanical traction

39

What is the most common cervical injury?

Brachial plexus injuries (burners and stinger)

40

MOI of burners and stingers

Sudden stretch of neck

41

Symptoms of burners and stingers

Burning, numbness, tingling, pain, weakness in arms

42

Treatment of burners and stingers

Usually resolves quickly

43

How to prevent burners and stingers

-stretch and strengthen
-pads and collars to limit

44

Facet joint disfunction

Insidious, pain over facet and muscles

45

What causes facet joint dysfunction

Extension, rotation, lateral bending to involved side

46

Observation of facet joint dysfunction

May alter posture to decrease pain

47

Palpation of facet joint dysfunction

Muscle spasms

48

Special test for facet joint dysfunction

Pain and ROM

49

What cause a lumbar strain?

Forward bending and twisting or chronic or repetitive

50

Symptoms of lumbar strain

-localized pain lateral to spinous process
-pain becomes sharper w/ certain movements or postures
-passive anteroposterior or rotational movements will increase pain

51

Management of lumbar strain

-RICE
-joint mobs
-strengthening abdominal muscles
-stretching
-trunk stabilization exercises
-braces should be worn early to provide support

52

Sacroiliac dysfunction pain

Pain over one or both SI joints and may radiate

53

MOI of sacroiliac dysfunction

None, soft tissue stresses (?)

54

Observation of sacroiliac dysfunction

Pelvic symmetry

55

Palpation of sacroiliac dysfunction

Pain over pelvis

56

Special tests for sacroiliac dysfunction

ROM increased pain

57

Acute or insidious (sacroiliac dysfunction)

Either