Flashcards in Exercise And Rehab: Exam 2 Deck (66):
Decreased muscle mass
How long can it take for adverse muscular changes?
How does lengthened or neutral position immobilization affect atrophy?
It tends to atrophy less
What can slow down atrophy?
Isometric exercises and electrical stimulation
What happens to nerves with immobilization?
They become less efficient in recruiting and stimulating muscle fibers. They forget how to work but they can be retrained
What can help slow the loss of articular cartilage?
-continuous passive motion
-electrical muscle stimulation
What happens to cartilage in joint immobilization?
It is deprived of normal nutrition
What does loss of normal compression lead to?
How do ligaments and bones adapt to normal stress?
Maintaining or increasing their strength
What happens to ligaments and bones without stress?
They become weaker
What type of activities must ligaments and bones undergo to regain lost strength?
"Controlled stress" following immobilization period
What happens during Cardiorespiratory system immobilization?
-resting heart rate increases (working harder) and stroke vol and max O2 decrease
What parts of rehab is the ATC responsible for?
Who is the primary decision maker on the sports medicine team?
ATC but input and guidance comes from other members
What is the easy part of rehab?
Designing the program
What is the hard part of rehab?
Knowing when and how to progress
What must an ATC understand for a successful rehab approach?
-understanding of healing phases
What may cause the goals of rehab to vary?
Based on setting and type of patient
What is the goal of evaluation?
Identify deficits or problems that will become the "goals" of the rehab program
Are the components of rehab considered tools or a recipe?
How soon does swelling need to be controlled?
Immediately after the injury
How does minimizing swelling help the healing process?
It speeds it up
How do you minimize swelling?
RICE (rest, ice, compression, elevation)
What 3 factors will pain depend on?
-severity of injury
-perception of pain and circumstances
What can be used to modify pain?
RICE and analgesics (pain meds)
Can pain interfere with rehab?
The mind's attempt to teach the body conscious control of movement
What happens to neuromuscular control during an injury?
CNS forgets how to put together information
What is the goal of neuromuscular control?
Ability to follow a previously established sensory pattern
Components of neuromuscular control (4)
-preparatory and reactive characteristics
-conscious and unconscious functional motor patterns
Importance of core stability (3)
-improves dynamic postural control
-ensures appropriate muscular balance for expression of functional strength
-improves neuromuscular efficiency
What can a weak core lead to?
What 3 components should a stability program have?
What causes decreased ROM?
Contracture of connective tissue or resistance to stretch musculotendinous unit
What are the 2 components of restoring ROM?
Passive and active
What must be accomplished before restoring muscular strength, power, and endurance?
Full pain free range of motion
What is good for early part of rehab following immobilization?
When is isometrics used?
When resistance through full range could make injury worse
What does isometrics help?
Static strength, decrease/limit atrophy, create a muscle pump to decrease swelling
What type of contractions does progressive resistance exercise use?
Isotoinic--->generates force while muscle changes length
What other 2 muscle contractions are used in progressive resistance exercise?
Concentric and eccentric
What contraction does PRE traditionally focus on?
What involves deceleration of limbs?
When is isokinetic exercise used?
Later stage of rehab
What are isokinetic exercises?
Uses fixed speed with accommodating resistance
What does isokinetic sallow calculation of?
What does isokinetic exercise reduce at higher speeds?
joint compressive forces
What are isokinetic exercises used to develop?
Neuromuscular patterns for functional speed and movements
Maintenance of center of gravity within the base of support
Why is it important to maintain Cardiorespiratory endurance?
Forced to miss training time so decreased Cardiorespiratory endurance
Examples of alternative exercises for Cardiorespiratory endurance
Involves a series of gradually progressive activities designed to prepare the individual for return to a specific sport
4 steps of progression
-simple to complex skills
-slow to fast speeds
-short to long distances
-light to heavy activities
When should functional progression activities be done?
During team practice
What is the optimal functional progression design?
Allow opportunity for practice of every skill required for sport
How should pain and swelling be considered during functional progression?
-if it does not arise continue
-if it does, you might have overdone it
Uses functional progression drills to assess the athletes ability to perform a specific activity
What can functional testing determine?
-risk of injury due to limb asymmetry
-provide objective measures of progress
-determine level of activity tolerance
-hop for distance
Open kinetic chain
Foot/ hand off the ground
Close kinetic chain
Foot/ hand on the ground
What does aquatic therapy provide?
Buoyancy and water resistance
Joint mobilization and traction
Must be done manually (manipulation) and requires training