Exercise And Rehab: Exam 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Exercise And Rehab: Exam 2 Deck (66):
1

Decreased muscle mass

Atrophy

2

How long can it take for adverse muscular changes?

24 hours

3

How does lengthened or neutral position immobilization affect atrophy?

It tends to atrophy less

4

What can slow down atrophy?

Isometric exercises and electrical stimulation

5

What happens to nerves with immobilization?

They become less efficient in recruiting and stimulating muscle fibers. They forget how to work but they can be retrained

6

What can help slow the loss of articular cartilage?

-continuous passive motion
-electrical muscle stimulation
-hinged casts

7

What happens to cartilage in joint immobilization?

It is deprived of normal nutrition

8

What does loss of normal compression lead to?

Decreased lubrication--->degeneration

9

How do ligaments and bones adapt to normal stress?

Maintaining or increasing their strength

10

What happens to ligaments and bones without stress?

They become weaker

11

What type of activities must ligaments and bones undergo to regain lost strength?

"Controlled stress" following immobilization period

12

What happens during Cardiorespiratory system immobilization?

-resting heart rate increases (working harder) and stroke vol and max O2 decrease

13

What parts of rehab is the ATC responsible for?

-design
-implementation
-supervision

14

Who is the primary decision maker on the sports medicine team?

ATC but input and guidance comes from other members

15

What is the easy part of rehab?

Designing the program

16

What is the hard part of rehab?

Knowing when and how to progress

17

What must an ATC understand for a successful rehab approach?

-understanding of healing phases

18

What may cause the goals of rehab to vary?

Based on setting and type of patient

19

What is the goal of evaluation?

Identify deficits or problems that will become the "goals" of the rehab program

20

Are the components of rehab considered tools or a recipe?

Tools

21

How soon does swelling need to be controlled?

Immediately after the injury

22

How does minimizing swelling help the healing process?

It speeds it up

23

How do you minimize swelling?

RICE (rest, ice, compression, elevation)

24

What 3 factors will pain depend on?

-severity of injury
-athletes response
-perception of pain and circumstances

25

What can be used to modify pain?

RICE and analgesics (pain meds)

26

Can pain interfere with rehab?

Yes

27

Neuromuscluar control

The mind's attempt to teach the body conscious control of movement

28

What happens to neuromuscular control during an injury?

CNS forgets how to put together information

29

What is the goal of neuromuscular control?

Ability to follow a previously established sensory pattern

30

Components of neuromuscular control (4)

-proprioception
-dynamic stability
-preparatory and reactive characteristics
-conscious and unconscious functional motor patterns

31

Proprioception

Position

32

Kinesthesia

Movement

33

Importance of core stability (3)

-improves dynamic postural control
-ensures appropriate muscular balance for expression of functional strength
-improves neuromuscular efficiency

34

What can a weak core lead to?

Inefficient movements--->injury

35

What 3 components should a stability program have?

-systematic
-progressive
-functional

36

What causes decreased ROM?

Contracture of connective tissue or resistance to stretch musculotendinous unit

37

What are the 2 components of restoring ROM?

Passive and active

38

What must be accomplished before restoring muscular strength, power, and endurance?

Full pain free range of motion

39

What is good for early part of rehab following immobilization?

Isometrics

40

When is isometrics used?

When resistance through full range could make injury worse

41

What does isometrics help?

Static strength, decrease/limit atrophy, create a muscle pump to decrease swelling

42

What type of contractions does progressive resistance exercise use?

Isotoinic--->generates force while muscle changes length

43

What other 2 muscle contractions are used in progressive resistance exercise?

Concentric and eccentric

44

What contraction does PRE traditionally focus on?

Concentric

45

What involves deceleration of limbs?

Eccentrics

46

When is isokinetic exercise used?

Later stage of rehab

47

What are isokinetic exercises?

Uses fixed speed with accommodating resistance

48

What does isokinetic sallow calculation of?

-torque
-force
-average power
-work ratios

49

What does isokinetic exercise reduce at higher speeds?

joint compressive forces

50

What are isokinetic exercises used to develop?

Neuromuscular patterns for functional speed and movements

51

Balance

Maintenance of center of gravity within the base of support

52

Why is it important to maintain Cardiorespiratory endurance?

Forced to miss training time so decreased Cardiorespiratory endurance

53

Examples of alternative exercises for Cardiorespiratory endurance

Underwater treadmill

54

Functional progressions

Involves a series of gradually progressive activities designed to prepare the individual for return to a specific sport

55

4 steps of progression

-simple to complex skills
-slow to fast speeds
-short to long distances
-light to heavy activities

56

When should functional progression activities be done?

During team practice

57

What is the optimal functional progression design?

Allow opportunity for practice of every skill required for sport

58

How should pain and swelling be considered during functional progression?

-if it does not arise continue
-if it does, you might have overdone it

59

Functional testing

Uses functional progression drills to assess the athletes ability to perform a specific activity

60

What can functional testing determine?

-risk of injury due to limb asymmetry
-provide objective measures of progress
-determine level of activity tolerance

61

Functional tests

-shuttle run
-agility run
-figure 8
-vertical jump
-balance
-hop for distance

62

Open kinetic chain

Foot/ hand off the ground

63

Close kinetic chain

Foot/ hand on the ground

64

What does aquatic therapy provide?

Buoyancy and water resistance

65

Joint mobilization and traction

Must be done manually (manipulation) and requires training

66

Examples of manual therapy

Massage, Graston