Conditioning: Exam 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Conditioning: Exam 2 Deck (70):
1

Fitness

Ability to compete a high level

2

Therapeutic exercise

Exercises used in a rehab program

3

Importance of fitness

Allows you to compete at a high level and it prevents injury

4

What 2 things are therapeutic exercises part of?

-reconditioning/ rehab process
-maintaining fitness level of athlete while recovering

5

Relationship of S&C coach and ATC

Essential to have a good working relationship and the ATC should be aware of demands and expectations of athletes from s&c

6

When should the ATC be ready to intervene in strength and conditioning?

-widespread occurrence of injuries
-poor technique
-modifications for injuries or removing athletes
-hand off from rehab to full activity

7

Principles of Conditioning and Training (10)

-safety
-warm up/ cool down
-motivation
-overload and SAID principle
-consistency/ routine
-progression
-intensity
-specificity
-individuality
-minimize stress

8

Warm up is a precaution against....

Precaution against unnecessary musculoskeletal injury/ soreness and prepares body physiologically for physical work

**may enhance certain aspects of performance

9

What should be considered about warm ups?

Weather conditions and weather delays

10

Is the cool down essential?

Yes

11

Cool down

Brings the body back to resting state

12

How long should cool down last?

5-10 minutes

13

What can result from a cool down/ stretching?

Decreased muscle soreness

14

Cardiorespiratory endurance

Ability to perform whole body, large muscle activities for extended periods of time

15

What does Cardiorespiratory endurance improve?

-o2 transport
-heart muscle strength and efficiency (resting heart rate, higher stroke vol, cardiac output)

16

How to train Cardiorespiratory endurance

Interval training and continuous training

17

Interval training

Alternating periods of work/ active recovery

18

FITT principles

Frequency, intensity, type, time

19

Frequency (FITT)

At least 3x/wk

20

Intensity (FITT)

70% max HR

21

Type (FITT)

Aerobic vs anaerobic

22

Time (FITT)

At least 20 minutes elevated HR

23

Strength

Ability to generate force against resistance

24

Power

The relationship between strength an time

25

Muscular endurance

Repetitive muscular contractions against some resistance

26

Hypertrophy

Enlargement of a muscle caused by an increase in the size of its cells in response to training

27

Atrophy

Decrease of a muscle caused by a decrease in the size of its cells due to inactivity

28

Fast twitch

Fatigues rapidly
Anaerobic in nature
High force in short amount of time
powerful movements

29

Slow twitch

Fatigue resistant
Time produce force is longer
Long duration, aerobic type activities
Generally major constituent of postural muscles

30

Isometric muscle contractions

Muscle contracts to increase tension but no change in muscle length

31

What is a good first strengthening exercise for post injury or surgery?

Isometric

32

What type of strength gains will you receive with isometric contractions?

Small range of motion

33

Example of isometric contractions

Bicep contraction against table

34

Concentric contractions

Muscle shortens while contracting against resistance

35

What is the most common form of strengthening?

Concentric

36

Example of concentric contraction

Biceps curl with dumbbell from elbow extension to elbow flexion

37

Eccentric contraction

Muscle lengthens while contracting against resistance

38

What type of contraction has great potential strength gains but also can cause greater muscle damage?

Eccentric

39

What type of muscle contraction is important in deceleration injures?

Eccentric

40

Example of eccentric

Negative of lower a dumbbell

41

Isokinetic contraction

Exercise at a fixed velocity of movement

42

Goal of isokinetic contractions

Provide max resistance throughout the range of motion

43

Techniques of resistance training (4)

-progressive resistance exercise
-overload principle must be applied
-must work muscle at increasingly higher intensities to enhance strength overtime
-if intensity does not increase but training continues then muscle strength will be sustained

44

Functional training

Integrated exercises designed to improve functional movement patterns and training in multiple planes of motion

45

What is the next step in rehab once strength and ROM goals are met?

Functional training

46

What should an ATC understand concerning functional training?

Demands and movements of sport and be able to replicate the patterns in rehab exercises

47

The core

The lumbar-pelvic-hip-abdominal complex

48

What is the foundation for efficient muscular output and stability?

core strength

49

What are the risks of a weak core?

Inefficient muscle movements which can lead to injury

50

What should be incorporated into every rehab program?

Core stabilization

51

Plyometric exercise

Rapid stretch, eccentric contraction followed by a rapid concentric contraction to create a forceful explosive movement

52

What type of exercise is important in developing eccentric control and power?

Plyometric

53

What are plyometrics stressful on?

Musculoskeletal system

54

What is critical for females in preventing osteoporosis?

Strength training

55

What is related to hypertrophy?

Testosterone

56

What happens due to enhanced nervous system and muscle interaction in females?

Remarkable gains in which following these gains, a plateau occurs (efficiency)

57

Strength training in adolescents

-if properly supervised, young individuals can improve strength, power, endurance, balance, and proprioception
-develop a positive body image
-results in improved sports performance while preventing injuries

58

Caution when training adolescents

-close supervision and instruction
-beware of overloading before body is mature enough to handle

59

How should you go about strength gains in adolescents?

Without significant hypertrophy
Calisthenics and body weight resistance

60

Active range of motion

-dynamic flexibility
-ability to move joint with little resistance
-may be limited by strength or pain
-doing it by yourself

61

Passive range of motion

-static flexibility
-motion of joint to end points w/o muscle contraction
-may be limited by obstruction or flexibility
-someone else moving for you

62

Agonist

Muscle producing movements

63

Agonist example

Quads contract---> knee extension

64

Antagonist

Muscle undergoing stretch during movement

65

Antagonist example

Hamstring will stretch during knee extension

66

How do agonist and antagonist work together?

Produce smooth coordinated movements

67

Ballistic stretching

Bouncing movement in which repetitive contractions of agonist work to stretch antagonist muscle

**possible soreness and risk of over stretching

68

Dynamic stretching

Considered functional and often suggested for athletes prior to activity

69

Static stretching

Passively stretching
Controlled with less chance of injury (typical stretching)

70

Factors that limit flexibility (5)

-bony structure
-excessive fat/ muscle
-muscle and tendon lengths
-connective tissue
-scarring and contractures