The Hip And Thigh: Exam 3 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in The Hip And Thigh: Exam 3 Deck (56):
1

What is the rectus femoris?

Quad

2

Where is the rectus femoris?

Crosses the hip and knee

3

What does the rectus femoris do?

Extend the knee and flexes the hip

4

Where are the hamstrings?

Crosses the knee and hip joints

5

What does the hamstring do?

Extends hip and flexes the knee

6

What causes a quad contusion?

Exposed to traumatic blunt blow

7

Symptoms of quad contusion

-pain
-temporary loss of function
-immediate swelling
-palpable swollen area

8

Grade 1-4 contusion

Superficial to deep with increasing loss of function

9

Management of quad contusion

-RICE
-NAIDs and analgesics
-crutches
-ROM and Progressive resistance exercise
-heat and massage to prevent myositis ossificans
-conservative rehab
-ice with gentle stretching with a gradual transition to heat

10

Myosotis ossificans

Formation of calcium deposits or bone in the muscle fibers

11

What causes myositis ossificans

Repeated trauma or impacts to an area or improper care of contusion

12

Symptoms of MO

-x-ray shows @ 2-6 weeks
-pain, weakness, swelling, decreased ROM
-tissue tension and point tenderness

13

Management of MO

-conservative
-can require surgical removal due to pain and decreased ROM

14

What causes quad strain?

Sudden stretch, violent forceful contraction of hip and knee into flexion

15

Symptoms of quad strain

-pain and point tenderness, spasm, loss of function, little discoloration (decreased knee flexion)

16

What can happen with complete quad tear?

Patient will have disability discomfort and some deformity

17

Grade 1 quad strain

-tightness in front of thigh
-near normal ambulation
-limited swelling
-mild discomfort in palpation

18

Grade 2 quad strain

-abnormal gait cycle
-noticeable swelling with pain on palpation
-possible defect in muscle

19

What will produce pain in grade 2 quad strain?

Resistive knee extension

20

How will quad strain be splinted?

In extension

21

Grade 3 quad strain

-possibly unable to ambulate
-pain with palpation
-may be unable to perform knee extension

22

What will isometrics do to grade 3 quad strain?

Produce defect or bulging in muscle belly

23

Management of quad strain

-RICE
-NSAIDs
-analgesics
-Progress to isometrics and stretching

24

Grade 1 quad strain management

Neoprene sleeve can provide support

25

Grade 2 quad strain management

Ice and compression for 3-5 days with gradual increase in isometrics and pain free knee ROM exercises **limit passive stretching

26

Grade 3 quad strain management

-crutches 7-14 days
-restore normal gait
-compression for support
-may require 12 week to return to full activity

27

Hamstring muscle strain

Disruption of fiber hamstring musculature

28

What causes hamstring strain

Sudden forceful contraction (deceleration) or over stretch (knee hyperextension or hip flexion)

29

Where is the pain in a hamstring strain?

-muscle belly or point of attachment pain

30

Grade 1 hamstring strain symptoms

Soreness during movement and point tenderness

31

How much of the fibers are torn in grade 1 hamstring strain?

Less than 20%

32

Grade 2 hamstring strain symptoms

Partial tear, identified by sharp snap or tear, severe pain, loss of function

33

How much of the fibers are torn in grade 2 hamstring strain?

Less than 70%

34

Grade 3 hamstring strain symptoms

Rupture of tendinious or muscular tissue involving major hemorrhage and disability, edema, loss of function, ecchymosis, palpable mass or gap

35

How much fiber is torn in grade 3 hamstring strain?

More than 70%

36

What should you focus on in hamstring rehab?

Eccentrics

37

Management of hamstring strain

-RICE

38

When should activity be resumed in a grade 1 hamstring strain

Dont resume full activity until complete function is restored

39

Grade 2 and 3 hamstring strain management

Conservative with gradual return to stretching and strengthening

40

How does scarring affect hamstring injury?

Greater scarring mean greater chance of reinjury

41

What does femur fracture generally involve?

Shaft

42

What causes a femur fracture?

Requires a great deal of force

43

Symptoms of femur fracture

-pain, swelling, deformity
-muscle guarding
-leg with fracture may be shorter

44

Management of femur fracture initially

-treat for shock
-verify neurovascular status
-splint before moving

45

Management of femur fracture

Reduce following x-ray
Pain med and ice

46

What happens to soft tissue in femur fracture?

Extensive damage

47

What causes a femur stress fracture?

-overuse
-excessive downhill running or jumping activities
-endurance athletes

48

Symptoms of femur stress fx

-persistence pain in thigh/ groin
-x-ray or bone scan
-walk with antalgic gait

49

Management of femur stress fx

Remove from activity

50

What is trochanteric bursitis?

Inflammation over greater trochanter

51

Symptoms of T bursitis

-complain of lateral hip pain (can radiate down leg)
-tenderness over greater trochanter

52

Mamangement of T bursitis

-RICE
-look at biomechanics and Q angle
-corticosteroid injection possibly

53

How to avoid T bursitis

Runner should avoid inclined surface (as well as rehab)

54

When does dislocated hip happen?

Rarely in sports and from traumatic forces

55

Symptoms of hip dislocation

-flexed, adducted and internally rotated hip
-palpation reveals displaced femoral head
-serious concerns about neurovascualr structures

56

Management of hip dislocation

-immediate medical care
-2 weeks immobilization and crutches for at least 1 month