The Foot: Exam 3 Flashcards Preview

Kinesiology > The Foot: Exam 3 > Flashcards

Flashcards in The Foot: Exam 3 Deck (74):
1

Plantar Fascia

Thick band of fibrous tissue extending from calcaneus to metatarsal heads

2

What does the plantar fascia do?

Help support the arch of the foot

3

Support/ Stance phase of walking

-strike
-midsupport
Take-off

4

Recovery/ swing phase of walking gate

-follow through
-forward swing
-decent

5

What extra phase does the running gait have?

A flight phase where neither foot is touching the ground

6

What type of strikers do distance runner tend to be?

Heel strikers

7

What type of strikers do sprinters tend to be?

Forefoot strikers

8

What type of injuries do excessive pronators tend to have?

Stress injuries such as tibial rotation at the knee

9

Are excessive pronators' feet too mobile or rigid?

Mobile

10

What type of injuries do excessive supinations have?

Other injuries such as inversion sprains

11

Are excessive supinators' feet too rigid or too mobile?

Too rigid

12

What type of foot has a high arch?

Excessive supination

13

What type of foot has a normal arch?

Neutral

14

What type of foot does a low arch have?

Excessive pronation

15

Pes Cavus

-high arch
-excessive supination
-poor shock absorption

16

Pes plantus

-flat foot
-excessive pronation
-pain and weakness

17

When should abnormal foot postures be corrected?

If they cause symptoms or problems

18

How to prevent foot injuries with appropriate footwear

-match shoe to foot type
-match activity and surface
-use orthotic

19

What type of shoe should a pronator wear?

Rigid

20

What type of shoe should a supinator wear?

Flexible

21

How do you prevent foot injuries?

-appropriate footwear
-foot hygiene

22

How to asses foot injuries

-history
-observation
-shoe wear
-palpation
-special test

23

How to asses history

-generic history questions
-specific to the foot

24

Questions to ask about history specific to the foot

-pain type and location
-surfaces
-training
-footwear

25

how to assess foot by observation

-limping or difficulty weight bearing
-pes plantus or cavus
-foot alignment
-deformities

26

How to check shoe wear

Check bottom of shoes for wear patterns

27

How to assess foot injuries with palpation

-bony
-soft tissue
-pulses

28

2 pulse locations on the foot

-dorsalis pedis pulse
-posterior tibial

29

How to assess foot injuries with special tests

-ROM
-other special tests

30

How to test ROM

-active
-passive
-resisted

31

Other special tests for the foot

-choose tests based on pathology
-neurological assessment

32

Testing nurological assessment of the foot

-sensation
-motor function
-reflexes

33

Tarsal injuries (5)

-fractures
-apophysitis
-retrocalcaneal bursitis
-heel contusion
-LisFranc sprain

34

Where tarsal fractures are common

-talus
-calcaneus

35

Plantar Fasciitis

Pain in proximal arch and heel at attachment site

36

When is plantar fasciitis pain the worst?

Mornings

37

What causes plantar fasciitis?

-poor shoes
-overtraining
-poor surface
-foot type
-other causes

38

How to treat plantar fasciitis (7)

-orthotic/ arch taping
-heel cup
-proper shoes
-stretching
-night splint
-NSAIDs
-last resort: surgery

39

Where does a Jones fracture occur?

Base of 5th metatarsal

40

What are the symptoms of a Jones Fracture?

Swelling and pain

41

How to diagnose a Jones fracture

X-ray

42

How to treat a Jones fracture

-crutches and a boot
-nonunion
-internal fixation

43

Difference between bunion and bunionette

Bunionette is on the pinky toe

44

What causes bunions?

Foot type and poor shoes

45

Symptoms of bunions

-pain
-swelling
-joint enlargement
-mal-alignment

46

Bunion treatment

Surgery

47

Sesamoids

Bones within tendons

48

Sesamoiditis

Occurs in the bones within tendons of the big toe and it becomes inflamed and fractured

49

What are the symptoms of sesamoiditis (when does it hurt)?

Pain when you push off

50

Treatment of sesamoiditis

-orthotic pad
-arch support
-decrease activity

51

Metatarsalgia

Pain in the ball of the foot usually under 2nd or 3rd metatarsal

52

What causes metatarsalgia?

Calf tightness---> shortened stance---> increased pressure under the forefoot

53

Symptoms of metarsalgia

Pain and numbness or tingling

54

How to treat metatarsalgia

Apply metatarsal support pad or bar and stretch

55

Morton's Neuroma

Extra nerve mass grows usually between 3-4 MT

56

Types of pain with mortons

Burning paresthesia and severe and intermittent

57

Other symptoms of mortons

Numb and tingling

58

How to diagnose mortons (2 ways)

X-ray or bone scan

59

How to treat mortons

-MT pad
-better shoes

60

Turf toe

Hyperextension of the great toe

61

Is turf toe acute or chronic?

Both

62

Symptoms of turf toe

Pain and swelling

63

What activity does turf toe hurt?

Pushing off

64

How to treat turf toe

Tape and rigid insole

65

How to get toe sprain, fracture, dislocation

-kicking
-being stepped on

66

Symptoms of a sprain

Swelling and pain

67

How to treat a sprain

-RICE
-buddy taping

68

Symptoms of fracture

-pain
-deformity

69

How to treat fractures

Buddy taping

70

How common are dislocations?

Rare

71

Morton's toe

Short first MT and the 2nd toe looks longer

72

What does Morton's toe cause?

Greater stress on 2nd MT and sometimes stress fractures

73

How and when to treat mortons toe

Orthotics only if symptomatic

74

Foot rehab (6)

-treat symptomatic structural problems (tape orthotics)
-protect weight bearing
-joint mobilization
-flexibility
-muscular strength
-neuromuscular control