Face And Throat Injuries Flashcards Preview

Kinesiology > Face And Throat Injuries > Flashcards

Flashcards in Face And Throat Injuries Deck (119):
1

How many bones are in the head?

22

2

What are the immovable joints that hold the head bones together?

Sutures

3

What is the scalp?

Loose connective tissue and skin

4

Parts of the brain (40

-cerebrum
-cerebellum
-pons
-medulla oblongata

5

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)

Surrounds and suspends the brain within the skull cavity

6

What does the CSF act as?

A cushion

7

Meninges

3 membranes surrounding brain/spinal cord

8

3 meninges

-dura mater
-arachnoid
-Pia mater

9

Dura mater

Outermost dense layer

10

Arachnoid

Weblike delicate layer

11

Pia mater

Innermost, thin layer that is highly vascularized and adheres closely to brain/cord

12

History in head injuries

-previous head trauma
-info regarding injury
-MOI

13

Possible MOI in head injuries

-direct blow
-deceleration of head (whiplash)
-shear force

14

Observation of head injury

What is normal for patient?

15

Palpation of head injury

-cervical spine
-skull
-point tenderness or deformity

16

Concussion

A type of mild traumatic brain injury that can result in variety or presentations or deficits

17

MTBI

Mild traumatic brain injury

18

Common deficits of concussion

-neurocognition deficits
-balance difficulty
-symptoms (headache, dizziness, ect)

19

What else can a concussion impact?

-sleep
-emotions or mood
-vision and eye tracking
-long term consequences

20

Does a concussion have diagnostic evidence/ is it a clear cut injury?

No

21

Why is a concussion hard to diagnose?

It is a disruption in brain function at a cellular level and doesn't necessarily result in anatomical changes that you can see

22

Concussion evaluation

-clinical exam and impression
-neurocognitive function
-signs and symptoms
-balance assessment

23

Most important in concussion evaluation

Clinical exam

24

Optional steps in concussion evaluation

-visual acuity and eye tracking
-mood and emotional assessment
-sleep disturbance

25

How to asses static balance

Determine patients ability to stand and remain motionless

26

2 types of static balance testing

-Romberg and BESS

27

Dynamic balance testing

Sensory Organization Test

28

BESS

Clinical battery of test that utilizes difference stances on both firm and foam surface

29

Errors in BESS

-patient open eyes
-takes hands off hips
-step/ stumbles or falls

30

What happens with any LOC?

-ATC must remove athlete from competition and a cervical spine injury should be assumed

31

What measures should be used to determine readiness to play?

Objective

32

What is the timeline for return to baseline?

3-5 days

33

What should be resolved prior to returning to play?

All post-concussive symptoms

34

What can recurrent concussions produce?

Cumulative traumatic injury in the brain

35

Should return to play be immediate or gradual?

Gradual

36

What are the chances of another concussion after an initial concussion?

3-6 times greater

37

What must ATC be able to determine concerning care of concussion patient?

Need for physician referral and be able to decide if the patient can go home or go to the hospital

38

What should be at place at home following a concussion?

A system that allows for supervision and monitoring

39

Post concussion syndrome

Condition that occurs following a concussion

40

Symptoms of PCS

Patient complains of a range of post-concussion problems (persistant headaches, impaired memory, lack of concentration, anxiety and irritability, giddiness, fatigue, depression, visual disturbances).

41

When and how long does PCS start and last?

May begin immediately after injury and can last from weeks to months

42

Second impact syndrome results from...

Result of rapid swelling and herniation of brain after a second head injury before symptoms of the initial injury have resolves

43

What can second impact be like?

May be relatively minimal and not involve contact with the cranium

44

What does the impact lead to in SIS

Disrupts the brain's blood auto regulatory system leading to swelling, increased intracranial pressure

45

Symptoms of SIS

-often does not lose consciousness
-looks stunned
-w/in 15 sec to several minutes patient's condition degrades rapidly (dilated pupils, loss of eye movement, LOC leading to coma, respiratory failure)

46

Management of SIS

-life threatening condition that must be addressed w/in 5 minutes w/ life saving measures performed at an emergency facility

47

Best management of SIS

Prevention from ATC's perspective

48

cause of skull fracture

Blunt trauma

49

Symptoms of skull fracture

-severe headache and nausea
-palapation may reveal deficit in skull
-blood in middle ear, ear canal, nose, raccoon eyes, battle sign
-CSF may appear in ear and nose

50

Management of skull fracture

Immediate hospitalization and referral to neurosurgeon

51

What causes epidural hematoma?

Blow to the head or skull fracture which tears meningeal arteries

52

Is an epidural hematoma quick or slow?

Blood pressure, blood accumulation and creation of hematoma occurs rapidly

53

Symptoms of epidural hematoma

LOC followed by a period of lucidity, showing few signs and symptoms of serious head injury

54

Gradual progression of symptoms of epidural hematoma

-head pains
-dizziness
-nausea
-dilation of one pupil (saw side as injury)
-deterioration of consciousness
-nick rigidity
-depression of pulse and respiration
-convulsion

55

Management of epidural hematoma

Urgent neurosurgical care and pressure must be relieved to avoid disability or death

56

What may be required to diagnose epidural hematoma?

CT scan

57

What causes subdural hematoma?

Acceleration/ deceleration forces that tear vessel that bridge dura mater and brain

58

Is subdural hematoma acute or chronic?

Either

59

Can subdural hematoma be in association with other brain injury?

Yes

60

What causes subdural hematoma to be chronic?

Due to venous bleeding -slow bleed w/out serious intracranial pressure

61

Symptoms of subdural hematoma

-LOC generally does not occur
-headache, dizziness, nausea, sleepiness

62

Is a subdural hematoma generally fast or slow?

Slower onset and progression

63

Management of subdural hematoma

-immediate medical attention
-CT or MRI is necessary to determine the extent of the injury

64

What cause scalp injuries?

Blunt trauma or penetrating trauma

65

Can scalp injuries occurs with serious head trauma?

Es

66

Symptoms of scalp injuries

Patient complains of blow to the head and extensive bleeding (hard to pinpoint exact site)

67

Management of scalp injuries

-personal protective equipment
-manage bleeding with dressings, pressure, hemostatic gauze
-refer for suturing depending on location and size of wound

68

Bony landmarks of the face (5)

-TMJ
-supraorbital ridge
-zygomatic arch (cheek bones)
-nasal bone
-Mandible (lower jaw)

69

What cause a jaw fracture?

Direct blow

70

Symptoms of jaw fracture

-deformity
-loss of occupation
-pain when biting
-Bleeding around teeth
-lower lip anesthesia

71

Management of jaw fracture

-temporary immobilization with elastic wrap
-reduction
-fixation

72

Jaw dislocation cause

Generally a blow to an open mouth from the side

73

What does jaw dislocation involve?

TMJ joint

74

Symptoms of jaw dislocation

-locked-open position
Minimal ROM
-poor occulation

75

Management of jaw dislocation

-soft diet
-NSAIDs
-pain med
-gradual return to activity 7-10 days following acute period

76

Zygomatic fracture cause

Direct blow

77

Symptoms of zygomatic fracture

-deformity
-nose bleed
-numbness in cheek

78

Management of zygomatic fracture

-control swelling and refer to physician

79

How long will zygomatic fracture take to heal?

6-8 weeks

80

What will be required with zygomatic fracture when returning t play?

Proper equipment

81

Maxillary fracture (upper jaw)

Blow to upper jaw

82

Symptoms of maxillary fracture

-pain with chewing
-malocclusion
-nose bleed
-diplopia
-numbness of lip and cheek region

83

What is diplopia?

Double vision

84

Management of maxillary fracture

-due to severe bleeding, airway must be maintained
-must be aware of possible brain injury
-transport to hospital immediately

85

What causes a nasal fracture?

Direct blow

86

Symptoms of nasal fracture

Bleeding and deformity

87

Management of nasal fracture

-control bleeding
Refer to doctor for x-ray, exam, reduction
-uncomplicated and simple fractures will pose little problem for quick return
-splinting may be necessary

88

Tooth fractures cause

Direct impact to jaw or direct trauma

89

Symptoms of root fractures

Root fractures: difficult to determine and require follow up with x-ray

90

uncomplicated tooth fracture

fragments w/o bleeding

91

complicated tooth fracture

bleeding w/ tooth chamber being exposed w/great deal of pain

92

Subluxated tooth

Referral should occur w/in first 48 hours

93

Luxated tooth

Repositioning should be attempted along with immediate follow up

94

Avulsion tooth

Should not be re-implanted except by dentist (use Save a Tooth kit, milk, or saline)

95

Auriculaire hematoma

Cauliflower ear

96

What cause cauliflower ear?

Either from compression or shear injury to the ear (single or repeated)

97

What does cauliflower ear cause?

Subcutaneous bleeding

98

What causes a tympanic membrane rupture?

-fall or slap to the unprotected ear
-sudden underwater pressure variation

99

TM rupture healing time

-small or moderate perforations usually heal in 1-2 weeks

100

What can occur with TM rupture

Infection so it must be continuously monitored

101

Symptoms of TM rupture

-loud pop followed by pain in ear
-nausea
-vomiting
-dizziness
-hearing loss
-visible rupture seen through otoscope

102

Parts of the eye (7)

-eyelid
-eyelashes
-eyebrow
-cornea
-pupil
-optic nerve
-retina

103

What causes an orbital hematoma?

Blow to the area surrounding the eye

104

Orbital hematoma

Capillary bleeding

105

Symptoms of orbital hematoma

Swelling and discoloration

106

Management of orbital hematoma

-manage swelling
Do not blow nose

107

Symptoms of orbital fracture

-diplopia
-restricted eye movement
-downward displacement of eye
-soft tissue swelling and hemorrhaging

108

What is needed to confirm orbital fracture?

X-ray

109

What causes corneal abrasion?

Foreign object produces considerable pain and disability

110

Should you try to remove foreign object in corneal abrasion?

No

111

Symptoms of corneal abrasion

-severe pain
-watering of eye
Photophobia

112

Management of corneal abrasion

-patch eye and refer to physician

113

What is required to diagnose corneal abrasion?

Flouresein strip (stains abrasion bright green)

114

Hyphema

Blunt blow to the eye
-major eye injury that can lead to serious problems with eh lens, chronic or retina

115

Globe rupture

Blow to the eye by an object small than the eye
-if globe is nit ruptured it can still result in blindness

116

Retinal detachment

Blow to the eye can partially or completely separate the retina from the underlying retinal pigment epithelium

117

Throat injuries causes

-direct blow (clothes-lining)
-trauma to the carotid artery, impacting blood flow to the brain

118

Symptoms of throat injuries

-Severe pain with coughing
-speaking with hoarse voice
-complaining of difficulty swallowing

119

Management of throat injuries

-airway integrity
-manage swelling and pain
-severe neck contusion may require stabilization w/ well padded collar