Clinical Equine Nutrition 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Clinical Equine Nutrition 2 Deck (36)
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1

Will energy requirements for a horse increase or decrease in severe weather, hot and cold?

Increase

2

Minimum of ____ % of feed should still be good quality roughage

35-40%

3

Omega 6 is pro _________

inflammatory

*in large amounts

4

How long does it typically take to see results after adding oil to a horses diet?

2 - 3 months

Want to start adding in oil slowly as well

5

Besides water, what is lost in sweat?

Electrolytes

6

T/F: Age is a disease

False

but with age, comes disease

7

What are common health concerns for aged horses?

Dental issues
parasitism
arthritic conditions

8

T/F: Protein, fiber, and phosphorus digestion and absorption decrease with age

TRUE

9

What kind of diet is recommended for geriatric horses?

(whatever they'll eat!)

Needs to be palatable and easily digested - often cubed or pelleted feeds with the addition of a fat supplements as needed

10

Why should you avoid immediately starting a starving horse on a high quality diet?

Refeeding syndrome

can have a fatal increase in blood insulin
Cardiac and respiratory failure

**will be noted 3-5 days after new diet has begun

11

What diet should you start a starved horse on?

Start on a low glycemic indez diet
Roughage only (alfalfa is ideal)
introduce 50-75% of maintenance and gradually build up over 10 days to maintenance

Can increase to 125% maintenance

12

Besides being malnourished, what other concerns should you have when dealing with a starved horse?

Parasites - most likely the horse also was not getting dewormed

Dental issues
hoof care
underlying dz

13

What is equine metabolic dz? It what patients do you see it in?

It is a metabolic dysregulation: These horses are considered "easy keepers" bc they continue to put on weight, they are obese and often have intermittent laminitis

Can have persistent hyperinsulinemia --> leading to insulin resistance

*often in adults less than 15 years old who are obese: body score 7 or greater on a 9 scale

14

How do you treat equine metabolic syndrome?

Low glycemic indes diet: avoid green lush pastures
Exercise
*somtimes levothyroxine sodium

15

T/F: Equine metabolic syndrome patients will typically have PPID (equine Cushing's)

FALSE

16

What is hyperlipemia?

A life threatening condition that often affects ponies, donkeys, and miniature horses: it is a sudden severe breakdown of body fat stores

17

What is the survival rate of hyperlipemia?

56%

18

What are the predisposing factors of hyperlipemia?

Obesity
Insulin resistance
Females>males (especially if they are pregnant or lactating)

19

What are some precipitating factors to hyperlipemia?

Inadequate feed intake
stress - from feed change, transport, etc
pain
disease

20

What clinical signs will you see in a patient with hyperlipemia?

May present like colic
Anorexia
dysphagia
pyrexia
encephalopathy
depression
weakness
abortion
****rapid weight loss

21

How do you treat hyperlipemia?

First, you need to get the patient to eat - feeding tube if necessary. Want to use fresh palatable feeds or liquefied pelleted complete feeds for tube feeding

Terminate stress, fluid therapy, tx hypoglycemia

22

What are some key factors thought to be involved in developmental orthopedic diseases in horses?

Rapid growth
Diet imbalance (too much energy, poor calcium to phos ratio, copper and since deficiencies)
Biomechanical stress or trauma (too much exercise)
Hormonal factors
Genetic predisposition *

23

Epiphysitis is most common in what horses? What is it?

Most common in the thoroughbred race horse

Inflammation of the physis

24

Where is the most common location of epiphysitis?

Distal radius and distal metacarpal III/Metatarsal III

25

What is the treatment for epiphysititis?

Decreased nutritional plane - feed roughage only +/- mineral supplements
Rest
+/- NSAIDs
*self limiting when growth plate closes

26

In severe cases, epiphysitis can lead to _________

Angular limb deformities

27

How do you treat angular limb deformities?

Trimming/shoeing
Stall confinement
Surgery: Periosteal stripping or transphyseal bridging

28

what are the most common angular limb deformities?

Distal radius and distal MCIII/MTIII

Carpal valgus and fetlock varus are the most common

29

What locations do you most often see flexural limb deformities?

Distal interphalangeal joint (DIT)
Metacarpophalangeal joint (MCP)
Metatarsalphalangeal joint (MTP)

30

What are the treatments available for flexural limb deformities?

Exercise, shoeing
Tenotomy (tendon)
Desmotomy (ligament)
Oxytetracycline: binds to calcium to weaken the collagen (need to monitor renal values while on this drug)