Flashcards in Clinical Equine nutrition Deck (40)
What are the three major (broad spectrum) issues associated with horse nutrition?
What are some examples of feeding management issues in horses?
What problems may arise when you feed horses in a herd?
Competition and aggression over food. may note some horses getting skinny while others gain weight
orTrauma - fighting/biting/kicking wounds
esophageal obstruction aka choke
What is "choke"?
Referrers to an esophageal obstruction (the horse is able to breath)
This typically happens when eating a pelleted diet - when animals eat very fast (often due to competition)
What are the clinical signs of acute onset "choke"?
**watery feed tinged nasal discharge
Repeated attempts to swallow
Stretching of the neck
What are the three most common feeds that horses will "choke" on?
What is the first thing you need to do to a horse with an esophageal obstruction?
then pass a naso-gastric tube, using lavage to break up the obstruction as needed
What is the biggest complication noted with "choke"?
***most horses that obstruct will do so again*** Must take action to prevent: like soaking pellets, separate feeding, slow feeding buckets
What are some abnormal oral behaviors associated with feed management and decrease in roughage? What do these result in?
all cause weight loss
What are the abnormal locomotor behaviors that are associated with weight loss?
What are equine vices associated with?
Low roughage diets
(owners tend to think these are learned behaviors but research proves otherwise)
What is cribbing?
A horse puts his teeth on a fence or post and then sucks wind in throw the esophagus
T/F: Cribbing is only observed in domesticated or captive animals?
What are come concerns with cribbing?
epiploic foramen entrapment
destruction of property
annoying to the owner
What are some forms of cribbing management?
hog rings between the incisors
Surgery - cutting the "strap" muscles
***it is best to target the reason why the horse is performing this behavior - rather then preventing them from doing it -- medical options like prozac etc.
What abnormal oral condition is highly associated with wind sucking
74% of wind suckers become cribbers
What is wind sucking?
Similar to cribbing, but without biting down on anything
What is wood chewing?
Just chewing, no air sucking. It is destructive and can lead to splinters and or foreign bodies
What clinical signs will you see in a horse with dental issues?
Where will enamel points be seen?
Buccal - maxillary arcade
Where will molar hooks be seen?
Front edge of the 1st cheek tooth
What are some problems associated with alfalfa in foals?
High calcium can interfere with other electrolyte absorption and it may promote osteochrondrosis
In what plant fields do you find blister beetles? What problems do they cause?
Found in alfalfa fields after cutting and crimping at the same time
Cause cantharidin toxicosis - affects GI tract and kidney
What is the tx for blister beetle toxicosis?
Supportive care only
fluids, NSAIDs prn
**prevention is key
What clinical signs may you see in a horse with blister beetle toxicosis?
GI tract erosions (may note these in the mouth)
Frequent urination (kd dz)
What can contaminated fescue cause in horses?
What is the contaminant?
premature separation of the placenta (red bag)
Caused by endophyte contamination (acermonium ceonophilum) aka ergot alkaloids
What is a downside to fungus free fescue strains?
Not as hardy
How do you prevent fescue toxicosis?
Cut the grass before it seeds
(fungus lives in the seeds)
What grass can get contaminated with "the slobber toxin"? What is the toxin?
Red clover aka drool weed
Slaframine is the toxin from mold