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Flashcards in Clinical Equine nutrition Deck (40)
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1

What are the three major (broad spectrum) issues associated with horse nutrition?

Feeding management
Roughage associated
Grain associated

2

What are some examples of feeding management issues in horses?

Competition
Vices
Dental problems

3

What problems may arise when you feed horses in a herd?

Competition and aggression over food. may note some horses getting skinny while others gain weight
orTrauma - fighting/biting/kicking wounds

esophageal obstruction aka choke

4

What is "choke"?

Referrers to an esophageal obstruction (the horse is able to breath)

This typically happens when eating a pelleted diet - when animals eat very fast (often due to competition)

5

What are the clinical signs of acute onset "choke"?

**watery feed tinged nasal discharge
Dysphagia
Gagging
Repeated attempts to swallow
Stretching of the neck
Anxious

6

What are the three most common feeds that horses will "choke" on?

Pelleted feeds
hay cubes
beet pulp

7

What is the first thing you need to do to a horse with an esophageal obstruction?

SEDATE

then pass a naso-gastric tube, using lavage to break up the obstruction as needed

8

What is the biggest complication noted with "choke"?

Aspiration pneumonia

***most horses that obstruct will do so again*** Must take action to prevent: like soaking pellets, separate feeding, slow feeding buckets

9

What are some abnormal oral behaviors associated with feed management and decrease in roughage? What do these result in?

Cribbing
wind sucking
wood chewing

all cause weight loss

10

What are the abnormal locomotor behaviors that are associated with weight loss?

Weaving
Stall walking
head shaking

11

What are equine vices associated with?

Boredom
Low roughage diets
prolonged confinement

(owners tend to think these are learned behaviors but research proves otherwise)

12

What is cribbing?

A horse puts his teeth on a fence or post and then sucks wind in throw the esophagus

13

T/F: Cribbing is only observed in domesticated or captive animals?

TRUE

14

What are come concerns with cribbing?

Poor performance
weight loss
incisor wear
flatulent colic
epiploic foramen entrapment
destruction of property
annoying to the owner

15

What are some forms of cribbing management?

Cribbing collars/masks
hog rings between the incisors
Surgery - cutting the "strap" muscles

***it is best to target the reason why the horse is performing this behavior - rather then preventing them from doing it -- medical options like prozac etc.

16

What abnormal oral condition is highly associated with wind sucking

Cribbing

74% of wind suckers become cribbers

17

What is wind sucking?

Similar to cribbing, but without biting down on anything

18

What is wood chewing?

Just chewing, no air sucking. It is destructive and can lead to splinters and or foreign bodies

19

What clinical signs will you see in a horse with dental issues?

Weight loss
Dropping feed
Difficulty eating
Quidding

20

Where will enamel points be seen?

Buccal - maxillary arcade

21

Where will molar hooks be seen?

Front edge of the 1st cheek tooth

22

What are some problems associated with alfalfa in foals?

High calcium can interfere with other electrolyte absorption and it may promote osteochrondrosis

23

In what plant fields do you find blister beetles? What problems do they cause?

Found in alfalfa fields after cutting and crimping at the same time

Cause cantharidin toxicosis - affects GI tract and kidney

24

What is the tx for blister beetle toxicosis?

Supportive care only

fluids, NSAIDs prn

**prevention is key

25

What clinical signs may you see in a horse with blister beetle toxicosis?

Colic
anorexia
depression
GI tract erosions (may note these in the mouth)
Frequent urination (kd dz)
Colitis

26

What can contaminated fescue cause in horses?
What is the contaminant?

prolonged gestation
premature separation of the placenta (red bag)
Dystocia
Retained placenta
Agalactia

Caused by endophyte contamination (acermonium ceonophilum) aka ergot alkaloids

27

What is a downside to fungus free fescue strains?

Not as hardy

28

How do you prevent fescue toxicosis?

Cut the grass before it seeds
(fungus lives in the seeds)

29

What grass can get contaminated with "the slobber toxin"? What is the toxin?

Red clover aka drool weed

Slaframine is the toxin from mold

30

What are feed concentrate issues that you may see in horses?

Grain overload
ionophore toxicity
moldy corn poisoning