Dietary fiber & Polyunsaturated fatty acids Flashcards Preview

RUSVM Nutrition Summer17 > Dietary fiber & Polyunsaturated fatty acids > Flashcards

Flashcards in Dietary fiber & Polyunsaturated fatty acids Deck (33)
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1

What is a substrate from the diet for microbes residing in within the GI tract?

Dietary Fiber

2

Dietary fiber is a ________ carbohydrate, that is _______ to mammalian digestive enzymes

complex carb
resistant to mammalian digestive enzymes

3

Is the crude fiber required on pet food labels accurate?

NO

it derived from an assay developed for the wood pulp industry. It is also applied to feeds and forages

4

What is more important than the crude fiber within a petfood?

The total dietary fiber

It is derived using a chemical method and is a more complete detection of fiber

5

What kind of dietary fiber will turn into a gel when sitting in water for a long time?

Soluble fibers

6

What are some examples of soluble fiber components? What are their sources?

Components: Pectins, Gums, Mucilages, hemicelluloses

Sources: fruits and veggies, oats and oat bran, legums, phyllium husks

7

What is the most common insoluble fiber component?

Cellulose

(others: modified cullulose, ligin, hemicelluloses)

8

What are some sources of insoluble fibers?

Vegetables
cereal grains
seed coats
wheat bran

9

What does bacterial fiber fermentation produce?

Short chain fatty acids (aka volatile fatty acids) and gas

10

What are short chain fatty acids an energy source for?

cells lining the large intestine

11

SCFA produce a(n) ______ environment in the large intestine, and the promote absorption of _____ and ______.

Acidic
water and electrolytes

12

What type of fiber will bind to minerals?

Soluble

13

T/F: Soluble dietary fiber is resistant to bacterial fermentation

FALSE

Insoluble is resistant to bacterial fermentation

These also tend not to bind minerals or digestive enzymes

14

What is the minimum percent of fiber needed in a diet to prevent diarrhea?

1% minimum

15

What is a prebiotic?

Functional food: non digestible food ingredients that benefit the host's health by selectively stimulating growth and or activity of a limited number of bacteria

16

What are some conditions where fiber in the diet can be used therapeutically?

Obesity
diabetes mellitus
hyperlipidemia
used to normalize intestinal motility
Trichobezoars
colitis
constipation (it is important that proper hydration is maintained)

17

T/F: Crude fiber = total dietary fiber in a diet

FALSE

**TDF is more important and accurate

18

What are some properties of facilitative lipids?

Add palatability and texture
Provide dense calorie source
Stored as energy
Promote fat soluble vitamin adsorption
Many are saturated and monounsaturated

19

What are some properties of functional dietary lipids?

Cell regulation and or metabolism
*Essential (linoleic and alpha linolenic)
Conditionally essential: Arachidonic (cats), DSH (neonates), *derived from essential fatty acids
*other functional fats: CLA, MCT, EPA

20

What kind of diet will limit the activity of enzymes that denature glucose and or amino acids?

High fat diets (like the diets of dogs and cats - they directly use and store FA from their diet)

These enzymes will be active when consuming low fat and carbohydrates (like the diets of herbivores)

21

T/F: Mammals can convert and revert linoleic acid and alpha linolenic acid easily

FALSE

This is why they are important within the diet

22

What is the end product or biologically active PUFA synthesized from linoleic acid?

Arachidonic acid

23

From what source do animals get arachidonic acid in their diet?

What animal requires this in their diet?

Mammalian meat and chicken eggs

Cats require this in their diet - they lack the enzyme required to synthesize it (dogs do not)

24

What is the end product or biologically active PUFA synthesized from alpha-linolenic acid?

Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)

Can be further synthesized into DHA (which is required in puppy foods)

25

T/F: Dogs require alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) in their diets

TRUE

26

What are some sources of n-6 PUFA (linoleic)?

Plant based oils: corn, cottonseed, safflower, sunflower, olive, soybean, canola

27

What are some sources of n-3 PUFA (ALA)?

Fish oil (cold water fishes)
Flaxseed oil
Some in canola and soybean oil

28

Who requires linoleic acid in their diet?

All mammals

***needed to maintain the integrity of the skin

29

Can cats synthesize EPA or DHA?

NO

30

What clinical signs are associated with essential fatty acid deficiencies?

*Poor growth and weight gain
*Cutaneous changes: matted coat/unkempt appearance, scaly skin and increase epidermal turn over rate, thin discolored coat, weak cutaneous blood vessels
*Infertility and poor wound healing