Flashcards in Dietary fiber & Polyunsaturated fatty acids Deck (33)
What is a substrate from the diet for microbes residing in within the GI tract?
Dietary fiber is a ________ carbohydrate, that is _______ to mammalian digestive enzymes
resistant to mammalian digestive enzymes
Is the crude fiber required on pet food labels accurate?
it derived from an assay developed for the wood pulp industry. It is also applied to feeds and forages
What is more important than the crude fiber within a petfood?
The total dietary fiber
It is derived using a chemical method and is a more complete detection of fiber
What kind of dietary fiber will turn into a gel when sitting in water for a long time?
What are some examples of soluble fiber components? What are their sources?
Components: Pectins, Gums, Mucilages, hemicelluloses
Sources: fruits and veggies, oats and oat bran, legums, phyllium husks
What is the most common insoluble fiber component?
(others: modified cullulose, ligin, hemicelluloses)
What are some sources of insoluble fibers?
What does bacterial fiber fermentation produce?
Short chain fatty acids (aka volatile fatty acids) and gas
What are short chain fatty acids an energy source for?
cells lining the large intestine
SCFA produce a(n) ______ environment in the large intestine, and the promote absorption of _____ and ______.
water and electrolytes
What type of fiber will bind to minerals?
T/F: Soluble dietary fiber is resistant to bacterial fermentation
Insoluble is resistant to bacterial fermentation
These also tend not to bind minerals or digestive enzymes
What is the minimum percent of fiber needed in a diet to prevent diarrhea?
What is a prebiotic?
Functional food: non digestible food ingredients that benefit the host's health by selectively stimulating growth and or activity of a limited number of bacteria
What are some conditions where fiber in the diet can be used therapeutically?
used to normalize intestinal motility
constipation (it is important that proper hydration is maintained)
T/F: Crude fiber = total dietary fiber in a diet
**TDF is more important and accurate
What are some properties of facilitative lipids?
Add palatability and texture
Provide dense calorie source
Stored as energy
Promote fat soluble vitamin adsorption
Many are saturated and monounsaturated
What are some properties of functional dietary lipids?
Cell regulation and or metabolism
*Essential (linoleic and alpha linolenic)
Conditionally essential: Arachidonic (cats), DSH (neonates), *derived from essential fatty acids
*other functional fats: CLA, MCT, EPA
What kind of diet will limit the activity of enzymes that denature glucose and or amino acids?
High fat diets (like the diets of dogs and cats - they directly use and store FA from their diet)
These enzymes will be active when consuming low fat and carbohydrates (like the diets of herbivores)
T/F: Mammals can convert and revert linoleic acid and alpha linolenic acid easily
This is why they are important within the diet
What is the end product or biologically active PUFA synthesized from linoleic acid?
From what source do animals get arachidonic acid in their diet?
What animal requires this in their diet?
Mammalian meat and chicken eggs
Cats require this in their diet - they lack the enzyme required to synthesize it (dogs do not)
What is the end product or biologically active PUFA synthesized from alpha-linolenic acid?
Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)
Can be further synthesized into DHA (which is required in puppy foods)
T/F: Dogs require alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) in their diets
What are some sources of n-6 PUFA (linoleic)?
Plant based oils: corn, cottonseed, safflower, sunflower, olive, soybean, canola
What are some sources of n-3 PUFA (ALA)?
Fish oil (cold water fishes)
Some in canola and soybean oil
Who requires linoleic acid in their diet?
***needed to maintain the integrity of the skin
Can cats synthesize EPA or DHA?