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RUSVM Nutrition Summer17 > Horse nutrition > Flashcards

Flashcards in Horse nutrition Deck (94)
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1

What are the only three things a normal, healthy horse needs?

good quality hay, water, salt block

***remember high quality

2

At what age are horses considered geriatric?

Over 20 years old

3

Horse owners get what percentage of feeding information from their veterinarian?

80%

4

T/F: Adding supplements to a horses diet is usually necessary

FALSE

adding supplements often will UNBALANCE their diet

5

Where does fermentation take place in the horse GIT?

Cecum and large intestine

6

How much times does a horse spend doing "feeding behaviors" throughout the day?

12 - 16 hours a day

Horses are "trickle feeders". They eat small amounts throughout the day to get feed to accumulate in the cecum and large colon

7

The best way to avoid GI issues/colic in horses, is by feeding a diet that will be digested in the _________

large intestine/hind gut

8

How often should a horses teeth be evaluated?

Yearly evaluation, then floating prn (typically not needed that often)

9

Fill in the blank with Mandibular or maxillary

____________ arcade tends to be more narrow than the ________ arcade. This can lead to uneven wear and form points.

Mandibular = narrower
than the maxillary

10

Maxillary points are on the ______ side, and mandibular points are on the _____ side

Maxillary = buccal

Mandibular = salivary

11

What horses have the most problems with dentition?

Geriatric horses

Bc horses are have continuous erupting teeth, that are a fixed length

12

Should the entire surface of the tooth be smoothed when floating horse teeth? Why or why not?

NO - the surface of the horse tooth has an inter-digitated pattern that helps to grind food

13

Can a horse with "wave mouth" be treated?

This is difficult to treat and can not be completely resolved

14

Where are the points located on a "shear mouth"

Maxillary teeth - buccal side

15

What is a comfortable capacity of the average horse stomach?

8 L

16

How often should a horse be fed?

Horses should be eating all day. So if a client has to stall feed - they should do so, no less than three times a day

Ideally horses should be grazing on a pasture daily

17

Does a horse use the products of its fermenting as a source of protein?

No - ruminants do this, but horses do not

18

T/F: Horses absorb proteins as amino acids

TRUE

19

Where do horses absorb vitamins and minerals?

Small intestine

Vitamins like A, D, E, and K, carotene

20

Digestion and feed intake problems occur if greater than _____ % small intestine is removed

50%

average feet of small intestine in the horse is 70ft

21

What is the site of absorption of carbohydrates in the horse?

small intestine

**hydrolyzable carbs like starches

22

What is the primary site of water absorption in the horse?

Large intestine

23

The horse circulates _____ times the normal blood volume of a horse, of water through the large intestine mucosa daily

2-3

** the colon can be water reservoir

24

What are the 3 important volatile fatty acids produced via fermentation in the hind gut?

Acetate, butyrate, and proprionate

25

T/F: Bacterial overgrowth is a common cause of colic or GI issues in the horse

FALSE

Bacterial overgrowth rarely occurs, but the population of organisms can play a role in systemic and metabolic conditions

26

What are the two Carbohydrate classifications and examples of each?

Non structural carbs: soluble carbs: simple sugars, starch, fructans (**these ones are higher risk to cause GI issues in the horse)

Structural carbs: cellulose, hemicellulose, ligno-cellulos, lignin

27

Carbs can also be categorized in what three categories? What category causes the most GI issues, and the least?

1.Hydrolyzable: digestion in the small intestine; simple sugars and non resistant starches --***most likely to cause colon dysfunction and poor gut health** (mostly grains)

2. Rapidly fermentable: Microbial digestion in the Large intestion; resistant starches and some oligosaccharides (fructans)

3. Slowly fermentable: microbial digestion in the large intesting --*** best for colon health

28

Where are fructans found? When are they at highest concentration?

Fructans are found in grasses (varies among spps)

Usually they are in higher concentration in the morning, and in the spring and summer months (increased rain and sun)

29

"over conditioned" horses will often develop ________

laminitis

often due to high fructan levels in the grass

30

Do horses all have the same ideal body condition?

No - depends on their purpose

work horse, racing horse, leisure etc