Flashcards in Intro Cattle Nutrition Deck (30)
What is the job of dairy cows?
To produce milk and dairy products for human consumption
What is the job of beef cattle?
Produce meat for human consumption
What are the differences in abilities between dairy cattle and beef cattle?
Different ability to grow, produce milk, ability to produce body muscle and fat masses, different conformation
When looking at a beef cow and a dairy cow from a lateral view, what is their body shape?
Dairy - triangular
Beef - rectangular
What are two important dairy breeds?
90% of dairy cows are what breed?
Average weight - 1,500 lbs cows / 2,200 lbs bulls
What milk fat % do Holstein cows produce?
2.5-3.5% milk fat
average milk production/year: 23,151 pounds
What is the smallest dairy breed?
Cows - 1000lbs
Bulls - 1600lbs
What is the milk fat % that Jersey cows produce?
Jersey cows produce the highest milk fat content
Average production: 16,431 pounds/year
What dairy cow breed originates from Switzerland, has good heat tolerance, is docile, and has a milk fat production of 4%?
Cows - 1500lbs
Average milk production/year - 22,252 pounds
What percent milk fat do Ayrshire cows produce?
4% milk fat
Average production is 17,230 pounds per year
What are some important beef breeds?
T/F: Red angus cattle are the most common
Red angus - recessive gene
Typical characteristic angus cattle are black, smooth haired
Angus cattle produce a _____ quality carcass, with well _____ meat
Well marbled meat
What does the standard Hereford cow look like?
White faces and red bodies
These are docile and easily handled
What does the classic Charolais cow look like?
White color, pink skin
Large, heavily muscled
These cows have a high carcass yield - lean carcass
What beef breed is used for crossing with other breeds, is grey or red in color, has a high heat tolerance, and ability to forage on poor quality pastures?
*these cattle have a large neck/chest
T/F: Texas longhorn cattle are fast to mature
**these cattle are tolerant to disease and parasites and have the ability to survive on sparse rangelands
What are examples of dual purpose breeds?
*ultimately all dairy breeds ca be used for meat production; but they produce poor quality meat
What are composite breeds, and what is their purpose?
Pure breeds that result from the intentional crosses of other pure breeds --> Goal: optimizing beef production on harsh lands
On dairy farms, cows are milked ____ months a year, and produce ____ calf (calves) per year
milked 10 months a year
Produce 1 calf per year per cow
What are the variations of feeding dairy cattle (in regards to grazing)?
Grazing: animals feed essentially on pasture, supplemented with grain/hay during the winter = low yield animals
Minimal grazing: animals are fed on pasture and "hand fed" on TMR
No grazing: Animals are exclusively "hand fed" TMR and have no access to pasture
How often do dairy cows need to be milked?
Every 12 hours - every single day
What is the reproduction goal of beef cows?
Produce 1 calf per year
(then finish that calf as soon as possible)
What are the two types of beef cattle farms?
Cow Calf Ops: Has a cow herd and produces calves that are raised until one year old
Feedlots: Calves from cow calf ops are finished as quickly as possible and later slaughtered
Cow calf op nutrition is based on _____
What is the feeding/nutrition like for feedlot cattle?
Animals are confined and have access to feed (roughage plus grain )
What is the time period cattle spend in feed lots?
3-6 months are spent in the feedlot
(most spend 12-18 months on the pasture PRIOR to the feedlot)
What is the daily gain for feedlot cattle?
between 2.5 - 4 pounds a day