Intro Cattle Nutrition Flashcards Preview

RUSVM Nutrition Summer17 > Intro Cattle Nutrition > Flashcards

Flashcards in Intro Cattle Nutrition Deck (30)
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1

What is the job of dairy cows?

To produce milk and dairy products for human consumption

2

What is the job of beef cattle?

Produce meat for human consumption

3

What are the differences in abilities between dairy cattle and beef cattle?

Different ability to grow, produce milk, ability to produce body muscle and fat masses, different conformation

4

When looking at a beef cow and a dairy cow from a lateral view, what is their body shape?

Dairy - triangular

Beef - rectangular

5

What are two important dairy breeds?

Holstein-Friesland
Jersey

Other:
Ayrshire
Brown Swiss

6

90% of dairy cows are what breed?

Holstein-Friesland

FYI:
Average weight - 1,500 lbs cows / 2,200 lbs bulls

7

What milk fat % do Holstein cows produce?

2.5-3.5% milk fat


average milk production/year: 23,151 pounds

8

What is the smallest dairy breed?

Jersey

Cows - 1000lbs
Bulls - 1600lbs

9

What is the milk fat % that Jersey cows produce?

4.9%

Jersey cows produce the highest milk fat content

Average production: 16,431 pounds/year

10

What dairy cow breed originates from Switzerland, has good heat tolerance, is docile, and has a milk fat production of 4%?

Brown Swiss

FYI
Cows - 1500lbs
Bulls- 2000lbs

Average milk production/year - 22,252 pounds

11

What percent milk fat do Ayrshire cows produce?

4% milk fat

Average production is 17,230 pounds per year

12

What are some important beef breeds?

Angus
Hereford
Highland cattle
Shorthorn
Charolais
Brahman
Texas Longhorn

13

T/F: Red angus cattle are the most common

False

Red angus - recessive gene

Typical characteristic angus cattle are black, smooth haired

14

Angus cattle produce a _____ quality carcass, with well _____ meat

High quality
Well marbled meat

15

What does the standard Hereford cow look like?

White faces and red bodies

These are docile and easily handled

16

What does the classic Charolais cow look like?

White color, pink skin
Large, heavily muscled

These cows have a high carcass yield - lean carcass
(french origin)

17

What beef breed is used for crossing with other breeds, is grey or red in color, has a high heat tolerance, and ability to forage on poor quality pastures?

Brahman

*these cattle have a large neck/chest

18

T/F: Texas longhorn cattle are fast to mature

False

Slow maturity

**these cattle are tolerant to disease and parasites and have the ability to survive on sparse rangelands

19

What are examples of dual purpose breeds?

Simmentaler/Fleckvieh
Normande

*ultimately all dairy breeds ca be used for meat production; but they produce poor quality meat

20

What are composite breeds, and what is their purpose?

Pure breeds that result from the intentional crosses of other pure breeds --> Goal: optimizing beef production on harsh lands

21

On dairy farms, cows are milked ____ months a year, and produce ____ calf (calves) per year

milked 10 months a year

Produce 1 calf per year per cow

22

What are the variations of feeding dairy cattle (in regards to grazing)?

Grazing: animals feed essentially on pasture, supplemented with grain/hay during the winter = low yield animals

Minimal grazing: animals are fed on pasture and "hand fed" on TMR

No grazing: Animals are exclusively "hand fed" TMR and have no access to pasture

23

How often do dairy cows need to be milked?

Every 12 hours - every single day

24

What is the reproduction goal of beef cows?

Produce 1 calf per year

(then finish that calf as soon as possible)

25

What are the two types of beef cattle farms?

Cow Calf Ops: Has a cow herd and produces calves that are raised until one year old

Feedlots: Calves from cow calf ops are finished as quickly as possible and later slaughtered

26

Cow calf op nutrition is based on _____

Pastures

27

What is the feeding/nutrition like for feedlot cattle?

Animals are confined and have access to feed (roughage plus grain )

28

What is the time period cattle spend in feed lots?

3-6 months are spent in the feedlot

(most spend 12-18 months on the pasture PRIOR to the feedlot)

29

What is the daily gain for feedlot cattle?

between 2.5 - 4 pounds a day

30

How does the diet change for cattle going to feedlots?

The diet switches from mostly roughage to 70-90% grain (concentrate diet)