Small Ruminants Flashcards Preview

RUSVM Nutrition Summer17 > Small Ruminants > Flashcards

Flashcards in Small Ruminants Deck (76)
Loading flashcards...
1

What is a "doeling"?

A young female goat

2

What is a CM sheep OR goat called?

Wether

3

What are the functional characteristics of the South African Mutton Merino sheep breed?

Meat and Wool!

4

In sheep feeding, is amount or quality more important pertaining to protein?

AMOUNT

(as opposed to chickens)

5

What critical vitamins may need supplementation in the sheep?

A and D

Often in the winter and during confinement

6

T/F: Wool fiber is thinner than hair

TRUE

7

What is the largest single cost on sheep farms?

nutrition/feeding

8

Sheep production is controlled by the efficiency of converting _____ _______ into products (meat, milk, or wool)

Feed resources

9

What are two key components in the sheep diet?

Pasture and forage

10

Many sheep are raised under range conditions. What is the major cause of their high mortality rate?

Poor nutrition

11

What is one of the most important nutrients that sheep need, and typically will need to be brought to pasture for supply?

WATER

12

_____ limits the performance of sheep, especially in lactation and gestation

Energy

13

What will be noted in energy deficient sheep?

Reduced growth
Poor fertility
Decreased wool production

*generally pasture and hay are sufficient - but animals that are lactating/pregnant may need energy supplements

14

Lambs that are finished in feedlots require what kind of supplements?

Energy --> cereals

15

What type of pastures will provide sufficient protein for sheep?

Green pastures

*dried, matured pastures DO NOT

16

Do sheep require mineral supplementation?

YES - should be free choice

Trace minerals like Na, Cl, Co, Fe, Me and Zn

17

What is the BCS scale that is used in sheep?

1 - 5

Normal conditions Ewes will be between 2 - 4

BCS tends to be lower in older animals

18

What points on the body are used to assess BCS in sheep?

Spinous process
Muscle development or fat over transverse process

19

What two feeding systems are used on sheep farms?

Intensive feeding vs Range

*feeding systems vary with production stage, breed, size, occurrence of twins etc

20

What is flushing? When is it done?

It's the process of increasing the nutrition of an ewe before breeding - to increase BCS, increase ovulation rate, and increase lambing rate (by 10-20%)

**want to avoid over conditioning**

21

How does the nutritional needs of a gestating ewe change?

Needs of the fetus will be much higher in the last two months - so nutrition of the ewe should be increased to supplement that (poor nutrition can result in lamb death)

1.First 15 weeks: feeding under normal conditions
2.Last 6 weeks: Critical period for fetus growth - will need to add energy supplement
3.Parturition: good quality forage - supplementation at onset of lactation

22

How high are the needs in the lactating ewe (compared to maintenance)?

2-3 times maintenance

***especially when there are twin lambs

23

When does milk production peak in ewes?

3 weeks

They generally produce between 3- 6 lbs per day

24

What non animal factor will affect the lactation levels of sheep?

Season of lambing

Spring lambing: Ewes do well on pasture plus grain supplement

Fall lambing: Ewes do well on forage plus grain supplement

*lactating ewes should have mineral supplementation - mineral blocks

25

Lambs should nurse within ____ hours post birth

Within the first hour post birth

They need colostrum (**passive immune transfer**), then milk or milk replacer

26

Naturally fed lambs are weaned at ___ days

Artificially reared lambs are weaned as early as ___ days

natural - 60

Artificial - 30

27

To reduce nutritional stress in recently weaned lambs, they should get a _______

Supplement: 18-19% CP and high energy

28

T/F: Lambs can reach market weight while nursing

TRUE (southern Europe)

Not common in the US though

29

At what age to most lambs enter the feedlot for finishing?

5-6 months old

*hay supplemented with grain is the most effective diet for finishing and most cost effective on the feedlot

30

At what age do replacement ewes typically lamb for the first time?

1 or 2 yrs old