Flashcards in Small Ruminants Deck (76)
What is a "doeling"?
A young female goat
What is a CM sheep OR goat called?
What are the functional characteristics of the South African Mutton Merino sheep breed?
Meat and Wool!
In sheep feeding, is amount or quality more important pertaining to protein?
(as opposed to chickens)
What critical vitamins may need supplementation in the sheep?
A and D
Often in the winter and during confinement
T/F: Wool fiber is thinner than hair
What is the largest single cost on sheep farms?
Sheep production is controlled by the efficiency of converting _____ _______ into products (meat, milk, or wool)
What are two key components in the sheep diet?
Pasture and forage
Many sheep are raised under range conditions. What is the major cause of their high mortality rate?
What is one of the most important nutrients that sheep need, and typically will need to be brought to pasture for supply?
_____ limits the performance of sheep, especially in lactation and gestation
What will be noted in energy deficient sheep?
Decreased wool production
*generally pasture and hay are sufficient - but animals that are lactating/pregnant may need energy supplements
Lambs that are finished in feedlots require what kind of supplements?
Energy --> cereals
What type of pastures will provide sufficient protein for sheep?
*dried, matured pastures DO NOT
Do sheep require mineral supplementation?
YES - should be free choice
Trace minerals like Na, Cl, Co, Fe, Me and Zn
What is the BCS scale that is used in sheep?
1 - 5
Normal conditions Ewes will be between 2 - 4
BCS tends to be lower in older animals
What points on the body are used to assess BCS in sheep?
Muscle development or fat over transverse process
What two feeding systems are used on sheep farms?
Intensive feeding vs Range
*feeding systems vary with production stage, breed, size, occurrence of twins etc
What is flushing? When is it done?
It's the process of increasing the nutrition of an ewe before breeding - to increase BCS, increase ovulation rate, and increase lambing rate (by 10-20%)
**want to avoid over conditioning**
How does the nutritional needs of a gestating ewe change?
Needs of the fetus will be much higher in the last two months - so nutrition of the ewe should be increased to supplement that (poor nutrition can result in lamb death)
1.First 15 weeks: feeding under normal conditions
2.Last 6 weeks: Critical period for fetus growth - will need to add energy supplement
3.Parturition: good quality forage - supplementation at onset of lactation
How high are the needs in the lactating ewe (compared to maintenance)?
2-3 times maintenance
***especially when there are twin lambs
When does milk production peak in ewes?
They generally produce between 3- 6 lbs per day
What non animal factor will affect the lactation levels of sheep?
Season of lambing
Spring lambing: Ewes do well on pasture plus grain supplement
Fall lambing: Ewes do well on forage plus grain supplement
*lactating ewes should have mineral supplementation - mineral blocks
Lambs should nurse within ____ hours post birth
Within the first hour post birth
They need colostrum (**passive immune transfer**), then milk or milk replacer
Naturally fed lambs are weaned at ___ days
Artificially reared lambs are weaned as early as ___ days
natural - 60
Artificial - 30
To reduce nutritional stress in recently weaned lambs, they should get a _______
Supplement: 18-19% CP and high energy
T/F: Lambs can reach market weight while nursing
TRUE (southern Europe)
Not common in the US though
At what age to most lambs enter the feedlot for finishing?
5-6 months old
*hay supplemented with grain is the most effective diet for finishing and most cost effective on the feedlot