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RUSVM Nutrition Summer17 > Dairy Cattle > Flashcards

Flashcards in Dairy Cattle Deck (142)
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1

In dairy cattle, when does milking begin?

At calving

2

How long is the lactation period of a dairy cow (per year)?

305 days

followed by a dry period (60 days)

3

How soon after calving is a dairy cow inseminated?

85 days post parturition

4

When does peak milk production occur in dairy cattle?

5 weeks after calving

5

Female calves are kept on artificial milk, weaned at ____ days and reared for another ___ days

Weaned: 35--45 days

Reared: additional 420 days

6

T/F: Dairy farms have births year round

True

This is different than beef cattle cow-calf operations

7

For how many lactations are dairy cattle typically profitable for?

3-5 lactations

Then usually culled
(Issues include: lameness, mastitis, infertility)
*lifespan is 20 years

8

Fat and protein content in milk will ____ until week 10, then stabilizes

Decrease

9

What must increase in dairy cattle as lactation increases?

DMI - dry matter intake

10

When is peak lactation in dairy cattle?

weeks 4-10 (5 is a good reference)

this is followed by a continually decrease until drying off

11

What percentage of dairy operation costs are feed costs?

40-50%

12

Milk production is always limited by ______ (25%) and __________ (75%) components

Genetic/heredity - 25%

Environmental - 75%
(happy cows produce more milk)

13

A cow in lactation that is feed correctly, will use what portion of feed for maintenance and what portion of feed for milk production?

Half for each

*Said this would be on the exam

14

What occurs when a cow in lactation is inadequately fed?

It will draw body reserves for maintenance needs and milk production will drop

**said this will be on the exam

15

In a dairy cow on the first 5 weeks of lactation, the fat content of milk ______, unlike milk _______

Fat content will decrease

unlike milk volume - which will increase (this is peak lactation)

16

What is the basis of most feed rations on dairy farms?

Roughages (pasture, hay, silage)

They are the cheapest source of nutrients

17

T/F: Dairy cattle can do well on high quality roughages alone

FALSE

Because milk production is very demanding, dairy cattle have to be supplemented (concentrate feeding/grains)

18

In cattle, what percentage of the dry matter intake should come from roughages?

60-80%

The rest will come from concentrates and or grain

19

What is the ideal time to produce good quality hay?

Spring

*20% or less moisture content when baled

20

T/F: As a crop matures, cows will eat more of the green chop = more energy intake

FALSE

They will eat LESS of the green chop which results in LESS energy intake

**said this would be on the exam

21

How are silages preserved? What is their moisture content like?

Anaerobic preservation (low O2) - stored in towers, bunkers, bags

Silages have a higher moisture content than dry roughages

22

What is one of the most popular roughages for dairy cattle?

Corn silage

*highly palatable
*made when kernels reach the "dent" stage
*easily stored and handled
*less labor to harvest and feed
*8% DM is protein - low on minerals so supplementation is required
*50% grain on a DM basis

23

Who is straw fed to on dairy farms?

Cheap alternative for feeding dry cows and older heifers

24

Who is pasture ideal for on dairy farms?

Dry cows and old heifers

25

When lactating cows are fed on pasture, what negative side effects may be seen?

Drop in milk production
Drop in milk fat
Bloating
Reduced grain intake
Watery feces
Difficulty getting cows into milk parlor

26

What can be done to limit problems with lactating cows that have pasture as a source of nutrition?

Limit grazing to 1-2 hours a day
Feed dry forage before allowing cows on pastures
Bring cows to barn several hours before feeding (feed silage/hay at that time)

27

Why are grains included in dairy rations?

For energy content

*energy content is a limiting factor in milk production*

28

What issues occur if grain is too finely ground?

lower digestibility and lower % milk fat

Acidosis

29

What is the most commonly used grain in dairy cattle rations?

Corn

high energy
high palatability

30

Compared to corn cereal, what is the energy and protein content of oats?

Lower energy content than corn

Higher protein content than corn

(lower digestibility than corn)