Flashcards in CNS and PNS** Deck (50)
Where are the cranial meninges located?
Between bone and soft tissue
What is the function of the cranial meninges?
Enclose and protect the brain and spinal cord
Outermost layer membrane made of tough, white dense connective tissue. Contains many blood vessels
Middle layer that is thin and has no blood vessels
Located between the arachnoid mater and pia mater in the subarachnoid space
innermost membrane that is attached to the surface of the brain and spinal cord. Contains many vessels
Medical condition caused by inflammation of the meninges
Provides physical stability and shock absorption for spinal cord; blood vessels within the meninges deliver oxygen and nutrients to the spinal cord
Spinal cord meninges
What are 2 functions of the spinal cord?
Conduct nerve impulses, serving as the integration center for spinal reflexes
Carries sensory information to the brain
Conduct motor impulses from the brain to the effector
Lies between the dura mater and walls of the vertebral canal
What does the epidural region include?
Loose connective tissue, blood vessels, adipose tissue
How many segments does the spinal cord consist of?
What does a central canal contain?
What is the CSF flow in order?
lateral ventricle, interventricular foramen, 3rd ventricle, cerebral aqueduct, 4th ventricle, central canal
Specialized capillaries that secrete CSF into the ventricles; produces CSF
CSF is removed form the subarachnoid space
What can cross the blood brain barrier?
Lipid soluble compounds, uncharged oxygen and carbon dioxide molecules
Where is the brainstem located?
Between the cerebrum and spinal cord
Controls visceral activities
Relays information from medulla to cerebrum and maintain rhythm of breathing
Visual and auditory reflex centers
Provides timing for coordinated skeletal muscle activity; controls balance and equilibrium
Located between the cerebral hemispheres
Sensory impulses and general awareness of pain and touch
Produce hormone melatonin that controls our circadian rhythms
Maintains homeostasis by regulating visceral activities, links endocrine and nervous system
What are the 4 major lobes of the cerebrum?
Frontal, parietal, occipital,temporal
Motor areas involved with control of voluntary muscles, concentration, planning, problem solving, home of personality
Sensory areas involved with cutaneous and other senses, understanding speech, using words
Interpretation of sensory experiences, memory of visual and auditory patterns
Combines visual images, visual recognition of objects
Controls language related abilities, movement on left side of the body
Controls language related activities of speech, writing, reading, intellectual functions
Mass of white matter in the brain composed of nerve fibers connecting the right and left hemispheres
Elevations on the brain
Shallow grooves on the brain
Consists of the cranial and spinal nerves that arise from the CNS and travel to the remainder of the body
Cranial and spinal nerves that connect the CNS to skin and skeletal muscles; oversees conscious activity
Somatic nervous system
Nerve fibers that connect the CNS to viscera, heart, glands, stomach, intestines; oversees unconscious activity
Autonomic nervous systme
Prepares the body for energy expending, stressful for emergency situations; fight or flight respons
Sympathetic nervous system
Portion of the PNS that functions without conscious effort, control visceral functions by regulating actions of smooth cardiac muscles and glands
Autonomic nervous system
Counterbalances the effects of the sympathetic division and restores the body to a resting state following a stressful experience
Parasympathetic nervous system
Where is the choroid plexus located?
Behind pons and medulla oblongata
What are the 4 major areas of the brain?
Brainstem, cerebellum, deincephalon, cerebrum
What structures do the brainstem include?
Pons, midbrain, medulla oblongata
What structures do the cerebrum include?
Frontal, parietal, occipital, temporal
What structures does the deincephalon include?
Thalamus, hypothalamus, pineal gland