Endocrine System** Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Endocrine System** Deck (83):
1

What is the function of the endocrine system?

Maintain homeostasis by releasing hormones and control prolonged continuous processes

2

How does the endocrine and nervous system work together?

Coordinate and direct the activity of the body's cells and to maintain homeostasis

3

What kind of cells are in the endocrine system?

Glandular epithelium

4

What kind of chemical signals does the endocrine system have?

Hormones

5

What is the specificity of response in the endocrine system?

Receptors on target cells

6

What is the speed of onset in the endocrine system?

Seconds to hours

7

How long is the duration of action in the endocrine system?

May be brief or may last for days if secretion ceases

8

Release their products at the body's surface (epithelium) or into body cavities through ducts; ducted

Exocrine Glands

9

What are some examples of exocrine glands?

Sweat, oil, saliva, pancreas, liver

10

Produce hormones that release into the blood or lymph; ductless

Endocrine glands

11

What are some examples of endocrine glands?

Pituitary, thyroid, pancreas, thymus

12

Chemical messengers released into the blood to be transported leisurely throughout the body

Hormones

13

Cells with specific receptors on which hormones exert their effect

Target cells

14

Where must protein receptors be present so the hormone can attach?

Plasma membrane

15

What does a hormone depend on so it could interact with its customers' receptors?

Molecular structure

16

Made from cholesterol; can pass straight through the target cell's membrane and cytoplasm and into its nucleus

Steroid

17

What are steroid hormones soluble in?

Lipids

18

What are steroid hormones insoluble in?

Water

19

Amino acid based molecules; activates/deactivates enzymes that trigger the desired change to the cell's activities

Non-steroid hormones

20

What prompts the endocrine glands to release or not release their hormones?

Negative feedback

21

What is hormone secretion activated by?

Internal or external stimulus

22

What do rising hormones inhibit?

Further hormone release

23

Endocrine organs are prodded into action by other hormones

Hormonal stimuli

24

What are some examples of hormonal stimuli?

Hypothalamus stimulates the anterior pituitary gland to secrete its hormone

25

Changing blood levels of certain ions and nutrients

Humoral stimuli

26

What are some examples of humoral stimuli?

Decreasing calcium levels stimulates the parathyroid ormone

27

Nerve fibers stimulate hormone release

Neural stimuli

28

What are some examples of neural stimuli?

Adrenal medulla releases norepinephrine and epinephrine during periods of stress

29

What types of chemicals can hormones be?

Steroids, peptides, amines, proteins, glycoproteins

30

Locally-produced lipids that affect the organ in which they are produced with a variety of effects

Prostaglandins

31

What are some effects of Prostaglandins?

Relax or contract smooth muscle, stimulate secretion, influence blood pressure

32

Hormones that have another endocrine gland as their target

Tropic hormones

33

What 2 hormones does the anterior pituitary produce?

Growth hormones, prolactin

34

Stimulates body cells to grow and reproduce

Growth hormone

35

What factors influence growth besides GH?

Nutritional status

36

What hormones from the hypothalamus control the levels of GH?

GH-releasing and GH-inhibiting

37

What disorders may result from a lack/too much GH?

Gigantism, dwarfism

38

Promotes milk production in lactating women

Prolactin

39

What hypothalamic hormones affect prolactin?

PRL releasing hormone

40

Controls secretions of the thyroid gland

Thyroid stimulating hormone

41

What hypothalamic hormone affects the release of the thyroid stimulating hormone?

TRH

42

What hormone does ACTH affect the release of?

Cortisol

43

What is the name of te hormone that controls ACTH's release?

Corticotropin releasing hormone

44

Hormone that makes testes produce sperm and ovaries to produce eggs and release estrogen

Follicle stimulating hormone

45

What hormone from the hypothalamus controls the release of follicle stimulating hormone?

Gonadotropin releasing hormone

46

Causes ovulation and formation of corpus luteum in the ovary which releases estrogen and progesterone

Luteinizing hormone

47

What controls the relase of luteinizing hormones?

Gonadotropin releasing hormone

48

What structure actually produces the hormones released by the posterior pituitary?

Hypothalamus

49

Cause kidneys to conserve water

Antidiuretic hormone

50

What disease can occur if not enough antidiuretic hormone is released?

Diabetes

51

What 2 hormones does the posterior pituitary produce?

Oxytocin, antidiuretic hormone

52

Causes contractions of the uterus wall and milk letdown during breastfeeding

Oxytocin

53

What 2 hormones does the thyroid gland produce?

Thyroxine and Triiodothyronine

54

Regulates metabolism

T4 and T3

55

Lowers blood levels of calcium and phosphate ions

Calcitonin

56

Increases blood calcium levels by stimulating osteoclasts to break down bone tissue and release calcium into blood and influences kidneys to conserve calcium ions

Parathyroid Hormone

57

What 2 hormones are produced by the adrenal medulla?

Epinephrine and Norepinephrine

58

What effects do epinephrine and norepinephrine have on the body?

Similar effects to those of the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system

59

What 3 hormones are produced by the adrenal cortex?

Aldosterone, Glucocorticoids, sex hormones

60

Controls the levels of sodium ions by conserving them in the kidneys

Mineralcorticoids

61

Influence the metabolism of glucose, protein, and fat

Glucocorticoids

62

Supplement hormones released by the gonads and may stimulate early development of reproductive organs

Sex hormones

63

What hormone does the pancreas produce?

Glucagon

64

Increases the blood levels of glucose by stimulating the breakdown of glycogen and the conversion of noncarbohydrates into glucose

Glucagon

65

What does the pineal gland secrete?

Melatonin

66

Involves the regulation of circadian rhythms in the body

Melatonin

67

What does the thymus gland secrete?

Thymosin

68

Affect production and differentiation of T lymphocytes that are important in immunity

Thymosin

69

What 2 hormones do the ovaries produce?

Estrogen and progesterone

70

What 4 hormones does the placenta produce?

Estrogen, progesterone, Human chorionic gonadotropin, relaxin

71

What hormone does the testes produce?

Testosterone

72

Secrete hormones associated with the processes of digestion

Digestive gland

73

Secretes atrial natriuretic peptide affecting sodium

Heart

74

Secrete erythropoietin for blood cell production

Kidneys

75

What do salivary glands secrete?

Amylase

76

Active in breaking down starches

Amylase

77

Releases when food passes through the pyloric sphincter

Gastrin

78

Produced by the liver and stored in the gall bladder until it is released into the small intestine to break down lipids

Bile

79

Released when acidic food enters the first part of the small intestine (duodenum)

Secretin

80

Causes mother's pelvic ligaments and the pubic symphysis to relax and become more flexible

Relaxin

81

Prepare breasts for lactation

Human placental lactogen

82

Produced by the embryo & then by the fetal part of the placenta

Human chorionic gonadotropin

83

What 4 hormones does the anterior pituitary release?

Thyroid stimulating hormone, ACTH, follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone