Blood/Cardiovascular System** Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Blood/Cardiovascular System** Deck (123)
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1

From the right side to lungs; sends deoxygenated blood to lungs to pick up oxygen and unload carbon dioxide

Pulmonary Circuit

2

From the left side to the body; sends oxygen-rich blood and nutrients to all the body cells and removes wastes

Systemic Circuit

3

What is the exception to the rules of arteries and veins?

Pulmonaries

4

Carries blood away from the heart

Arteries

5

Carries blood to the heart

Veins

6

Do arteries bring oxygenated or deoxygenated blood?

Oxygenated

7

Do veins bring oxygenated or deoxygenated blood?

Deoxygenated

8

Divides the ventricles

Interventricular septum

9

Divides the atriums

Interatrial septum

10

What is the blood flow through the heart?

Superior/inferior vena cava, right atrium, tricuspid valve, right ventricle, semi-lunar pulmonary valve, pulmonary artery, pulmonary vein, left atrium, bicuspid valve, left ventricle, aortic semi-lunar valve, aorta

11

Abnormally low neutrophil count

Neutropenia

12

Study of blood

Hematology

13

General coagulation defect disorder

Hemophilia

14

Clumping of cells

Aggulitination

15

White blood cells

Leukocytes

16

Process to stop bleeding

Hemostasis

17

Oxygen-binding protein in red blood cells

Hemoglobin

18

Heme waste product made by the liver

Bilirubin

19

Red blood cells

Erythrocytes

20

Also called gamma globulins or immunoglobins

Antibodies

21

Major inflammatory granulocyte; releases histamine during inflammatory reactions

Basophil

22

Most abundant white blood cell

Neutrophil

23

Essential ion for coagulation

Calcium

24

Specialized shape of red blood cells

Biconcave

25

Activated by tissue factor

Extrinsic coagulation pathway

26

Lack of intrinsic factor

Pernicious anemia

27

Major anti-helminth white blood cell; increases during allergic attacks

Eosinophil

28

Most abundant plasma proteins

Alumbins

29

Low hematocrit disorder

Anemia

30

Major positive accelerator for coagulation

Thrombin

31

Hormone that stimulates RBC production

Erythropoietin

32

After originating in bone marrow, may be formed in lymphoid tissue

Lymphocyte

33

What are the 3 granulocytes?

Basophils, Eosinophils, Neutrophils

34

Ions in blood plasma

Electrolytes

35

Largest white blood cell; migrates to tissue to become macrophage

Monocytes

36

Oxygen binding portion of hemoglobin

Heme

37

% by volume of RBCs in blood

Hematocrit

38

Fluid portion of blood including clotting factors

Plasma

39

Layer of WBC in centrifuged blood tube

Buffy coat

40

Process of blood clotting

Coagulation

41

pH of blood is slightly ______

Alkaline

42

Protein threads; structural basis of a clot

Fibrin

43

Fluid portion of blood without clotting factors

Serum

44

Organ that secretes erythropoietin

Kidney

45

Prevents Rh- mother from reacting to Rh+ fetus

Rhogam

46

Platelets

Thrombocyte

47

What 2 organs are major RBC recycling organs

Spleen and Liver

48

What 2 leukocytes are agranulocytes?

Monocyte and Lymphocyte

49

Mass of specialized cardiac muscle located in the right atrium and near the opening of the superior vena cava

SA node/ Sinatorial node

50

Mass of specialized cardiac muscle located in the atria and ventricule junction

AV node/ Atrioventricular node

51

Receives impulse from AV node; located in the upper part of the interventricular septum and divides in to right and left branches

Bundle of His

52

Spread from the interventricular septum into the papillary muscles; impulses result in a ventricular contraction

Purkinje fibers

53

Contraction phase of the heart cavity

Systole

54

Period of relaxation of the heart during which it fills with blood

Diastole

55

What is the normal sinus rhythm?

60-100 bpm

56

Abnormal or irregular heartbeat

Arrhythmia

57

Rapid uncoordinated shuddering of the heart muscle

Ventricular Fibrillation

58

Higher than normal heart rate

Tachycardia

59

Lower than normal heart rate

Bradycardia

60

Blood's turbulence from closure of AV's ventricles contract

Lubb sound

61

Blood turbulence from the closure of semi-lunar valves as ventricles relax

Dubb sound

62

Mass of merging fibers that act as a unit

Functional Synctium

63

Where are the function synctium located?

Atria and ventricles

64

Self-exciting mass of specialized cardiac muscle

Sinatorial Node

65

Signals the depolarization of the atria

P wave

66

Results from the depolarization of the ventricles

QRS complex

67

Repolarization of the ventricles

T wave

68

How many heartbeats are in a day?

100,000

69

How many heartbeats are in a lifetime?

2.5 billion

70

How many liters of blood are pumped in a day?

7,000

71

Where is the heart located?

Mediastinum

72

Dense connective tissue that covers the heart

Fibrous Pericardium

73

Tightly hugs the external surface of the heart and is part of the heart wall

Visceral pericardium

74

Reduces friction between membranes as the heart moves

Pericardial cavity

75

Forms the inner lining of the fibrous pericardium

Parietal pericardium

76

Outer layer of the heart

Epicardium

77

Middle layer of the heart that contains thick bundles of cardiac muscles

Myocardium

78

Inner layer of the heart that lines the chambers

Endocardium

79

Upper walled chambers of the heart; receiving chambers

Atria

80

Lower muscular walled chambers; pumping chambers of the heart

Ventricles

81

Fibrous strings that attach to cusps

Chordae tendinae

82

Between right ventricle and pulmonary arteries

Pulmonary valve

83

Between left atrium and left ventricle

Bicuspid valve

84

Heart attack

Myocardial infarction

85

Supply blood to the tissues of the heart

Coronary arteries

86

Alternate pathways that develop over time if a coronary artery is blocked

Collateral circuit

87

Drain blood that has passed through the myocardium and empty into the coronary sinus and into the right atrium

Cardiac veins

88

Short vessel that connects the aorta and pulmonary trunk

Ductus arteriosus

89

A flap like opening in the interarterial septum

Foramen ovale

90

Rank the leukocytes from most common to least common

Neutrophil, Lymphocyte, Monocyte, Eosinophil, Basophil

91

Blood is pumped by the heart into body cavities

Open circulatory system

92

Blood is pumped by the heart through vessels and doesn't usually fill body cavities

Closed circulatory system

93

Has elastic, collagen fibers; outer coat of the arteries

Tunica external

94

The thickest layer of the arteries; has elastic fibers and smooth muscles, helps with vasoconstriction and vasodilation

Tunica media

95

Has the endothelium and basement membrane

Tunica interna

96

Has more elastic fibers and is thinner; pressure reservoir

Large arteries

97

Has more smooth muscles and is thicker; most vasodynamic

Medium arteries

98

Regulate blood into capillaries

Arterioles

99

Band of smooth muscle that adjusts blood flow into each capillary

Precapillary sphincter

100

Plaque build up on the insides of the arteries

Atherosclerosis

101

Consists of endothelium; smallest diameter blood vessel

Capillaries

102

What do capillaries connect?

Arterioles and venuoles

103

Force that blood exerts against the inner walls of blood vessels

Blood pressure

104

What are 5 things that affect blood pressure?

Sympathetic nerves, kidneys, temperature, chemicals, diet

105

Causes vasoconstriction

Sympathetic nerves

106

What chemicals are vasoconstrictors?

Epinephrine, nicotine

107

What chemicals are vasodilators?

Histamine, alcohol

108

Affects BP by altering blood volume

Kidneys

109

What type of temperature do you need to cause vasodilation?

Hot

110

What type of temperature do you need to cause vasoconstriction

Cold

111

Pressure at the peak of ventricular contraction

Systolic

112

Pressure when ventricles relax

Diastolic

113

What is the formula for blood pressure?

Systolic/diastolic

114

Recording of the electrical activity of the heart

Electrocardiogram

115

What is the equation for the cardiac output?

CO= heart rate x stroke volume

116

Want are some factors that can increase cardiac output?

Fear, epinephrine, thyroxine, exercise, activation of the sympathetic nervous system, low BP, fever

117

Why are valves present in veins but not in arteries?

Valves prevent the back flow of blood in veins

118

Expansion and recoil of an artery during heart activity

Pulse

119

Event primarily responsible for peripheral resistance

Constriction of Arterioles

120

Site where blood pressure determinations are normally made

Over Arteries

121

Sounds heard over a blood vessel when the vessel is partially compressed

Sounds of korotkoff

122

What is the intrinsic conduction pathway?

SA node, AV node, bundle of his, AV bundle branches, purkinje fibers

123

The critical factor that determines the force of heartbeat, or stroke volume, is the degree of stretch of the cardiac muscle just before it contracts

Starling's law