Flashcards in Blood/Cardiovascular System** Deck (123)
From the right side to lungs; sends deoxygenated blood to lungs to pick up oxygen and unload carbon dioxide
From the left side to the body; sends oxygen-rich blood and nutrients to all the body cells and removes wastes
What is the exception to the rules of arteries and veins?
Carries blood away from the heart
Carries blood to the heart
Do arteries bring oxygenated or deoxygenated blood?
Do veins bring oxygenated or deoxygenated blood?
Divides the ventricles
Divides the atriums
What is the blood flow through the heart?
Superior/inferior vena cava, right atrium, tricuspid valve, right ventricle, semi-lunar pulmonary valve, pulmonary artery, pulmonary vein, left atrium, bicuspid valve, left ventricle, aortic semi-lunar valve, aorta
Abnormally low neutrophil count
Study of blood
General coagulation defect disorder
Clumping of cells
White blood cells
Process to stop bleeding
Oxygen-binding protein in red blood cells
Heme waste product made by the liver
Red blood cells
Also called gamma globulins or immunoglobins
Major inflammatory granulocyte; releases histamine during inflammatory reactions
Most abundant white blood cell
Essential ion for coagulation
Specialized shape of red blood cells
Activated by tissue factor
Extrinsic coagulation pathway
Lack of intrinsic factor
Major anti-helminth white blood cell; increases during allergic attacks
Most abundant plasma proteins
Low hematocrit disorder
Major positive accelerator for coagulation
Hormone that stimulates RBC production
After originating in bone marrow, may be formed in lymphoid tissue
What are the 3 granulocytes?
Basophils, Eosinophils, Neutrophils
Ions in blood plasma
Largest white blood cell; migrates to tissue to become macrophage
Oxygen binding portion of hemoglobin
% by volume of RBCs in blood
Fluid portion of blood including clotting factors
Layer of WBC in centrifuged blood tube
Process of blood clotting
pH of blood is slightly ______
Protein threads; structural basis of a clot
Fluid portion of blood without clotting factors
Organ that secretes erythropoietin
Prevents Rh- mother from reacting to Rh+ fetus
What 2 organs are major RBC recycling organs
Spleen and Liver
What 2 leukocytes are agranulocytes?
Monocyte and Lymphocyte
Mass of specialized cardiac muscle located in the right atrium and near the opening of the superior vena cava
SA node/ Sinatorial node
Mass of specialized cardiac muscle located in the atria and ventricule junction
AV node/ Atrioventricular node
Receives impulse from AV node; located in the upper part of the interventricular septum and divides in to right and left branches
Bundle of His
Spread from the interventricular septum into the papillary muscles; impulses result in a ventricular contraction
Contraction phase of the heart cavity
Period of relaxation of the heart during which it fills with blood
What is the normal sinus rhythm?
Abnormal or irregular heartbeat
Rapid uncoordinated shuddering of the heart muscle
Higher than normal heart rate
Lower than normal heart rate
Blood's turbulence from closure of AV's ventricles contract
Blood turbulence from the closure of semi-lunar valves as ventricles relax
Mass of merging fibers that act as a unit
Where are the function synctium located?
Atria and ventricles
Self-exciting mass of specialized cardiac muscle
Signals the depolarization of the atria
Results from the depolarization of the ventricles
Repolarization of the ventricles
How many heartbeats are in a day?
How many heartbeats are in a lifetime?
How many liters of blood are pumped in a day?
Where is the heart located?
Dense connective tissue that covers the heart
Tightly hugs the external surface of the heart and is part of the heart wall
Reduces friction between membranes as the heart moves
Forms the inner lining of the fibrous pericardium
Outer layer of the heart
Middle layer of the heart that contains thick bundles of cardiac muscles
Inner layer of the heart that lines the chambers
Upper walled chambers of the heart; receiving chambers
Lower muscular walled chambers; pumping chambers of the heart
Fibrous strings that attach to cusps
Between right ventricle and pulmonary arteries
Between left atrium and left ventricle
Supply blood to the tissues of the heart
Alternate pathways that develop over time if a coronary artery is blocked
Drain blood that has passed through the myocardium and empty into the coronary sinus and into the right atrium
Short vessel that connects the aorta and pulmonary trunk
A flap like opening in the interarterial septum
Rank the leukocytes from most common to least common
Neutrophil, Lymphocyte, Monocyte, Eosinophil, Basophil
Blood is pumped by the heart into body cavities
Open circulatory system
Blood is pumped by the heart through vessels and doesn't usually fill body cavities
Closed circulatory system
Has elastic, collagen fibers; outer coat of the arteries
The thickest layer of the arteries; has elastic fibers and smooth muscles, helps with vasoconstriction and vasodilation
Has the endothelium and basement membrane
Has more elastic fibers and is thinner; pressure reservoir
Has more smooth muscles and is thicker; most vasodynamic
Regulate blood into capillaries
Band of smooth muscle that adjusts blood flow into each capillary
Plaque build up on the insides of the arteries
Consists of endothelium; smallest diameter blood vessel
What do capillaries connect?
Arterioles and venuoles
Force that blood exerts against the inner walls of blood vessels
What are 5 things that affect blood pressure?
Sympathetic nerves, kidneys, temperature, chemicals, diet
What chemicals are vasoconstrictors?
What chemicals are vasodilators?
Affects BP by altering blood volume
What type of temperature do you need to cause vasodilation?
What type of temperature do you need to cause vasoconstriction
Pressure at the peak of ventricular contraction
Pressure when ventricles relax
What is the formula for blood pressure?
Recording of the electrical activity of the heart
What is the equation for the cardiac output?
CO= heart rate x stroke volume
Want are some factors that can increase cardiac output?
Fear, epinephrine, thyroxine, exercise, activation of the sympathetic nervous system, low BP, fever
Why are valves present in veins but not in arteries?
Valves prevent the back flow of blood in veins
Expansion and recoil of an artery during heart activity
Event primarily responsible for peripheral resistance
Constriction of Arterioles
Site where blood pressure determinations are normally made
Sounds heard over a blood vessel when the vessel is partially compressed
Sounds of korotkoff
What is the intrinsic conduction pathway?
SA node, AV node, bundle of his, AV bundle branches, purkinje fibers