Semester 2 Exam** Flashcards Preview

Anatomy and Physiology > Semester 2 Exam** > Flashcards

Flashcards in Semester 2 Exam** Deck (136)
Loading flashcards...
1

Closes off the larynx during swallowing

Epiglottis

2

Windpipe

Trachea

3

Smallest conducting respiratory passageways

Bronchioles

4

Organs of gas exchange

Lungs

5

Known as the breathing muscle; separates the abdominal cavity from the thoracic cavity

Diaphragm

6

Helps keep particles from entering the trachea and aso houses the vocal cords

Larynx

7

Separates the oral cavity from the nasal cavity

Hard palate

8

Breaks down starch during mechanical digestion

Amylase

9

Helps with mechanical digestion

Teeth

10

What are teeth made of?

Enamel, dentin, pulp, cementum, nerves, blood vessels

11

Mixing food with saliva

Bolus

12

Series of muscular contractions

Peristalsis

13

Helps to break down protein

Pepsin

14

Watery mixture of stomach fluids and food

Chyme

15

Finger like projections in the small intestine

Villi

16

Keeps the small intestines together

Mesentary

17

What are the 3 parts of the small intestine?

Duodenum, jejunum, ileum

18

What are the 4 parts of the large intestine?

Ascending, traverse, descending, rectal

19

What accessory organ produces bile?

Liver

20

What does bile break down?

Fat, carbs, proteins, detoxes alcohol

21

What does the pancreas secrete?

Insulin and pancreatic juices

22

What is the function of the pancreas?

Produce insulin to regulate blood sugar levels, produce pancreatic juices to break down nutrients, produce sodium bicarbonate to neutralize stomach acid

23

Detects tissue damage

Pain receptors

24

Responds to temperature

Thermoreceptors

25

Small oval masses of flattened connective tissue; detects changes in pressure or movement

Mechanoreceptors

26

Detect light energy

Photoreceptors

27

Oxygen-binding protein in red blood cells

Hemoglobin

28

Low hematocrit disorder

Anemia

29

Senses change in the chemical concentration of substances

Chemoreceptors

30

What is the function of red blood cells?

Increase surface area and transporting gases

31

The production of red blood cells

Erythropoiesis

32

What hormone stimulates erythropoiesis?

Erythropoietin

33

What is the function of the leukocytes?

Protect against infection

34

Squeezing of leukocytes between the cells of blood vessel walls

Diapedesis

35

The hormone that stimulates megakaryocytes and platelets develop from hemocytoblasts

Thrombopoietin

36

What is the function of thrombocytes?

Help in blood clotting

37

A decrease in the diameter of a blood vessel

Vasoconstriction

38

An increase in the diameter of a blood vessel

Vasodilation

39

Part of the pharynx in the posterior part of the nasal cavity

Nasopharynx

40

What is the function of the nasopharynx?

Provides a passageway for air during breathing

41

Passageway for food moving downward fro the mouth and for air moving to and from the nasal cavity

Oropharynx

42

Binds food particles and lubricates the food during swallowing

Mucus

43

Secretion of the gastric glands in the stomach

Gastric juices

44

Hormone secreted by the pancreatic islets that releases stored glucose

Glucagon

45

Lymphocyte that produces and secretes antibodies that bind and destroy foreign antigens

B cell

46

Proteins that B cells of the immune system produce in response to nonself antigens

Antibodies

47

Chemicals that stimulate B cells to produce antibodies

Antigens

48

A type of lymphocyte that interacts directly with antigens, producing the cellular immune response

T cell

49

What is the function of lacteals?

Absorb digested fats and transport them to the venous circulation

50

Where are lacteals located?

Lining of the small intestine

51

Beginning of the large intestine; a large dilated pouchlike structure that hangs slightly below the ileocecal opening

Cecum

52

Thick folds of the stomach's inner lining

Rugae

53

Blood vessels located on the surface of the heart

Coronary blood vessels

54

Brings newly absorbed nutrients into the sinusoids and nourishes hepatic cells

Hepatic veins

55

Encloses, protects and regulates the temperature of the testes

Scrotum

56

Produces sperm cells and secretes male sex hormones

Testes

57

Stores sperm cells undergoing maturation

Epididymis

58

Conveys sperm cells to ejaculatory duct

Ductus deferens

59

Helps to reduce the acidity of semen

Prostate gland

60

Secretes fluid to lubricate penis

Cowpers/bulbourethral gland

61

Conveys semen into the vagina during sexual intercourse

Penis

62

Produces oocytes and female sex hormones

Ovaries

63

Conveys secondary oocyte to the uterus; site of fertilization

Fallopian tubes

64

Protects and sustains embryo during pregnancy

Uterus

65

Narrow inferior end of uterus that leads into the vagina

Cervix

66

Provides an open channel for offspring during the birth process

Vagina

67

Cartilage on rib bones that attaches to the sternum; helps rib cage to expand during inhaling/exhaling

Intercostal cartilage

68

General defense mechanism against pathogens; born with it

Innate

69

What is the first line of defense?

Skin and mucous

70

What is the 2nd line of defense?

Chemical barriers, natural killer cells, inflammation, phagocytosis, fever

71

What are some examples of chemical barriers?

enzymes, HCl, gastric juices

72

Defends against virus and cancer cells

Natural killer cells

73

What is the 3rd line of defense?

Antigens (B-cells and T-cells)

74

Target specific to pathogens (toxins, metabolic products produced by pathogens)

Adaptive

75

What is the difference between B-cells and T-cells?

T-cells will need phagocytosis to happen before it can digest the antigen

76

A response that must interact with another cell before it happens

Cell mediated response

77

A response that happens in blood and bodily fluids

Humoral response

78

What is the function of the lymph trunks?

Drain lymph from the body

79

What are the names of the collecting ducts?

Thoracic and right duct

80

What blood vessels do collecting ducts drain into?

Subclavian vein

81

Bean shaped with blood vessel nerves and efferent lymphatic vessels attached to the hilum

Lymph nodes

82

What does the lymph node contain?

Lymphocytes and macrophages

83

Hormones that influences the maturation of T lymphocytes

Thymosin

84

What is the function of the spleen in the lymphatic system?

Filters blood and removes damaged blood cells and bacteria

85

What are the 2 functions of the lymphatic system?

To circulate different materials and to protect against pathogens

86

What is the difference between veins and lymph vessels?

Lymph vessels have flap-like valves

87

What happens when large lymph vessels merge?

Become lymphatic trunks

88

Tiny close-ended tubes that extend into interstitial spaces

Lymph capillary

89

Fluid inside of lymph capillaries

Lymph

90

What do lymph capillaries receive?

Tissue fluid

91

What are the functions of the lymphatic system?

Immunity and the transportation of fluids

92

What are the components of a lymphatic pathway?

Lymphatic capillaries, lymphatic vessels, lymphatic trunk, collecting ducts

93

How is tissue fluid formed?

Blood plasma leaving blood capillaries

94

What is the composition of tissue fluid?

Water and dissolved substances

95

How is lymph formed?

Tissue fluid entering a lymphatic capillary

96

What is the function of lymph?

Transporting foreign particles to lymph nodes

97

Describe the forces responsible for the circulation of lymph

Muscular activity and hydrostatic pressure of tissue fluid

98

A condition that interferes with the flow in lymph

Edema

99

What is the function of lymph nodes?

Filtering potentially harmful particles from lymph; monitoring body fluids

100

What is the the function of macrophages?

Engulf and destroy foreign substances, damaged cells, and cellular debris

101

Inflammation of the lymph nodes

Lymphadenitis

102

What is the function of the thymus gland?

Releases thymosin that helps to mature T-cells

103

What characteristics of the spleen allow it to function as a blood reservoir?

It has venous sinuses and blood capillaries in he pulp are permeable

104

What characters in the spleen allow it to function in the defense against foreign particles?

It has macrophages in the splenic sinus

105

What kinds of agents cause disease?

Pathogens

106

What are 2 major types of defenses prevent disease?

Innate and adaptive

107

An organism or species develops a disease that are unique to it

Species resistance

108

What structures function as mechanical barriers?

mucus membranes and skin

109

What enzymes help us resist infection?

Lysozyme, HCl, pepsin, salt

110

Bind to receptors on uninfected cells, stimulating them to synthesize proteins to prevent replication

Interferon

111

Tissue response to an injury or infection causing redness and swelling

Inflammation

112

Blood vessel dilation that increases blood flow

Redness

113

Increase in permeability of nearby capillaries

Swelling

114

Blood from deeper body parts

Heat

115

Stimulation of nearby pain receptors

Pain

116

How does fever help protect the body from pathogens?

It helps to destroy enzymes that make pathogens grow

117

Describe how inflammation is a defense against infection

Release chemicals that attract white blood cells to inflammation sites where they phagocytize pathogens

118

Where do lymphocytes originate?

Red bone marrow

119

What is the difference between B and T lymphocytes?

B originates in bone marrow while T is in the thymus

120

What are the functions of lymphocytes?

Respond to antigens; immunity

121

How do lymphocytes carry out these functions?

Cell mediated and humoral response

122

Involves a phagocyte digesting an antigen before this response can happen

Cell mediated

123

Involves a B-cell digesting an entire antigen; happens in body fluids

Humoral

124

B or T cells produced in the primary immune response that respond rapidly if the same antigen is encountered again

Memory cells

125

Destroy specific antigens or antigen bearing particles

Antibodies

126

The first time a B or T cells encounters an antigen, release some antibodies

Primary immune response

127

Memory B or T cells will recognize the antigen right away and releases lots of antibodies

Secondary immune response

128

Exposure to live pathogens

Naturally acquired active immunity

129

Exposure to a vaccine containing weakened or dead pathogens

Artificially acquired active immunity

130

Injection or gamma globulin containing antibodies

Artificially acquired passive immunity

131

Antibodies passed to the fetus from the mother

Naturally acquired passive immunity

132

Repeated exposure of the skin to certain allergens which activates T-cells to respond

Delayed allergic reaction

133

Activates B-cells right away and attacks the allergen

Immediate allergic reaction

134

How is a tissue rejection reaction an immune response?

Immune system may think of the tissue as foreign so it attacks it

135

What could we do to reduce the possibility of tissue/organ rejection?

Immunosuppressive drugs

136

Trace the flow of lymph capillaries to the subclavian veins

Lymph capillaries, afferent lymphatic vessels, efferent lymphatic vessels, lymph trunk, collecting duct, subclavian vein