Integumentary System Flashcards Preview

Anatomy and Physiology > Integumentary System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Integumentary System Deck (70):
1

Two or more types of tissues working together to perform a specialized function

organ

2

What is the largest organ in the body by weight?

skin

3

What makes up the integumentary system?

Skin and accessory organs

4

What are the functions of the integumentary system?

regulate body temperature, protective temperature, excrete wastes, slows water loss, houses sensory receptors

5

Close to the blood supply in the dermis, only stratum healthy enough to reproduce

stratum basale

6

What is the epidermis made of?

Stratified squamous epithelium

7

What does the epidermis lack?

blood vessels

8

How is the epidermis nourished?

blood vessels in dermis

9

Protects the underlying tissues and keep out disease-causing microorganisms

epidermis

10

Cells located in the epidermis that produces melanin

melanocytes

11

a dark pigment that provides color in skin

melanin

12

What do differences in skin color result from?

amount and size of melanin, genetics, UV rays, x-rays, diet

13

Cancer that arise from epithelial cells

cutaneous carcinomas

14

Cancer that arise from melanocytes

cutaneous melanomas

15

What is the most common skin cancer?

cutaneous carcinomas

16

Functions to bind the epidermis to underlying tissues

dermis

17

what is the dermis composed of?

Collagen and elastin fibers

18

What does the dermis contain?

blood vessels, nerves, hair follicles, glands, touch receptors

19

What is the subcutaneous layer composed of?

loose connective tissues and insulating adipose tissue

20

Binds the skin to underlying organs

subcutaneous layer

21

Protective coverings over the ends of fingers and toes

nails

22

what are nails composed of?

stratified squamous epithelium overlying the nail bed

23

what happens as new nail cells are produced?

old cells are pushed outward and get keratinized

24

what is the most active growing region of the nail root?

lunula

25

a structure extending from the epidermal surface into the dermis

hair follicle

26

where are hair follicles located?

dermis

27

Gland that softens and lubricates the skin and hair

sebaceous gland

28

an active inflammation of the sebaceous glands

acne

29

develop when a sebaceous gland is blocked by accumulated sebum

whitehead

30

develop when blocked material oxidizes and dries

blackheads

31

What are the 4 types of sweat glands?

eccrine, apocrine, ceruminous, mammary

32

Sweat gland found on forehead, neck and back

eccrine

33

Sweat gland found on axillary region and groin area

apocrine

34

Sweat gland lining of the external ear canal

ceruminous

35

what does the ceruminous gland secrete?

earwax

36

gland that secretes milk

mammary

37

Controls the internal body temperature; responds to sensory signals from the temperature receptors in the skin

hypothalamus gland

38

What can happen if there are slight shifts in body temperature?

disrupt metabolic reactions in the body and can denature enzymes if the temperature is too high

39

Decrease in the diameter of blood vessels (less blood flow)

vasoconstriction

40

Increase in the diameter of blood vessels (more blood flow)

vasodilation

41

core body temperature is below 95 F

hypothermia

42

core body temperature is above 106 F

hyperthermia

43

How does the epidermal layer heal wounds?

epithelial cells are stimulated to divide in order to fill in the gaps

44

How does the dermal and subcutaneous areas heal wounds?

Blood vessels break and blood clot forms. Dried blood and tissue create a scab

45

A burn that injures the epidermis

1st degree

46

A burn that destroys the epidermis and dermis; blisters appear

2nd degree

47

A burn that destroys the epidermis, dermis, and accessory organs of the skin

3rd degree

48

How are 3rd degree burns treated?

skin transplant (skin graft)

49

Used to estimate the extent and severity of burns

rule of nines

50

What does the rule of nines help with?

Determines how to hydrate/ control infection

51

What happens if the nail matrix is destroyed?

Nails wont grow back

52

Enlarged end of the root of a hair

Bulb

53

Layer of epidermis that is mitotic

Stratum basal

54

Nerve receptor for two point descrimination located in the dermal papilla

Meissner

55

Epidermal stratum that is found in thick skin (clear)

Lucidum

56

Nerve ends found in epidermis that detects pain

Free

57

Lack of melanin

Albinism

58

Process by which cytoplasm of a cell is replaced by keratin

Keratinization

59

Part of the root or a nail that has rapidly dividing cells

Matrix

60

Type of skin with five epidermal layers found on soles of feet

Thick

61

Type of skin found on your lips

Thin

62

Undulating layer of dermis that causes fingerprints

Dermal papillae

63

Sweat glands that become active at puberty

Apocrine

64

What type of glands are sebaceous glands?

Holocrine

65

What is the ABCDE of skin cancer detection?

Asymmetrical, borders, color variability, diameter, evolution

66

Any change to a mole

Evolution

67

A mole larger than the diameter of a pencil eraser

Diameter

68

Color variations in the mole

Color variability

69

Irregularities around the borders of the mole

Borders

70

Unusually shaped moles

Asymmetrial