Digestive System** Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Digestive System** Deck (68)
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1

Breaks down starch during mechanical digestion

Amylase

2

Where is amylase found?

Saliva

3

What helps with mechanical digestion?

Teeth

4

Series of muscular contractions

Peristalsis

5

Mixing food with saliva

Bolus

6

Watery mixture of stomach fluids and food

Chyme

7

Kills bacteria and activates pepsin

HCl

8

Helps to break down protein

Pepsin

9

What 2 things does the stomach absorb?

Water and alcohol

10

The stomach is a common site for this disease

Ulcers

11

What are the 3 parts of the small intestine?

Duodenum, jejunum, ileum

12

Finger like projections in the small intestine

Villi

13

Keeps the small intestines together

Mesentary

14

What are the functions of the small intestine?

Chemical digestion and absorption

15

Also known as the colon

Large intestine

16

What are the 4 parts of the colon?

Ascending, traverse, descending, rectal

17

What is the function of the large intestine?

Removal of water form waste material

18

Not enough removal of water from waste

Diarrhea

19

Too much water removed from waste

Constipation

20

What accessory organ produces bile?

Liver

21

What does bile break down?

Fat, carbs, proteins, detoxes alcohol

22

What does the pancreas secrete?

Insulin and pancreatic juices

23

What is the function of the pancreas?

Produce insulin to regulate blood sugar levels, produce pancreatic juices to break down nutrients, produce sodium bicarbonate to neutralize stomach acid

24

Breaking food down into simpler chemicals

Chemical digestion

25

Breaking larger pieces into smaller pieces without changing the chemical composition

Mechanical digestion

26

What are the 4 layers of the alimentary canal?

Mucosa, submucosa, muscular, serosa

27

How many primary teeth are there?

20

28

How many secondary teeth are there?

32

29

What are teeth made of?

Enamel, dentin, pulp, cementum, nerves, blood vessels

30

What is the function of the uvula?

Close off the nasal cavity during swallowing

31

What does the saliva break down?

Food particles and carbohydrate digestion

32

What does the rate at which the stomach empties depends upon?

Fluidity of the chyme and type of food

33

Stimulates the release of pancreatic juice with a high bicarbonate ion concentration

Secretin

34

Stimulates the release of pancreatic juice with abundant digestive enzymes

Cholecystokinin

35

Major energy source

Carbohydrate

36

Carbohydrate % of diet

55%

37

Breaking food down into simpler chemicals

Chemical digestion

38

Breaking larger pieces into smaller pieces without changing the chemical composition

Mechanical digestion

39

What are the 4 layers of the alimentary canal?

Mucosa, submucosa, muscular, serosa

40

How many secondary teeth are there?

32

41

What are teeth made of?

Enamel, dentin, pulp, cementum, nerves, blood vessels

42

What is the function of the uvula?

Close off the nasal cavity during swallowing

43

What does the saliva break down?

Food particles and carbohydrate digestion

44

What does the rate at which the stomach empties depends upon?

Fluidity of the chyme and type of food

45

Stimulates the release of pancreatic juice with abundant digestive enzymes

Cholecystokinin

46

Major energy source

Carbohydrate

47

Carbohydrate % of diet

55%

48

How many primary teeth are there?

20

49

Stimulates the release of pancreatic juice with a high bicarbonate ion concentration

Secretin

50

Stimulates the release of pancreatic juice with abundant digestive enzymes

Cholecystokinin

51

Calories/gram of carbohydrates?

4

52

What are some sources of carbohydrates?

Fruits, sugar, honey, grain, pasta, potato, bread

53

Calories/gram of protein?

4

54

Calories/gram of fat?

9

55

Calories/gram of water?

0

56

Calories/gram of vitamins?

0

57

Calories/gram of minerals?

0

58

Helps in growth and repair

Proteins

59

% of protein in diet?

30%

60

What are some sources of protein?

Meat, eggs, fish, beans, grains

61

Production of cell membranes, nervous tissue, hormones, protection and insulation

Fat

62

% of fat in diet?

15%

63

What are some sources of fat?

Lard, animal fat, butter, oil

64

Regulates body processes

Vitamins

65

What are some sources of vitamins?

Milk, fruits, vegetables

66

Inorganic nutrients that the body needs for functions

Minerals

67

What are some sources of minerals?

Table salt

68

Makes bulk of blood lymph and bodily fluids; helps with eliminating waste and substance transportation

Water