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Flashcards in Skeletal System Deck (44)
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What are the 5 functions of the skeletal system?

Support, protection, body movement, blood cell formation, stores inorganic minerals

1

What are the five major types of bone?

Long, short, flat, sesmoid, irregular

2

Anatomical name for the shaft of a long bone

Diaphysis

3

Anatomical name for the ends of a long bone

Epiphysis

4

A band of cartilage that remains between two ossification centers; growth plate

Epiphyseal plate

5

Site of spongy bone in an adult?

Epiphysis?

6

Cartilage that covers the ends of long bones at the joints; provides a gliding surface on bones

Hyaline cartilage

7

Site of compact bone in an adult?

Diaphysis

8

Site of hematopoiesis?

Red marrow

10

Formation of blood cells

Hematopoiesis

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Site of fat storage

yellow marrow

12

site of longitudinal growth in a child

epiphyseal plates

13

Why do bone injuries heal faster than cartilage injuries?

bones have a higher blood supply which contains more nutrients to heal

14

Bone cells

osteocytes

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where are osteocytes located?

lacunae

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Immature or matrix-depositing bone cells

osteoblast

17

Bone cells that liquefy bone matrix and release calcium to the blood

osteoclast

18

Why do astronauts do isometric exercises when in space?

lack of gravity

19

Residences of osteocytes

Lacunae

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Longitudinal canal carrying blood vessels and nerves

haversian canal

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Nonliving structural part of bone

bone matrix

22

Tiny canals connecting lacunae

canaliculi

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What is the function of the inorganic part of the matrix?

flexibility and strength

24

The formation of bone

ossification

25

how does intramembraneous bones form?

Osteoblasts appear in the connective tissue and deposit bony matrix which makes spongy bone form

26

How does endochondral bones form?

Cartilage models form and rapidly divides, forms compact bone and blood vessels

27

Name two ways the fetal skull differs from the adult skull

Fetal skull can still move around because it still has soft spots. Adult skulls have the parts of the skull fused together making the head more durable

28

A break in a bone

fracture

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What are the 6 types of fractures?

spiral, greenstick, fissured, comminuted, transverse, oblique

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How do fractures heal?

Blood escaping from the damaged blood vessels form a hematoma, spongy bone and fibrocartilage form, bony callus replaces the cartilage and osteoclasts remove the excess bony tissue

31

What are 2 factors that keep bones healthy?

good nutrition and exercise

32

What are 2 factors that can cause bone to become soft?

lack of nutrition (minerals) not enough calcium in bones

33

Putting bones back in place

Reduction

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A cylinder shaped unit including bone cells that surround a central canal

Osteon

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Fracture that occurs on the convex surface of the bend in the bone

Greenstick

36

Longitudinal break in bone

Fissured

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A complete fracture and fragments in the bone

Comminuted

38

Break occurs at a right angle to the axis of the bone

Transverse

39

Occurs at an angle other than at a right angle to the axis of the bone

Oblique

40

Caused by excessive twisting of a bone

Spiral

41

Consists of the bones of the upper and lower limbs and the bones that anchor the limbs to the axial skeleton

Appendicular skeleton

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Consists of bony and cartilaginous parts that support and protect the organs of the head, neck, and trunk

Axial skeleton

43

How many bones are included in the appendicular skeleton?

126

44

How many bones are included in the axial skeleton?

80